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Overview Purification and removal of water Introduction to Toxicology Clinical manifestations Poisoning treatment Methanol gasoline Uses Production method Chemical properties Toxicity Hazards & Safety Information
Chemical Name:
CH3OH;metanol;ACID RED;S NO 250;Metanolo;Methylol;Carbinol;Methanol;ai3-00409;coat-b1400
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Methanol Properties

Melting point:
-98 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
65.4 °C(lit.)
0.791 g/mL at 25 °C
vapor density 
1.11 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
410 mm Hg ( 50 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.329(lit.)
Flash point:
52 °F
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
benzene: miscible(lit.)
15.2(at 25℃)
Liquid Free From Particulates
Relative polarity
explosive limit
Water Solubility 
CAS DataBase Reference
67-56-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Methyl alcohol(67-56-1)
EPA Substance Registry System
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn,T,F
Risk Statements  10-20/21/22-68/20/21/22-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-40-36-36/38-23/25
Safety Statements  36/37-7-45-16-24/25-23-24-26
RIDADR  UN 1170 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  PC1400000
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  II
Hazardous Substances Data 67-56-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H301 Toxic if swalloed Acute toxicity,oral Category 3 Danger P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H311 Toxic in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 3 Danger P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 Toxic if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 3 Danger P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H360 May damage fertility or the unborn child Reproductive toxicity Category 1A, 1B Danger
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P311 Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P307+P311 IF exposed: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

Methanol price More Price(194)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.00837 Methanol 67-56-1 1EA $43.25 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.00837 Methanol 67-56-1 2EA $90 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical M0097 Methanol [for Spectrophotometry] >99.8%(GC) 67-56-1 500mL $24 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical M0628 Methanol [for HPLC Solvent] >99.8%(GC) 67-56-1 500mL $21 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 19393 Methanol, Semiconductor Grade, 99.9% min 67-56-1 1L $45.7 2017-11-08 Buy

Methanol Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Methanol, molecular formula CH3OH, also known as "wood alcohol" or "methyl hydroxide", is an organic compound and is also the simplest saturated monohydric alcohol. It appears as colorless, transparent, flammable and volatile liquid. Mistakenly drinking of 5 to 10 ml methanol can lead to blindness while drinking a lot can lead to death. Methanol, at room temperature, is non-corrosive to metals (lead, aluminum excluded) with a slight alcohol odor. Its relative density is 0.792 (20/4°C); the boiling point is 64.5 ° C; the flash point is 12.22 ° C; the spontaneous combustion point is 463.89 °C and the vapor density is 1.11; the vapor pressure is 13.33 KPa (100mmHg 21.2 ° C); the vapor and air mixture explosion limit is 6 (6/10 ° C)~36.5% (volume ratio); it is miscible with water, ethanol, ether, benzene, ketones, halogenated hydrocarbons and many other organic solvents. It is typically used as a solvent, antifreeze, fuel, or neutralizing agent. Methanol can be completely burned in the air and  release carbon dioxide and water: 2 CH3OH +3 O2 → 2 CO2 +4 H2O; The methanol flame is almost colorless, so we should be careful for ignition of it. Many bacteria, upon hypoxia metabolism, will produce methanol. Therefore, there is a small amount of methanol in the air vapor, but is subject to oxidation by the oxygen in the air within a few days in the sunlight to become carbon dioxide.

Purification and removal of water

Ordinary unrefined methanol contains 0.02% acetone and 0.1% water while the content of these impurities in industrial methanol is 0.5% to 1%. In order to obtain methanol having a purity of 99.9% or more, methanol may be fractionated by a fractional distillation column. Fractions at 64 °C were collected and then dehydrated with magnesium (same as for the preparation of absolute ethanol). Methanol is toxic. During treatment, we should avoid the inhalation of its vapor.

Introduction to Toxicology

(Male) oral LDLo: 6422 mg/kg; TDLo: 3429 mg/kg. Female oral TDLo: 4mg/kg. Another report, the human oral LDLo: 428mg/kg, 143mg/kg range; inhalation TCLo: 86000mg/m3, at the range of 300ppm. Rat oral LD50: 5628mg/kg; inhalation LC50: 64000ppm/4H. The mice were orally LD50: 7300 mg/kg; inhaled LCLo: 50 gm/m3/2H. Rabbit percutaneous LD50: 15800 mg/kg. Methanol, after being absorbed into the body, can be quickly distributed in the body tissues, of which the cerebrospinal fluid, blood, bile and urine contains the highest content while the content of aqueous humor and vitreous humor is also high and the lowest content is found in bone marrow and adipose tissue. Methanol is subject to liver metabolism. Under the action of alcohol dehydrogenase, it can be subject to oxidation into formaldehyde and then oxidized to formic acid. This product has slow oxidation in vivo, only accounting for 1/7 of the ethanol with the excretion rate being also slow and having significant accumulation effect. Methanol not oxidized can be excreted by the respiratory tract and kidney with part of it subjecting to slow discharge through the gastrointestinal tract. Presumably inhalation of methanol at a concentration 39.3~65.5g/m ^ 3 in the air for 30 to 60 minutes can cause poisoning. Oral administration of 5~10ml, can cause severe poisoning; an oral 15ml, or separate oral administration to 124~164ml in total in two days can cause blindness. There are reports regarding administration of 30ml once can be fatal. The major effect of methanol is on in the nervous system with significant anesthetic effect and being able to cause brain edema. The anesthetic concentration of methanol is relatively close to LC and thus having greater risk.
It has a special selective effect on the optic nerve and retina, being able to easily lead to optic atrophy, further resulting in blindness. The methanol vapor has a strong stimulating effect on the respiratory mucosa. The toxicity of methanol is related to the accumulation of its metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. It was previously thought that the main toxic effects is caused by formaldehyde, formaldehyde can inhibit the retina oxidative phosphorylation process so that the membrane can’t synthesize ATP and the cell undergoes degeneration, finally leading to optic atrophy. Recent studies have shown that formaldehyde can be quickly metabolized to formic acid. The metabolic acidosis and eye damage caused by acute poisoning is mainly related to formic acid content. Methanol can cause in vivo inhibition of certain oxidase system, further inhibiting the aerobic decomposition of sugar, further resulting in the accumulation of lactic acid and other organic acids and formic acid accumulation, and causing acidosis. It is generally believed that the toxicity of methanol is caused by its own and its metabolites. DLH: +6000 ppm [R28]

Clinical manifestations

The major damaged target organ after acute methanol poisoning is the central nervous system, optic nerve and retina. The incubation period of inhalation poisoning is generally 1 to 72 hours, sometimes as long as 96 hours; the value for oral poisoning is generally 8 to 36 hours; if administrating ethanol at the same time, the incubation period can be a bit longer. Clinical features
Stimulation symptoms: Inhalation of methanol vapor can cause eye and respiratory mucosa irritation. Central nervous symptoms: patients often have dizziness, headache, dizziness, fatigue, gait staggering, insomnia, indifferent expression, confusion and so on. In severe cases, there are haziness, coma and epileptic convulsions. Patients of severe oral poisoning may have extrapyramidal symptoms of damage or Parkinson's syndrome. Head CT examination revealed lentiform nucleus and subcortical central white matter symmetry infarction necrosis, hallucinations, depression and other symptoms.
Eye symptoms: the initial performance: immediately shadow, flash, blurred vision, eye pain, photophobia, diplopia and so on. In severe cases, there is dramatic visual decline, being able to cause persistent blindness. Examination shows pupil dilation or shrinkage, having slower or disappearance of sense of light, getting optic disc edema, peripheral retinal hyperemia, hemorrhage, edema with optic atrophy in later phase. Acidosis: reduced carbon dioxide binding capability with cyanosis, deepened and fast Kussmaul breathing in severe cases. Digestive system and other symptoms: patients can have nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, etc., can be complicated by liver damage. Oral poisoning may be complicated by acute pancreatitis. In a small number of cases, it is associated with tachycardia, myocarditis, S-T and T wave changes, and acute renal failure and so on. Patients of severe acute methanol poisoning can get severe headache, nausea, vomiting and sharp decline in vision, or even blindness, confusion, delirium, convulsions and coma. They may finally die due to respiratory failure. According to the history of methanol exposure, there is short-term clinical manifestations including central nervous system damage, eye damage and metabolic acidosis, refer to on-site hygiene survey, except for other similar performance of the disease, comprehensive analysis of the diagnosis is not difficult. If necessary, we can perform blood and urine methanol determination. In early phase, the poisoning should be distinguished from cold, neurasthenia and acute gastroenteritis. In addition, it should be also distinguished from methyl chloride, ethylene glycol acute poisoning and encephalopathy, optic nerve damage caused by other reasons. It must be asked in detail about occupational history, conducted of on-site health survey and closely observed of disease progression, together with laboratory tests so that we can come to the correct diagnosis.

Poisoning treatment

The patient should be immediately removed from the scene, removed of contaminated clothing. Patients of oral administration can apply 1% sodium bicarbonate for gastric lavage with magnesium sulfate catharsis. Clear the absorbed methanol in the body. Dialysis therapy: severe poisoning patients should be subject to early hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, in order to reduce the symptoms of poisoning, save the patient's life and reduce the sequelae. Hemodialysis therapy indications are:
① blood methanol> 15.6mmol/L; or formic acid> 4.34mmol/L;
② severe metabolic acidosis;
③ severe visual impairment or optic disc retinal edema. Antidote: ethanol is the poisoning antidote of the methanol.
The application of ethanol can prevent methanol oxidation, and promote methanol discharge. Use 10% glucose solution to formulate 5% ethanol solution for slowly intravenous infusion. There is not much domestic clinical experience. Correct acidosis: According to blood gas analysis or carbon dioxide binding force determination and clinical manifestations, perform early administration of sodium bicarbonate solution or sodium lactate solution. Support and symptomatic treatment: according to the condition, actively prevent and treat cerebral edema, reduce intracranial pressure, improve blood circulation, prevent optic neuropathy. Maintain respiratory and circulatory function, maintain electrolyte balance. Given a large number of B vitamins. It has been suggested of the application of formic acid salts and 4-methylpyrazole (4MP) for treatment of methanol poisoning. The experimental study in monkey has confirmed the efficacy. However, so far it has been not yet used in clinical.

Methanol gasoline

Methanol gasoline refers to the M series mixture fuel made of addition of methanol to the gasoline and formulated using methanol fuel solvent. Among them, M15 (add 15% methanol in gasoline) clean methanol gasoline is used as vehicle fuel, respectively, used in a variety of gasoline engines. It can be applied to substitute the finished gasoline without changing the existing engine structure, and can also be mixed with refined oil. The methanol mixed fuel has excellent thermal efficiency, power, start-up and being economical. It is also characterized by lowering the emissions, saving oil and being safe and convenient. Methanol gasoline types of M35, M15, M20, M50, N85 and M100 with different blend ratios have been developed around the world according to the conditions of different countries. At present, the commercial methanol is mainly M85 (85% methanol + 15% gasoline) and M100 with M100 performance being better than M85 and having greater environmental advantages.


1. Methanol is widely used, being basic organic chemical raw materials and high-quality fuel. It is mainly used in fine chemicals, plastics and other fields to manufacture formaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl chloride, methylamine, dimethyl sulfate and other organic products, being the raw materials of pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Methanol, after the deep processing, can be used as a new type of clean fuel and can also be added to the gasoline for blending.
2. Methanol oxidation of formaldehyde
3. Methanol, at high temperature, the presence of pumice silver, catalyst or other solid catalyst, can be subject to direct oxidation into formaldehyde. At present, more than 40% of methanol at home and abroad is used for the production of formaldehyde, further for production of synthetic resins, plastics and other chemical raw materials. POM is an excellent-performance engineering plastics with very extensive applications. Formaldehyde is also used to make butanediol, urotropine, nearly 100 kinds of downstream products.
4. Manufacturing of methylamine from methanol amination
5. Methanol is mixed with ammonia in a certain proportion. Under the pressure of 370-420 DEG C and 5.0-20.0MPa, use activated alumina as a catalyst to obtain a mixture of monomethylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine, followed by distillation to obtain mono, di or trimethylamine products. Mono-, di-, and tri-methylamine can be applied to the fields of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and dyes or used as organic raw materials intermediates.
6. Methanol, under the presence of metal silicoaluminium catalyst or ZSM-5 type molecular sieve, can be used to make dimethyl ether through dehydration.
7. Dehydrogenation of Methanol can lead to Methyl Formate.
8. Methyl formate is a raw material of organic synthesis and can be used for making formamide, dimethyl formamide. Formamide is the raw material of medicine, spices and dyes and can also be used as paper processing agent, the softener of the fiber industry and the polar solvents of organic synthesis. Dimethylformamide is an important organic chemical raw material and excellent solvent, can be used as gas absorbers and applied to fields of pesticides, synthetic leather, polyacrylonitrile spinning and butadiene extraction.
9.    Extraction solvent; the maximum allowable residue of the finished product: spice oil resin 50mg/kg; hops extract 2.2mg/kg.
10. GB 2760-96 lists it as a food processing aids.
11. It is used as analysis reagent and chromatography reagent as well as for organic synthesis
12. It is mainly used in the preparation of formaldehyde and as a methylating agent and solvent in organic synthesis, being the raw material of methyl tert-butyl ether. It can also be used as automotive fuel
13. It can be used for the separation of calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, separation of strontium bromide and barium bromide and determination of boron reagent.
14. It is one of the basic organic raw materials. Mainly used in the manufacture of formaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl chloride, methylamine and dimethyl sulfate and other organic products. It is also one of the raw materials of pesticides (pesticides, acaricide), medicine (sulfonamides, heminomycin, etc.), Synthesis of dimethyl terephthalate, methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate. It is also an important solvent and can also be mixed with gasoline as an alternative fuel for application. Since the 1980s, methanol has been used to produce gasoline octane value additives methyl tert-butyl ether, methanol gasoline, methanol fuel, and methanol protein products, greatly promoting the development of methanol production and market demands.
15. It can be used as basic organic raw materials, solvents and antifreeze agent. Mainly used for formaldehyde, flavor, dyes, medicine, gunpowder, antifreeze and so on.
16. It can be used for the preparation of Karl Fischer reagent to determine the trace amount of water contained in the alcohol, saturated hydrocarbons, benzene, chloroform and pyridine.

Production method

Industrial synthesis of methanol almost all applies pressurized catalytic hydrogenation process of carbon monoxide with the technology process including gas making, synthetic purification, methanol synthesis and crude methanol distillation and other processes. The purification of crude methanol involves rectification and chemical treatment. Chemical treatment is mainly used to destroy alkali impurities that is difficult to be removed in the distillation process, and adjust the pH value; distillation is mainly to remove volatile components such as dimethyl ether, and the hardly volatile components, ethanol, high-carbon alcohol and water. The purity after crude distillation can generally reach more than 98%.
It is obtained through catalytic reaction between carbon monoxide and hydrogen under high pressure.
It can be obtained through the partial oxidation of natural-gas hydrocarbons.

Chemical properties

It appears as colorless, transparent, flammable and volatile polar liquid. Pure product has slight alcohol smell while crude product has unpleasant pungent. It is miscible with water, ethanol, ether, benzene, ketones and most other organic solvents.


ADI is limited to GMP (FAO/WHO, 2001).
Toxic, can cause blindness.
LD50: 5628 mg/kg (rat, oral).

Hazards & Safety Information

Category Flammable liquids
Toxicity grading Low toxicity
Acute Toxicity Oral-Rat LD50: 5628 mg/kg; Oral-mouse LD50: 7300 mg/kg
Stimulation Data Eye-Rabbit 100 mg/24h Medium; Skin-Rabbit 20 mg/24h Medium Moderate
EXPLOSIVES HAZARDOUS CHARACTERISTICS being explosive when mixed with air
Flammability and hazard characteristics being flammable in the case of fire, high temperature and oxidant with combustion release irritant smoke; mistakenly administration can lead to blindness
Storage and transportation characteristics Treasury: ventilated, low-temperature and dry; store it separately from oxidants and acids
Extinguishing agent dry powder, dry sand, carbon dioxide, foam, 1211 extinguishing agent
Occupational Standard TWA 260 mg/m3; STEL 310 mg/m3

Chemical Properties

Colorless liquid


Meets ACS specifications


Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, and some LC-MS applications


high purity grade for ICP-MS detection


Suitable for volatile organics analysis by GC-MS


ChEBI: The primary alcohol that is the simplest aliphatic alcohol, comprising a methyl and an alcohol group.


Industrial solvent. Raw material for making formaldehyde and methyl esters of organic and inorganic acids. Antifreeze for automotive radiators and air brakes; ingredient of gasoline and diesel oil antifreezes. Octane booster in gasoline. As fuel for picnic stoves and soldering torches. Extractant for animal and vegetable oils. To denature ethanol. Softening agent for pyroxylin plastics. Solvent and solvent adjuvant for polymers. Solvent in the manufacture of cholesterol, streptomycin, vitamins, hormones, and other pharmaceuticals.

General Description

A colorless fairly volatile liquid with a faintly sweet pungent odor like that of ethyl alcohol. Completely mixes with water. The vapors are slightly heavier than air and may travel some distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Any accumulation of vapors in confined spaces, such as buildings or sewers, may explode if ignited. Used to make chemicals, to remove water from automotive and aviation fuels, as a solvent for paints and plastics, and as an ingredient in a wide variety of products.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Soluble in water in all proportions.

Reactivity Profile

Methanol reacts violently with acetyl bromide [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Mixtures with concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated hydrogen peroxide can cause explosions. Reacts with hypochlorous acid either in water solution or mixed water/carbon tetrachloride solution to give methyl hypochlorite, which decomposes in the cold and may explode on exposure to sunlight or heat. Gives the same product with chlorine. Can react explosively with isocyanates under basic conditions. The presence of an inert solvent mitigates this reaction [Wischmeyer 1969]. A violent exothermic reaction occurred between methyl alcohol and bromine in a mixing cylinder [MCA Case History 1863. 1972]. A flask of anhydrous lead perchlorate dissolved in Methanol exploded when Methanol was disturbed [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 52:2391. 1930]. P4O6 reacts violently with Methanol. (Thorpe, T. E. et al., J. Chem. Soc., 1890, 57, 569-573). Ethanol or Methanol can ignite on contact with a platinum-black catalyst. (Urben 1794).

Health Hazard

Exposure to excessive vapor causes eye irritation, head- ache, fatigue and drowsiness. High concentrations can produce central nervous system depression and optic nerve damage. 50,000 ppm will probably cause death in 1 to 2 hrs. Can be absorbed through skin. Swallowing may cause death or eye damage.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode.

Methanol Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Methanol Suppliers

Global( 394)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Shenzhen Sendi Biotechnology Co.Ltd.
0755-23311925 18102838259
0755-23311925 CHINA 3229 55
Shanghai Bojing Chemical Co.,Ltd.
+86-21-37127788 CHINA 500 55
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20810 55
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
+86-10-82849933; China 96820 76
Spectrum Chemical Manufacturing Corp. 021-67601368,18616765336,QQ:3475911745
021-57711696 China 9824 60
Shanghai Macklin Biochemical Co.,Ltd. 15221275939
021-51821727 China 13251 55
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing) China 40398 62
Energy Chemical 021-58432009 / 400-005-6266
021-58436166-800 China 44192 61
Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD 021-20337333/400-620-6333
021-50323701 China 25121 65
Yonghua Chemical Technology (Jiangsu) Co., Ltd. +86-512-5254 9999 To 852
+86-512-5254 6337 China 686 60

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