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Chloroform

Production Reaction Chloroform poisoning
Chloroform
Chloroform
CAS No.
67-66-3
Chemical Name:
Chloroform
Synonyms
r20;TCM;R 20;HCC20;CHCl3;freon20;Freon 20;NCI-C02686;Trichlorom;CHLOROFORM
CBNumber:
CB5413313
Molecular Formula:
CHCl3
Formula Weight:
119.38
MOL File:
67-66-3.mol

Chloroform Properties

Melting point:
-63 °C
Boiling point:
61 °C
Density 
1.492 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
4.1 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
160 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.445(lit.)
Flash point:
60.5-61.5°C
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
Miscible with diethyl ether, oils, ligroin, alcohol, carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide.
pka
15,5(at 25℃)
form 
Liquid
color 
≤10(APHA)
Relative polarity
0.259
Water Solubility 
8 g/L (20 ºC)
Merck 
14,2141
BRN 
1731042
CAS DataBase Reference
67-66-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Chloroform(67-66-3)
EPA Substance Registry System
Methane, trichloro-(67-66-3)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn,F,T,Xi
Risk Statements  45-46-11-23/24/25-36/37/38-48/20/22-40-38-22-67-66-36/38-41-37/38-39/23/24/25-20-63-20/22-36-48/20
Safety Statements  9-16-26-36-36/37-45-36/37/39-25-23-53-33-7
RIDADR  UN 1888 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  FS9100000
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  6.1
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29031300
Hazardous Substances Data 67-66-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word:
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 Toxic if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 3 Danger P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H361 Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child Reproductive toxicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P405 Store locked up.

Chloroform price More Price(27)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
TCI Chemical C0175 Chloroform (stabilized with Ethanol) [for Spectrophotometry] >99.0%(GC) 67-66-3 100mL $38 2017-12-01 Buy
TCI Chemical C0819 Chloroform (stabilized with Ethanol) [for HPLC Solvent] >99.0%(GC) 67-66-3 500mL $32 2017-12-01 Buy
Alfa Aesar 22920 Chloroform, HPLC Grade, 99.5+% min 67-66-3 1L $45.6 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 22920 Chloroform, HPLC Grade, 99.5+% min 67-66-3 *4x1L $172 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical C1111 Chloroform (stabilized with 2-Methyl-2-butene) [for HPLC Solvent] >99.5%(GC) 67-66-3 500mL $29 2017-12-01 Buy

Chloroform Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Production

  1. 1 Using Acetaldehyde as raw material, react with calcium hypochlorite in alkaline solution to obtain it. Acetone can also be used as the raw material to react with calcium hypochlorite.
  2. Through chlorination of methane, this is a strong exothermic reaction. In order to increase the yield of chloroform and reduce the by-products (chloroform, methylene chloride, and carbon tetrachloride), the molar ratio of methane to chlorine and reacting temperature should be strictly controlled.
  3. Through reaction of hexachloroacetone and sodium hydroxide. CCl3COCCl3+NaOH→Chloroform+CCl3COONa
  4. Through reaction of carbon tetrachloride and ferrous hydroxide
  5. Through reaction of carbon tetrachloride and ethanol under ultraviolet irradiation CCl4+CH3CH2OH→Chloroform+ClCH2CH2OH
  6. Reducing carbon tetrachloride with hydrogen gas using zinc powder as a catalyst. 

Reaction

Trichloromethane is chemically active due to the induction effect of three chlorine atoms. It is easily hydrolyzed to generate formic acid and hydrogen chloride; under the alkali catalyst, addition reaction may occur, for example, chloroform and acetone undergo addition reaction at 50°C under the catalyst potassium hydroxide; in alkali solution, trichloromethane reacts with primary amine to form helium, which has a special odor to check the presence of primary amines. Trichloromethane is further chlorinated to produce carbon tetrachloride.

Trichloromethane reacts with phenol in an alkaline solution to produce hydroxyaromatic aldehydes.

Under the catalytic action of anhydrous aluminum trichloride, trichloromethane reacts with benzene to produce triphenyl(methane). This is an important method for preparing triphenylmethane dyes.
Chloroform can be oxidized in the air into highly toxic phosgene under light conditions, so chloroform is often placed in brown bottles. Commercial chloroform is also often added with 1% ethanol to destroy the small amount of phosgene generated.

Chloroform poisoning

Inhalation, ingestion, and absorption through the skin can all cause poisoning. In human body if inhaled, the concentration of trichloromethane in the blood is the same as that in the brain, but it is nearly 10 times higher in the adipose tissue. Most of the absorbed trichloromethane is detoxified by the liver and is rarely excreted in the urine. 30% to 50% of Chloroform in the human body can be metabolized to carbondichloride and methylene chloride. It is generally believed that trichloromethane, which is present in aquatic environments, is difficult to biodegrade.
Health hazards mainly act to the central nervous system, and also damage other organs like the heart, liver and kidneys.
Chloroform causes DNA impair to mammals and changes human lymphocyte chromosomes; Trichloromethane can cause abnormal growth of muscles, bones, gastrointestinal system and craniofacial; Trichloromethane has a high degree of embryotoxicity, but it is not strong Teratogenic substances. Chloroform may be carcinogenic to humans.

Description

Chloroform is a trichlorinated organic substance with the chemical formula of CHCl3. It is a clear liquid at room temperature and has a pleasant, sweet odor. Chloroform is only slightly soluble in water and evaporates quickly into surrounding air, increasing the risk of inhalation exposure. In addition, chloroform persists for a long time in both water and air. There are no natural sources of chloroform, but this contaminant enters the environment through a variety of industrial operations, including the chlorination of water. Humans can be exposed to chloroform through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact.
Chloroform has a relatively narrow margin of safety and has been replaced by better inhalation anesthetics. In addition, it is believed to be toxic to the liver and kidneys and may cause liver cancer. Chloroform was once widely used as a solvent, but safety and environmental concerns have reduced this use as well. Nevertheless, chloroform has remained an important industrial chemical.

History

Chloroform (CHCl3) was first discovered in 1831 by American physician Samuel Guthrie; and independently a few months later by Frenchman Eugène Soubeiran and Justus von Liebig in Germany. Chloroform was named and chemically characterised in 1834 by Jean-Baptiste Dumas. Its anaesthetic properties were noted early in 1847 by Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens. Unlike ether, chloroform's characteristically sweet odour isn't irritating, although inhalation of concentrated chloroform vapour may cause irritation of exposed mucous surfaces. Chloroform is a more effective anaesthetic than nitrous oxide.
In 1864, the Report of Chloroform Committee of Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society endorsed chloroform as Britain's favourite anaesthetic. But ether was safer for patients.
In 1871, leading anaesthetic manufacturer Edward E. Squibb of Brooklyn estimated [New York Medical Journal (April 1871) 13;389] that of 400,000 administrations of anaesthesia in the USA in 1870, chloroform was the agent used in some 50%, ether for 40%, and other gases and mixtures accounted for the rest.

Uses

Chloroform is a widely used industrial and laboratory solvent. It is a volatile chlorinated organic solvent whose vapors have a narcotic effect.Due to its light sensitivity, it may undergo degradation with time. This can be suppressed by adding ethanol as a stabilizer. The addition will increase the polarity of the solvent and potentially impact certain applications.
  1. Chloroform has been used as a solvent for dissolving lipids and also as a cleansing agent.
  2. It may also be used in solvent extraction process and also for recrystallization.
  3. Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, environmental testing
  4. Facilitates recovery of the aqueous phase of PCRs which have been overlaid with mineral oil.
  5. Meets ACS specifications.

Definition

ChEBI: A one-carbon compound that is methane in which three of the hydrogens are replaced by chlorines.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with a characteristic odor. Denser (12.3 lb / gal) than water and slightly soluble in water. Hence sinks in water. Nonflammable under most conditions, but burns under extreme conditions. May cause illness by inhalation, skin absorption or ingestion. Used as a solvent, to make other chemicals, as a fumigant.

Air & Water Reactions

Slightly soluble in water. Dissolves in water to form a corrosive solution of hypochlorous acid which decomposes on standing to chlorine, oxygen, and chloric acid.

Reactivity Profile

A mixture of acetone and Chloroform in a residue bottle exploded. Since addition of acetone to Chloroform in the presence of base will result in a highly exothermic reaction, Chloroform is thought that a base was in the bottle. [MCA Case History 1661(1970)]. Powdered aluminum and carbon tetrachloride(also methyl chloride and Chloroform or mixtures of these chemicals) exploded when heated(to 153°C.) and by impact, [Chem. Eng. News 32:258(1954); UL Bull. Research 34(1945), ASESB Pot. Incid. 39(1968)]. An inadequately cooled addition of sodium to a Chloroform-methanol mixture (sodium methoxide) caused a violent explosion, [MCA Case History No. 693]. Chloroform is incompatible with dinitrogen tetraoxide, fluorine, sodium metal and alcohols, nitromethane, and triisopropylphosphine.

Health Hazard

Chloroform is classified as moderately toxic. Probable oral lethal dose for humans is 0.5 to 5 g/kg (between 1 ounce and 1 pint) for a 150 lb. person. The mean lethal dose is probably near 1 fluid ounce (44 g). It is a human suspected carcinogen. Also, it is a central nervous system depressant and a gastrointestinal irritant. It has caused rapid death attributable to cardiac arrest and delayed death from liver and kidney damage.

Fire Hazard

Container may explode in the heat of fire. When heated Chloroform liberates phosgene, hydrogen chloride, chlorine and toxic and corrosive oxides of carbon and chlorine. Chloroform explodes when in contact with aluminum powder or magnesium powder or with alkali metals (e.g., lithium, sodium, and potassium) and dinitrogen tetroxide. Chloroform reacts vigorously with acetone in the presence of potassium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide. Chloroform is oxidized by strong oxidizers such as chromic acid forming phosgene and chlorine. Chloroform reacts vigorously with triisopropylphosphine. Chloroform develops acidity from prolonged exposure to air and light.

Chloroform Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


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