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Acetaldehyde

description Chemical Properties Uses Content analysis Toxicity Quantity restriction Preparation Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) Category
Acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
CAS No.
75-07-0
Chemical Name:
Acetaldehyde
Synonyms
CH3CHO;FORMOL;Ethanal;MORBICID;METHANONE;Acetaldeyd;NCI-C56326;Acetaldeyde;Acetaldehyd;ALDEHYDE C1
CBNumber:
CB8175809
Molecular Formula:
C2H4O
Formula Weight:
44.05
MOL File:
75-07-0.mol

Acetaldehyde Properties

Melting point:
-123 °C
Boiling point:
65-82 °C
Density 
0.785 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
1.03 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.377
FEMA 
2003 | ACETALDEHYDE
Flash point:
133 °F
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
alcohols: soluble
pka
13.57(at 25℃)
form 
solution
color 
White to off-white
PH
5 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)
explosive limit
4-57%(V)
Water Solubility 
> 500 g/L (20 ºC)
Sensitive 
Air Sensitive
Merck 
14,39
BRN 
505984
Stability:
Stable, but air sensitive. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, reducing agents, alkalies, halogens, halogen oxides. Highly flammable. Vapour/air mixtures explosive over a very wide concentration range. May form peroxides in storage.
InChIKey
IKHGUXGNUITLKF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
75-07-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Acetaldehyde(75-07-0)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  T,Xn,F+,F
Risk Statements  23/24/25-34-40-43-36/37-12-67-11-41-22-10-19
Safety Statements  36/37-33-16-26
RIDADR  UN 1198 3/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  LP8925000
10
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  I
HS Code  29121200
Hazardous Substances Data 75-07-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H224 Extremely flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 1 Danger
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P281 Use personal protective equipment as required.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P337+P313 IF eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.

Acetaldehyde price More Price(39)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 00070 Acetaldehyde puriss. p.a., anhydrous, ≥99.5% (GC) 75-07-0 1l $255 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 00070 Acetaldehyde puriss. p.a., anhydrous, ≥99.5% (GC) 75-07-0 100ml $59.9 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 33244 Acetaldehyde, 99% 75-07-0 *4x500ml $457 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 33244 Acetaldehyde, 99% 75-07-0 100ml $40.1 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 00070 Acetaldehyde puriss. p.a., anhydrous, ≥99.5% (GC) 75-07-0 500ml $193.5 2017-11-08 Buy

Acetaldehyde Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

description

Acetaldehyde, also called ethanal, is the simplest aldehyde (CH3CHO). Acetaldehyde is a colourless and volatile liquid made by the catalytic oxidation of ethanol, with a sharp and fruity odour.It is widely used industrially as a chemical intermediate.Acetaldehyde is also a metabolite of sugars and ethanol in humans,is found naturally in the environment, and is a product of biomass combustion.
Acetaldehyde is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of a range of chemicals, perfumes, aniline dyes, plastics and synthetic rubber and in some fuel compounds. Acetaldehyde is an important reagent used in the manufacture of dyes, plastics, and many other organic chemicals.
In the presence of acids it forms the cyclic polymers paraldehyde (CH3CHO)3, and metaldehyde (CH3CHO)4. The former is used as a hypnotic, and the latter as a solid fuel for portable stoves and as a poison for snails and slugs.
Acetaldehyde is also used in the manufacture of disinfectants, drugs, perfumes, explosives, lacquers and varnishes, photographic chemicals, phenolic and urea resins, rubber accelerators and antioxidants, and room air deodourizers. It is also used as a synthetic flavouring substance, food preservative and as a fragrance.
Acetaldehyde 2d structural formula
figure 1 Acetaldehyde 2d structural formula

Chemical Properties

Colorless, flammable, volatile, flowable liquid, Pungent odor, Soluble in water, ethanol, ethyl ether, benzene, gasoline, toluene, xylene and acetone.

Uses

It fits for GB 2760—1996 standards of edible spices for the moment. It is mainly used for preparation of citrus, apple, cream type essence, etc. Acetaldehyde is mostly used in acetic acid industry. Butanol and octanol are also the important derivatives of the acetaldehyde in the past. Nowadays, butanol and octanol are prepared by Propylene carbonyl synthesis method.
Acetaldehyde is also used to produce pentaerythritol, peracetic acid, pyridine and its derivatives. Domestically produced acetaldehyde is mainly used as intermediate for the production of acetic acid. Only a small amount is used for the production of pentaerythritol, butanol, trichloroacetaldehyde, trimethylolpropane, etc.
Acetaldehyde is also used to produce acetal, Crotonaldehyde, acetic acid peroxide, hydroxyl acrylic nitrile, trichloroacetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, pentaerythritol, acetic anhydride, acetic acid, Glyoxal, phenyl acrolein, acetal, methyl ethylamine  , diethylamine, α-Alanine, pyridine, α-methylpyridine, β-methylpyridine, γ-methylpyridine, etc.

Content analysis

65 ml of 0.5 mol/L hydroxylamine hydrochloride and 50.0 ml of triethanolamine were added to a fixed pressure-heat resistant bottle with good sealing property. A slow nitrogen flow is fed into the bottle through a glass tube slightly above the liquid surface for 2 min to exhaust the air. About 600 mg of the sample, accurately weighed, was sealed in one ampoule bottle and put in the above mixture. Several short glass rods with the diameter of about 8 mm were added to the bottle. After covering the cork, the bottle was strongly shaken to break the ampoule. Then keep the reaction for 30 min at room temperature, shaking the bottle from time to time. Remove the cork after cooling if necessary. The whole process should be careful in order to avoid the loss of the product. The above system was then titrated by certain amount of 0.5 mol/L sulfuric acid to cyan end point. At the same time a blank titration was conducted. Each 0.5 mol/L sulfur acid was equivalent to 22.03 mg acetaldehyde (C2H4O).

Toxicity

GRAS(FEMA;FDA,§182.60,2000). LD501930mg/kg(rat,oral)

Quantity restriction

FEMA(mg/kg): soft drinks 3.9; cold drinks 25; sweets 22; bakery products12; puddings 6.8; gum confection 20~270.

Preparation

Several production methods are used to produce ethanal.
(1) Direct oxidation of ethylene.
Ethylene and oxygen passed the catalysts containing palladium chloride, copper chloride, hydrochloric acid and water .Coarse acetaldehyde can be synthesyed by this one-Step direct oxidation process. Then, after a distillation process, the final product was obtained.
(2) Ethanol oxidation.
Under the 300-480 ℃, the air oxydehydrogenation process of ethanol vapor took place to produce acetaldehyde by using silver, copper or silver-copper alloy mesh as catalyst.
(3) Direct hydration of ethyne.
Under the effect of mercury catalyst or mercury free catalyst, the direct hydration reaction of acetylene and water was used to produce acetaldehyde. Due to the toxicity of mercury, this method has been gradually replaced by other methods.
(4) Ethanol dehydrogenation
Under the effect of copper catalyst with the addition of cobalt, chromium, zinc or other compounds, ethanol dehydrogenation took place to produce acetaldehyde.
(5) Saturated hydrocarbon oxidation.
Material Consumption Quota: one ton product of acetaldehyde costs 610kg ethyne(99%) by direct hydration of ethyne method; 1200kg ethanol (95%) by ethanol oxidation method; 710kg ethylene(99%) and 300m3 oxygen(99%) by ethylene oxidation method (one-step).
(6) Acetaldehyde can be prepared by ethylene oxidation.
Acetaldehyde can be prepared by gas phase hydrogenation of Ethanol.
Acetaldehyde can be prepared by simultaneous destructive distillation calcium acetate and calcium formate.
ethanal can be prepared by adduct reaction of acetylene and water.

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans, based on evidence in animals.Acetaldehyde is a respiratory tract carcinogen in experimental animals, especially of the nasal mucosa in rats and of the larynx in hamsters.
There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in humans. One small study of workers manufacturing several types of aldehydes found increased risk of bronchial tumours, but workers were exposed to many other chemicals in addition to acetaldehyde.Three other studies on the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages found that people who developed cancer after heavy alcohol use had genetic differences and higher concentrations of acetaldehyde in their blood compared to those who didn't develop cancer.Further study is required to establish a causal relationship.
Acetaldehyde can cause respiratory and eye irritation and in severe cases, lung edema. It also exacerbates the effects of alcohol and is a central nervous system depressant.

Category

flammable liquid

Chemical Properties

Colourless clear liquid

Uses

Acetaldehyde is used as intermediate for syntheses of bulk chemicals, e.g. ethyl acetate, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, isooctylalcohol, pentaerythrite, pyridines, etc. For specific dyes, e.g. C.I. 46040 Basic Yellow 9. Product Data Sheet

Uses

Acetaldehyde is used as a general solvent in organic and polymer chemical reactions. It also plays a role in fruit and food quality, ripening and deterioration.

Definition

ChEBI: The aldehyde formed from acetic acid by reduction of the carboxy group. It is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with a pungent choking odor. Flash point -36°F. Boiling point 69°F. Density 6.5 lb / gal. Vapors are heaver than air and irritate the mucous membranes and especially the eyes. Used to make other chemicals.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Easily oxidized by air to form unstable peroxides which may explode. Forms explosive mixture with air above 100°C (30-60% of the vapor in air) owing to formation of peroxyacetic acid [White, A. G. et al., J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1950, 69, p. 206]. Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Acetaldehyde undergoes a vigorously exothermic condensation reaction in contact with strong acids, bases or traces of metals. Can react vigorously with oxidizing reagents such as dinitrogen pentaoxide, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, silver nitrate, etc. Contamination often leads either to reaction with the contaminant or polymerization, both with the evolution of heat. Can react violently with acid anhydrides, alcohols, ketones, phenols, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, halogens, phosphorus, isocyanates, concentrated sulfuric acid, and aliphatic amines. Reactions with cobalt chloride, mercury(II) chlorate or perchlorate form sensitive, explosive products [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 5]. An oxygenation reaction of Acetaldehyde in the presence of cobalt acetate at -20°C exploded violently when stirred. The event was ascribed to peroxyacetate formation [Phillips B. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, p. 5982].

Health Hazard

Breathing vapors will be irritating and may cause nausea, vomiting, headache, and unconsciousness. Contact with eyes may cause burns and eye damage. Skin contact from clothing wet with the chemical causes burns or severe irritation.

Acetaldehyde Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Acetaldehyde Suppliers

Global( 172)Suppliers
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