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Dextran

Description History Uses Specification Production Methods
Dextran
Dextran
CAS No.
9004-54-0
Chemical Name:
Dextran
Synonyms
LMD;LVD;LMWD;PL 1S;Hyskon;Hyscon;LU 122;Hemodex;Macrose;DEXTRAN
CBNumber:
CB8670298
Molecular Formula:
C17H32O10
Formula Weight:
396.42998
MOL File:
9004-54-0.mol

Dextran Properties

alpha 
198 º
refractive index 
185 ° (C=6, H2O)
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
H2O: soluble50mg/mL, clear to very slightly hazy, colorless to faintly yellow
form 
Solid
color 
White to slightly off-white
PH
2 - 10
Water Solubility 
Soluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and glycerol.
Merck 
14,2948
Stability:
Stable. Keep dry. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
EPA Substance Registry System
Dextran(9004-54-0)

SAFETY

Hazard Codes  Xn,Xi
Risk Statements  20/21/22-36/37/38
Safety Statements  24/25-37/39-36-26
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  HH9230000
3
TSCA  Yes

Dextran price More Price(162)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 00269 Dextran 9004-54-0 100mg $76 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 00268 Dextran 9004-54-0 500mg $299.5 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical D1448 Dextran 40 (Mw.=ca. 40,000) 9004-54-0 25g $57 2017-12-01 Buy
TCI Chemical D1448 Dextran 40 (Mw.=ca. 40,000) 9004-54-0 100g $158 2017-12-01 Buy
Alfa Aesar J14495 Dextran, Ultrapure, Affymetrix/USB 9004-54-0 100g $80.6 2017-11-08 Buy

Dextran Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Dextran, a glucose polymer composed predominantly of ol-1,6-glucopyranosidic linkages, is produced from sucrose by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and related organisms and from dextrins by other bacteria.
Dextran is used in a bead form to aid in bioreactor applications, some size-exclusion chromatography matrices and in osmotic stress technique study involved in biological molecules. It can be used as a stabilizing coating to protect metal nanoparticles from oxidation.
Dextrans are long-chain glucose polysaccharides of various relative molecular masses. Dextran 70 (relative molecular mass 70 000) is retained in the intravascular space where, like albumin, it contributes to the colloid oncotic pressure of plasma. Unlike albumin, dextran 70, when given in large amounts, prevents platelet aggregation and facilitates fibrinolysis.

History

In the early 1940's, at the same time as Stacey and his associates in Birmingham were studying bacterial dextrans and Hehre and colleagues in the USA were pursuing the dextran producing activity of cell-free extracts of Leuconostoc , a young Swedish biochemist, B. Ingelman, at the Department of Biochemistry and Physical Chemistry, University of Uppsala began probing the polysaccharides and proteins of sugar beet juice.
One of the critical episodes was the discovery of dextran in an infected sample of the juice. This initiated a series of investigations on the polysaccharide. At the end of 1942, a recently qualified M.D., A. Grönwall, joined the laboratory to study tuberculin. Considerable effort was being devoted at the time to the freeze-drying of blood plasma for military medicine. Within the space of months, Ingelman and Grönwall had stumbled on the idea of using a hydrolyzed dextran as a plasma substitute. After studies on the partial hydrolysis, fractionation, and extensive biological studies, a Swedish pharmaceutical company adopted the project in 1943, and later that year, preliminary clinical trials began. In 1944, under the direction of the surgeon, G. Bohmansson, extensive clinical trials were started at the Regional Hospital in Örebro. The dextran used at that time was derived from Leuconostoc mesenteroides , strain 7E, and was slightly more branched than the present one. By 1947, about four years after the innovation, a 6% solution of a dextran fraction had been approved for clinical use in Sweden and, shortly thereafter, in the U.K., an achievement that would be inconceivable under the present regulatory climate.The product was gradually improved and was designated Dextran 70. Samples of the Swedish product were soon tested clinically in the USA.
Dextran 70 is generally marketed as a 6% solution in normal saline and as such continues to maintain its position worldwide as the plasma volume expander of choice. It is recommended for the treatment of shock or impending shock due, for example, to hemorrhage, burns, surgery or trauma. Dextran 70 also reduces the risk for thrombosis and numerous studies testify to its value in significantly reducing the risk of post-operative fatal pulmonary emboli.

Uses

The demand for technical dextrans from industry has shown a significant increase in the past decade. Since household sucrose, fruits or fruit beverages could be contaminated with traces of dextrans, ingestion of dextrans, albeit in small amounts, may not be uncommon. Dextran is degraded by dextran-splitting bacteria in the human gut and most of the hydrolysis products can be absorbed to produce a rapid increase in blood sugar and liver glycogen
However, in the food industry, where innumerable applications of dextrans in foodstuffs were patented in the 50's and 60's, no application appears to have been pursued and the mandatory toxicological studies to gain FDA approval were not performed. Hence in 1977, the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status of dextrans was deleted. Dextrans are not permitted in the UK or Europe as foodstuff additives, and dextrans do not seem to have been considered by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Foodstuff Additives (JECFA). Dextrans are, however, considered as safe as components of food packaging materials.
Dextran fractions do not appear to be included in the lists of permitted additives (ingredients) for pharmaceutical formulations such as ointments and creams for topical use and tablets and capsules for oral use. However, providing the appropriate documentation is presented, there are no a priori reasons why they may not be used. Indeed several products in which a dextran fraction is used as a non-active ingredient are on the market.
Purified dextran fractions with high clarity and low chloride levels find extensive applications in the photographic industry. Addition of low concentrations of dextran to the silver emulsion is found to enhance significantly the quality of the images. The effect is presumably attributable to the effect of dextran on the conformation of the gelatin molecules.
Since Albertsson revealed the enormous potential of 2-phase polymer systems, especially dextran-PEG systems, for the partition of sub-cellular particles and macromolecules, an immense number of applications has evolved. These systems offer a means of fractionation beyond the range of conventional techniques. Some recent applications are: the separation of peripheral blood cells, distinguishing erythrocytes from multiple sclerosis patients, the separation of enzymes, for example pullulanase, from Klebsiella pneumoniae cells, and the partitioning of murine lymphoblasts.
Dextran has been recommended as a cryoprotective agent for human, animal and plant cells. Thus a mixture of 5% methyl sulphoxide and 9% Dextran 70 was found to afford optimal cryoprotection of human bone marrow committed stem cells.
The effect of dextrans as adjuvants for prolonging local anesthetic block has been a matter of some debate. Early results had proved somewhat contradictory. Recent reexamination by Hassan and colleagues has revealed that the prolongation of the effect of anesthetic is dependent on the anesthetic used, the MW of the dextran, and the type of dextran derivative used. A prolongation of up to 350% has been obtained.

Specification

Dextran 70 powder Pharmaceutical grade (for injections)
Description A white, amorphous powder
Identification To pass test
pH 5.0 - 7.0
Clarity and color of solution To pass test
Chloride Not more than 0.018 %
Heavy metal Not more than 20 ppm
Arsenic Not more than 1.3 ppm
Nitrogen Not more than 0.010 %
Reducing substances Not more than 1.0 %
Loss on drying Not more than 5.0 %
Residue on ignition Not more than 0.10 %
Intrinsic viscosity (25ºC;)  
Whole fraction 0.21 - 0.26 dl/g
7 - 10 % high MW fraction Not more than 0.35 dl/g
7 - 10 % low MW fraction Not less than 0.10 dl/g
Pyrogen To pass test
Antigenicity To pass test
Assay 98.0 - 102.0 %
Storage Store at the temperature below 25 ºC. Protect from light and moisture.

Production Methods

Dextran for clinical and technical products is produced in most developed countries throughout the world. In the West, most producers use the Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512(F) or B-512 strain for the fermentation. In other parts of the world, alternative strains appear to be used.
Most major producers of dextran employ a process based on the batchwise culture of Leuconostoc in the presence of sucrose. The viscous culture fluid is then precipitated in ethanol or methanol, whereafter the native dextran obtained is hydrolyzed in dilute acid and the desired dextran is isolated by fractionation. Although the present state of the art offers alternative methods of producing defined fractions, most producers are still operating a procedure introduced about 35 years ago. In introducing any change, a producer must be convinced that, not only must the new process be more efficient in man-power and materials, but the final product must conform in every respect with the medical requirements for safety and efficacy.
The organism, Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512(F), is a member of the Lactobacillaceae family, genus Leuconostoc and species mesenteroides (134). The organism produces spherical or ovoid cells and classifies as a gram-positive facultative anaerobe. Apart from dextran and lactic acid, it produces, inter alia , carbon dioxide, ethanol, mannitol and acetic acid.

Chemical Properties

white crystals or powder

Uses

Dextran is a polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules used as an antithrombotic to reduce blood viscosity and as a volume expander in anemia. Studies show that it inhibits the mannose receptor-med iated clearance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA).

Uses

also available in pharma grade

Uses

exhibit borad spectrum of biological activities, with very low anticoagulant capacity: they activate lipoprotein elimination by lipase stimulation, inhibit cell proliferation in vascular wall, regulate transport of plasmatic proteins and inhibit depositi

Uses

antiinflammatory veterinary drug

Dextran Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Dextran Suppliers

Global( 159)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
0592-6210733
0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 1948 55
Herbon International Holdings Company Limited
(+86) 0762 3499809 ; (+86) 0762 3499803
chris.chan@herbon-international.com CHINA 3 55
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 9974 55
Shenzhen Sendi Biotechnology Co.Ltd.
0755-23311925 18102838259
0755-23311925 Abel@chembj.com CHINA 3229 55
Herbon International Polysaccharide Biotechnology (Heyuan) Co. Ltd. 0762 3499803;13377620238
- 2141594860@qq.com China 4 68
Spectrum Chemical Manufacturing Corp. 021-67601398-808
021-57711696 gduan@spectrumchina.net China 9330 60
Nanjing Dulai Biotechnology Co., Ltd. 025-84699383 84699415 13382013214 13382013204
025-52453057 njduly@126.com China 909 55
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
+86-10-82849933 jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com China 96820 76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing) sh@meryer.com China 40398 62
future industrial shanghai co., ltd 021-61552785,400-0066-400
021-55660885 sales@jonln.com China 2090 65

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