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Characteristics and history of discovery Preparation of water saturated 1-butanol solution Content Analysis Reference quality standards Toxicity Limited use Chemical Properties Uses Production method Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Irritation data Hazardous characteristics of explosive Flammability and hazard characteristics Storage characteristics Extinguishing agent Professional standards
Chemical Name:
NBA;ccs203;CCS 203;NA 1120;butanols;Butanolo;Hemostyp;n-C4H9OH;Butanolen;Butanol-1
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

1-Butanol Properties

Melting point:
-89 °C
Boiling point:
117.6 °C
0.81 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
2.55 (vs air)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.399(lit.)
Flash point:
95 °F
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
water: soluble
APHA: ≤10
Relative polarity
7 (70g/l, H2O, 20℃)
explosive limit
Water Solubility 
80 g/L (20 ºC)
Moisture Sensitive
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidizing agents, aluminium, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, copper, copper alloys. Flammable.
CAS DataBase Reference
71-36-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
EPA Substance Registry System
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn,T,F
Risk Statements  10-22-37/38-41-67-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
Safety Statements  13-26-37/39-46-7/9-45-36/37-16-7
RIDADR  UN 1120 3/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  EO1400000
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  III
Hazardous Substances Data 71-36-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

1-Butanol price More Price(66)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.01988 1-Butanol 71-36-3 1EA $142 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.01988 1-Butanol 71-36-3 2EA $296 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical B0228 1-Butanol [for Spectrophotometry] >99.0%(GC) 71-36-3 100mL $42 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical B0704 1-Butanol >99.0%(GC) 71-36-3 25mL $14 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 22925 1-Butanol, HPLC Grade, 99% 71-36-3 1L $45.7 2017-11-08 Buy

1-Butanol Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Characteristics and history of discovery

1-Butanol is a type of alcohol with four carbon atoms being contained per molecule. Its molecular formula is CH3CH2CH2CH2OH with three isomers, namely iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol. It is colorless liquid with alcohol odor.
It has the boiling point of being 117.7 ℃, the density (20 ℃) being ​​0.8109g/cm3, the freezing point being-89.0 ℃, flash point being 36~38 ℃, self-ignition point being 689F and the refractive index being (n20D) 1.3993. At 20 ℃, its solubility in water is 7.7% (by weight) while the water solubility in 1-butanol was 20.1% (by weight). It is miscible with ethanol, ether and other kinds of organic solvents. It can be used as the solvents of a variety of paints and the raw material for producing the plasticizers, dibutyl phthalate. It can also be used for the manufacture of butyl acrylate, butyl acetate, and ethylene glycol butyl ether and also used as the extract of intermediates of organic synthesis and biochemical drugs and can also used in the manufacture of surfactants. Its steam can form explosive mixtures with air with the explosion limit being 3.7%~10.2% (volume fraction).
1-butanol was first discovered by C-A. Wurtz (French) from the fusel oil obtained from the fermentation process of alcohol in 1852. In 1913, the British Strange-Graham Companies have used corn as raw material for production of acetone through the fermentation process with butanol being the main byproduct. Later, due to the increasing demand for butanol, the fermentation production factory began to mainly synthesize n-butanol with acetone and ethanol being the major byproduct. During the Second World War, the German chemical company (Ruhr) began to apply propylene carboxyl method for the production of 1-butanol. With the rise of the oil industry in 1950s, the 1-butanol synthesis method had gotten rapid development with the propylene carboxyl method having the fastest speed.

Preparation of water saturated 1-butanol solution

Add 21 mL of water and 100 mL of 1-butanol to separating funnel of 150 mL, shake for 3 min, stand for layering; and then remove the lower layer with the upper layer being water-saturated 1-butanol solution. (The density of water: 1 g/ml; 1-butanol density: 0.808~0.811 g/ml).

Content Analysis

For the determination of 1-butanol and volatile impurities according to the general gas chromatography (GT-10), use the following conditions:
Column steel column, length: 1.8m; inner diameter: 6.4mm, the packing material should be 10% polyethylene glycol 400M (PEG 400M) with the carrier being 60/80 mesh diatomaceous soil carrier.
Carrier gas: Helium with a flow rate of 45ml/min. Detector: Flame ionization type.
Injector temperature 150 ℃, column temperature 90 0 ℃ detector 150 ℃.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.

Reference quality standards

Quality Index (GB/T 6027---1998)
Item: Excellent grade first-grade Qualified Test Method
Appearance transparent liquid without visible impurities visually
Chroma (Platinum-Cobalt) Number ≤ 5 10 15 GB3143
Density (20 ℃) g/cm 3 0.809-0.811 0.809-0.811 0.808-0.812 GB4472
Butanol content% ≥ 99.50 99 98 GB/T6027
Acidity (acetic acid)% ≤ 0.003 0.005 0.01 GB/T6027
Sulfuric acid color test (platinum-cobalt) No. ≤ 20 40-----GB/T6027
Moisture% ≤ 0.10 0.10 0.2 GB6283
Evaporation residue% ≤ 0.003 0.005 0.01 GB6324.2


ADI value is not specified (FAO/WHO, 1994).
LD50: 790 mg/kg (rat, oral).

Limited use

FEMA (mg/kg): used for flavor: soft drinks 12; cold 7.0; 34 Confectionery; Bakery 32; Wine 1.0; dilute cream 4.0.
According to FDA§173.1, there should be no residue (used as a solvent); in addition, according to the provisions of §172.515, the usage as flavor should be limited as moderate amount (2000).

Chemical Properties

It is colorless liquid with alcohol odor. At 20 ℃, its solubility in water is 7.7% (by weight) while the water solubility in 1-butanol was 20.1% (by weight). It is miscible with ethanol, ether and other kinds of organic solvents.


It can be used as chromatography analysis reagents and also applied to organic synthesis, etc.
Butanol is the allowable food flavors documented in the "food additives health standards" of China. It is mainly used for the preparation of food flavors of bananas, butter, cheese and whiskey. For the candy, the usage amount should be 34mg/kg; for baked foods, it should be 32mg/kg; for soft drinks, it should be 12mg/kg; for cold drinks, it should be 7.0mg/kg; for the cream, it should be 4.0mg/kg; for alcohol, it should be 1.0mg/kg.
Butanol can be used as the intermediates of herbicide 2,4-D butyl ester, butachlor, fluazifop and fluazifop P butyl.
GB 2760-96 provides it be the food flavor allowed by using it. It can be mainly used for the preparation of bananas, butter, cheese, whiskey and other flavor. It can also be used as extraction-purpose solvent and pigment diluent.
It is mainly used for the manufacture of the n-butyl plasticizers of phthalic acid, aliphatic dicarboxylic acid and phosphoric acid that are widely applied to various kinds of plastic and rubber products. It can also be used as the raw material of producing butyraldehyde, butyric acid, butyl-amine and butyl lactate in the field of organic synthesis. It can also be used as the extraction agent of oil, drugs (such as antibiotics, hormones and vitamins) and spices as well as the alkyd paint additives. It can be used as the solvent of organic dyes and printing ink and de-waxing agent.
It can be used for the production of the plasticizers of butyl acetate, dibutyl phthalate and phosphate and can also be used in the production of melamine resin, crylic acid, and epoxy varnish, etc.

Production method

There are several methods for their preparation.
In the past, the production of butanol has also used potatoes, grain or sugar as raw material and through their hydrolysis fermentation. The resulting product from the fermentation broth contains a butanol content of 54.8%~58.5%, acetone content of 30.9%~33.7%, and the ethanol content of 7.8%-14.2%. With the development of petrochemical industry, fermentation method has been gradually phased out. The reaction equation is as follows: (C6H10O5) n [n (H2O)] → [strain] n-C6H12O6 [fermentation] → CH3COCH3 + C4H9OH + C2H5OH
The resulted fermentation broth was further fractionated to obtain acetone, ethanol and n-butanol separately.
Acetaldehyde method
Take acetaldehyde as raw material, add dilute alkali solution to give 2-hydroxybutyraldehyde at temperature below 20 ℃ with the reaction being stopped upon reaching 50%. Use alkali to neutralize the acid and recycle the unreacted acetaldehyde and extract the 2-hydroxybutyraldehyde. Then use acidic catalyst such as sulfuric acid and acetic acid for dehydration to obtain crotonaldehyde at 105~137 ℃, then use copper complex catalyst for hydrogenation at 160~240 ℃ to obtain the crude butyraldehyde and 1-butanol with distillation to obtain the products. CH3CH = CHCHO + H2 [catalyst] CH3CH2CH2CHO + CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
Its synthesis method including the following several ways:
Fermentation and Propylene carbonyl synthesis
Put propylene, carbon monoxide and hydrogen to the catalytic bed for reaction with catalyst being zeolite for absorbing cobalt salt or fatty acid cobalt with the reaction temperature being 130~160 ℃ and the reaction pressure being 20~25MPa. The reaction can generate n-butyraldehyde and iso-butyraldehyde with separation via distillation and further catalytic hydrogenation of the n-butyraldehyde to obtain the 1-butanol. CH3CH2CH2CHO + H2 → CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
You can alternatively use low pressure method with first-step method of propylene, carbon monoxide and water for synthesizing the butanol with the reaction temperature being 100~104 ℃ and pressure being 1.5MPa. It applies the mixture of iron pentacarbonyl, n-butyl pyrrolidine and water. However, the one-way conversion of the propylene is low with only 8% to 10%. Reaction equation: CH3CH = CH2 + 3CO + 2H2O → n-C4H9OH + 2CO2


Flammable liquid

Toxicity grading


Acute toxicity

oral-rat LD50: 790 mg/kg; intraperitoneal-Mouse LD50: 603 mg/kg

Irritation data

Skin-Rabbit 20 mg/24 hours of moderate; Eyes-rabbit 2 mg/24 hours of severe

Chemical Properties

Colorless liquid

Hazardous characteristics of explosive

it is explosive when mixed with air;


Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, environmental testing


ChEBI: A primary alcohol that is butane in which a hydrogen of one of the methyl groups is substituted by a hydroxy group. It it produced in small amounts in humans by the gut microbes.


As solvent for fats, waxes, resins, shellac, varnish, gums etc.; manufacture of lacquers, rayon, detergents, other butyl Compounds; in microscopy for preparing paraffin imbedding materials.

Flammability and hazard characteristics

it is flammable in case of fire, high temperature and oxidant; it release irritation smoke when exposed to heat

Storage characteristics

Treasury: ventilation, low-temperature and drying; Store it separately from oxidizing agents, chromium trioxide, and aluminum

Extinguishing agent

Dry powder, water spray, carbon dioxide, foam

Professional standards

TWA 300 mg/m3

General Description

Colorless liquid. Used in organic chemical synthesis, plasticizers, detergents, etc.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

1-Butanol attacks plastics. [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 236]. Mixtures with concentrated sulfuric acid and strong hydrogen peroxide can cause explosions. May form explosive butyl hypochlorite by reacting with hypochlorous acid. May form butyl explosive butyl hypochlorite with chlorine.

Health Hazard

Anesthesia, nausea, headache, dizziness, irritation of respiratory passages. Mildly irritating to the skin and eyes.

Fire Hazard

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.

1-Butanol Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

1-Butanol Suppliers

Global( 295)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Shanghai Bojing Chemical Co.,Ltd.
+86-21-37127788 CHINA 500 55
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20810 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
0592-6210733 CHINA 3168 55
Shanghai ideal Industrial Co., Ltd. 021-60899019
021-60899437 China 2931 58
Shanghai Macklin Biochemical Co.,Ltd. 15221275939
021-51821727 China 13251 55
Shanghai Xilong Biochemical Technology Co., Ltd. 021-52907766-8042
021-52906523 China 10067 58
Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD 021-20337333/400-620-6333
021-50323701 China 25121 65
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
+86-10-82849933; China 96820 76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing) China 40398 62
Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
021-67582001/03/05 China 30309 84

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