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Acetaldehyde

description Content analysis Toxicity Quantity restriction Chemical Properties Usage Preparation Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) Category Acute toxicity Stimulus data Explosive dangerous features Flammability hazard characteristics Storage Fire extinguishing agent Occupational standard

CAS No.75-07-0
Chemical Name:Acetaldehyde
Synonyms:CH3CHO;FORMOL;Ethanal;MORBICID;METHANONE;Acetaldeyd;NCI-C56326;Acetaldeyde;Acetaldehyd;ALDEHYDE C1
CBNumber:CB8175809
Molecular Formula:C2H4O
Formula Weight:44.05
MOL File:75-07-0.mol
Acetaldehyde Property
Melting point : -123 °C
Boiling point : 65-82 °C
density : 0.785 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density : 1.03 (vs air)
vapor pressure : 52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
FEMA : 2003
refractive index : n20/D 1.377
Fp : 133 °F
storage temp. : 2-8°C
form : solution
Water Solubility : > 500 g/L (20 ºC)
Merck : 14,39
BRN : 505984
Stability:: Stable, but air sensitive. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, reducing agents, alkalies, halogens, halogen oxides. Highly flammable. Vapour/air mixtures explosive over a very wide concentration range. May form peroxides in storage.
CAS DataBase Reference: 75-07-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference: Acetaldehyde(75-07-0)
Safety
Hazard Codes : T,Xn,F+,F
Risk Statements : 23/24/25-34-40-43-36/37-12-67-11-41-22-10-19
Safety Statements : 36/37-33-16-26
RIDADR : UN 1198 3/PG 3
WGK Germany : 2
RTECS : LP8925000
F : 10
HazardClass : 3
PackingGroup : I
HS Code : 29121200
Hazardous Substances Data: 75-07-0(Hazardous Substances Data)

Acetaldehyde Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

description

Acetaldehyde, also called ethanal, is the simplest aldehyde (CH3CHO). Acetaldehyde is a colourless and volatile liquid made by the catalytic oxidation of ethanol, with a sharp and fruity odour.It is widely used industrially as a chemical intermediate.Acetaldehyde is also a metabolite of sugars and ethanol in humans,is found naturally in the environment, and is a product of biomass combustion.
Acetaldehyde is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of a range of chemicals, perfumes, aniline dyes, plastics and synthetic rubber and in some fuel compounds. Acetaldehyde is an important reagent used in the manufacture of dyes, plastics, and many other organic chemicals.
In the presence of acids it forms the cyclic polymers paraldehyde (CH3CHO)3, and metaldehyde (CH3CHO)4. The former is used as a hypnotic, and the latter as a solid fuel for portable stoves and as a poison for snails and slugs.
Acetaldehyde is also used in the manufacture of disinfectants, drugs, perfumes, explosives, lacquers and varnishes, photographic chemicals, phenolic and urea resins, rubber accelerators and antioxidants, and room air deodourizers. It is also used as a synthetic flavouring substance, food preservative and as a fragrance.
Acetaldehyde 2d structural formula
figure 1 Acetaldehyde 2d structural formula

Content analysis
65 ml of 0.5 mol/L hydroxylamine hydrochloride and 50.0 ml of triethanolamine were added to a fixed pressure-heat resistant bottle with good sealing property. A slow nitrogen flow is fed into the bottle through a glass tube slightly above the liquid surface for 2 min to exhaust the air. About 600 mg of the sample, accurately weighed, was sealed in one ampoule bottle and put in the above mixture. Several short glass rods with the diameter of about 8 mm were added to the bottle. After covering the cork, the bottle was strongly shaken to break the ampoule. Then keep the reaction for 30 min at room temperature, shaking the bottle from time to time. Remove the cork after cooling if necessary. The whole process should be careful in order to avoid the loss of the product. The above system was then titrated by certain amount of 0.5 mol/L sulfuric acid to cyan end point. At the same time a blank titration was conducted. Each 0.5 mol/L sulfur acid was equivalent to 22.03 mg acetaldehyde (C2H4O).
Toxicity
GRAS(FEMA;FDA,§182.60,2000). LD501930mg/kg(rat,oral)
Quantity restriction
FEMA(mg/kg): soft drinks 3.9; cold drinks 25; sweets 22; bakery products12; puddings 6.8; gum confection 20~270.
Chemical Properties
Colorless, flammable, volatile, flowable liquid, Pungent odor, Soluble in water, ethanol, ethyl ether, benzene, gasoline, toluene, xylene and acetone.
Usage
It fits for GB 2760—1996 standards of edible spices for the moment. It is mainly used for preparation of citrus, apple, cream type essence, etc. Acetaldehyde is mostly used in acetic acid industry. Butanol and octanol are also the important derivatives of the acetaldehyde in the past. Nowadays, butanol and octanol are prepared by Propylene carbonyl synthesis method.
Acetaldehyde is also used to produce pentaerythritol, peracetic acid, pyridine and its derivatives. Domestically produced acetaldehyde is mainly used as intermediate for the production of acetic acid. Only a small amount is used for the production of pentaerythritol, butanol, trichloroacetaldehyde, trimethylolpropane, etc.
Acetaldehyde is also used to produce acetal, Crotonaldehyde, acetic acid peroxide, hydroxyl acrylic nitrile, trichloroacetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, pentaerythritol, acetic anhydride, acetic acid, Glyoxal, phenyl acrolein, acetal, methyl ethylamine  , diethylamine, α-Alanine, pyridine, α-methylpyridine, β-methylpyridine, γ-methylpyridine, etc.
Preparation
Several production methods are used to produce ethanal.
(1) Direct oxidation of ethylene.
Ethylene and oxygen passed the catalysts containing palladium chloride, copper chloride, hydrochloric acid and water .Coarse acetaldehyde can be synthesyed by this one-Step direct oxidation process. Then, after a distillation process, the final product was obtained.
(2) Ethanol oxidation.
Under the 300-480 ℃, the air oxydehydrogenation process of ethanol vapor took place to produce acetaldehyde by using silver, copper or silver-copper alloy mesh as catalyst.
(3) Direct hydration of ethyne.
Under the effect of mercury catalyst or mercury free catalyst, the direct hydration reaction of acetylene and water was used to produce acetaldehyde. Due to the toxicity of mercury, this method has been gradually replaced by other methods.
(4) Ethanol dehydrogenation
Under the effect of copper catalyst with the addition of cobalt, chromium, zinc or other compounds, ethanol dehydrogenation took place to produce acetaldehyde.
(5) Saturated hydrocarbon oxidation.
Material Consumption Quota: one ton product of acetaldehyde costs 610kg ethyne(99%) by direct hydration of ethyne method; 1200kg ethanol (95%) by ethanol oxidation method; 710kg ethylene(99%) and 300m3 oxygen(99%) by ethylene oxidation method (one-step).
(6) Acetaldehyde can be prepared by ethylene oxidation.
Acetaldehyde can be prepared by gas phase hydrogenation of Ethanol.
Acetaldehyde can be prepared by simultaneous destructive distillation calcium acetate and calcium formate.
ethanal can be prepared by adduct reaction of acetylene and water.
Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)
Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans, based on evidence in animals.Acetaldehyde is a respiratory tract carcinogen in experimental animals, especially of the nasal mucosa in rats and of the larynx in hamsters.
There is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in humans. One small study of workers manufacturing several types of aldehydes found increased risk of bronchial tumours, but workers were exposed to many other chemicals in addition to acetaldehyde.Three other studies on the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages found that people who developed cancer after heavy alcohol use had genetic differences and higher concentrations of acetaldehyde in their blood compared to those who didn't develop cancer.Further study is required to establish a causal relationship.
Acetaldehyde can cause respiratory and eye irritation and in severe cases, lung edema. It also exacerbates the effects of alcohol and is a central nervous system depressant.
Category
flammable liquid
Acute toxicity
Oral-rat  LD50: 661mg/kg   subcutaneous injection ,mice LD50: 560 mg/kg.
Stimulus data
Skin-rabbit 500 mg light; Eyes-rabbit 40 mg severely
Explosive dangerous features
The powder mixed with the air can be explosive
Flammability hazard characteristics
Flammable in case of fire, high temperature and oxidant, Combustion produces irritating smoke.
Storage
Ventilated and dry warehouse with low temperature. Separated from oxidant, acid.
Fire extinguishing agent
Dry powder, dry sand, Dry powder, carbon dioxide, foam.
Occupational standard
TWA 120 mg/m3; STEL 180 mg/m3.
Chemical Properties
Colourless clear liquid
Usage
Acetaldehyde is used as intermediate for syntheses of bulk chemicals, e.g. ethyl acetate, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, isooctylalcohol, pentaerythrite, pyridines, etc. For specific dyes, e.g. C.I. 46040 Basic Yellow 9. Product Data Sheet
Usage
Acetaldehyde is used as a general solvent in organic and polymer chemical reactions. It also plays a role in fruit and food quality, ripening and deterioration.
General Description
A clear colorless liquid with a pungent choking odor. Flash point -36°F. Boiling point 69°F. Density 6.5 lb / gal. Vapors are heaver than air and irritate the mucous membranes and especially the eyes. Used to make other chemicals.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Easily oxidized by air to form unstable peroxides which may explode. Forms explosive mixture with air above 100°C (30-60% of the vapor in air) owing to formation of peroxyacetic acid [White, A. G. et al., J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1950, 69, p. 206]. Soluble in water.
Reactivity Profile
Acetaldehyde undergoes a vigorously exothermic condensation reaction in contact with strong acids, bases or traces of metals. Can react vigorously with oxidizing reagents such as dinitrogen pentaoxide, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, silver nitrate, etc. Contamination often leads either to reaction with the contaminant or polymerization, both with the evolution of heat. Can react violently with acid anhydrides, alcohols, ketones, phenols, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, halogens, phosphorus, isocyanates, concentrated sulfuric acid, and aliphatic amines. Reactions with cobalt chloride, mercury(II) chlorate or perchlorate form sensitive, explosive products [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 5]. An oxygenation reaction of Acetaldehyde in the presence of cobalt acetate at -20°C exploded violently when stirred. The event was ascribed to peroxyacetate formation [Phillips B. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, p. 5982].
Health Hazard
Breathing vapors will be irritating and may cause nausea, vomiting, headache, and unconsciousness. Contact with eyes may cause burns and eye damage. Skin contact from clothing wet with the chemical causes burns or severe irritation.
Acetaldehyde Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
COPPER ALLOYS SET OF 5 DISCS (35 MM DIAM., 2 MM THICKNESS) Calcium formate Nitrogen Etanol Oxygen Palladium chloride Hydrochloric acid Calcium acetate
Preparation Products
Methomyl Glyoxal (S)-2-AMINO-3-(6-METHOXY-1H-INDOL-3-YL)-PROPIONIC ACID METHYL PENT-4-YN-2-YLCARBAMATE Sorbic acid 2,4-Dimethylimidazole MONOMETHYL 3-METHYLGLUTARATE PENT-3-YN-2-AMINE BENZANILIDE Paraldehyde Methylthioacetaldoxime 2-METHYL-1,3-DITHIANE 2-AMINOPROPANENITRILE Metronidazole Acetal 2-Methylimidazole BANISTERINE MONOHYDRATE Pentaerythritol Acetic acid glacial Thiodicarb Metaldehyde
Acetaldehyde Suppliers      Global( 159)Suppliers     
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