Dyes and Pigments

Dyes refer to the organic substances enable the strong coloring of fiber and some other materials. There are various kinds of dyes. According to the source, they can be divided into natural dyes (such as vegetable dyes, animal dyes and mineral dyes, etc.) and synthetic dyes (or artificial dyes). According to the molecular structure, it can be divided into azo dyes, anthraquinone dyes, phthalocyanine dyes, aromatic dyes and nitro dyes. Based on the application methods, it can be divided into acid dyes, basic dyes, sulfur dyes, reactive dyes, disperse dyes, direct dyes and so on. Dyes have color, but substance having color does not necessarily belong to dyes. Dye must have a chromophore and auxochrome group. Dye contained in the ink should also have water-soluble group such as sulfonic acid group.

Natural dyes are dyes obtained from animals, plants and minerals. According to sources they can be divided into: ① plant dyes; dyes extracted from the roots, stems, leaves and fruit of some plants such as indigo extracted from the leaves of indigo (blue); curcumin extracted from turmeric (yellow); alizarin extracted from madder (red) and so on; ② animal dyes; dyes extracted from animal body such as carmine extracted from cochineal, etc; ③ mineral dyes; dyes extracted from the colored inorganic substance of mineral such as chrome yellow, ultramarine blue, brown and other manganese. Owing to its various disadvantages compared with artificial dyes such as incomplete chromatography, application inconvenience and poor fastness, most natural dyes have been eliminated except for a few still in use.

Synthetic dyes, also known as "artificial dyes." is mainly made through the chemical processing of coal tar (or oil processing) fractionation products (such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and carbazole, etc.), sometimes are also known as coal tar dyes. Since the earliest several synthetic dyes all took aniline as raw material, it is also known as "aniline dyes." Compared with the natural dyes, synthetic dyes have various kinds with complete chromatography and most of them being colorful, washable and being able to be produced in large-scale. Thus, almost all of the current so-called dye refers to synthetic dyes with its dyeing products being one of the common samples of Forensic evidence.

Pigment is a colored, black, white or fluorescent particulate organic or inorganic solid. It is not soluble in water, oil or other applied media, but can be uniformly dispersed with the dispersion process being unaffected by the physical and chemical effects of the medium and still retaining its unique crystal or particle structure. Based on the chemical composition, it is divided into inorganic and organic pigments; according to color, it can be divided into white, red, yellow, black and other pigments; according to the source, it is divided into natural and synthetic pigments with natural pigments including mineral (inorganic) such as ocher, cinnabar, laterite and realgar, etc., also derivatives from animals and plants (organic) such as Garcinia and cochineal red; the synthetic pigments also include organic and inorganic pigments; according to the applications, it is classified into coloring pigment, extender pigments and functional pigments. Coloring pigment is inorganic and organic pigments that can endow the media with a variety of colors; extender pigment is a non-coloring and non-opacity pigments. In early time, it is mainly used to reduce product cost and improve the performance of coatings, plastics, rubber and other products. Therefore it is also called filler. Now there are natural products and synthetic products which have been processed into ultrafine-grained type. Owing to the low impurity content, fine particles and being available for artificial synthesis and various kinds of surface modifications, the synthetic products can also be used to reduce the amount of the paint with opacity (such as titanium dioxide) and improve the product performance, thereby now it is more suitable to be called as constitution (incremental) pigment. The main varieties of the extender pigment are mostly processed natural minerals such as natural calcium carbonate, barite powder, talc, mica, diatomaceous earth, quartz powder, clay and asbestos, etc. with a small number of synthetic products such as precipitated calcium carbonate, precipitated barium sulfate and synthetic silica; functional pigments is pigments that endow the product with particular function such as temperature-indicating paints make the color of the product change with temperature; anti-fouling paint with capability of poisoning and killing water creatures; luminescent pigment which is lighting in the dark; anti-rust paint for preventing corrosion and pearlescent pigments with pearl luster.

Pigment is widely applied to paint, printing, rubber, plastics, paper, fibers, ceramics and other industries. It can endow the product with decorative, opacity, durability or special features. With advances in technology, a variety of high performance pigments will be further developed.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Pigment Yellow 14 Pigment Yellow 14 5468-75-7 C34H30Cl2N6O4
Acid Orange 7 Acid Orange 7 633-96-5 C16H11N2NaO4S
Pigment Yellow 83 Pigment Yellow 83 5567-15-7 C36H32Cl4N6O8
Solvent Orange 2 Solvent Orange 2 2646-17-5 C17H14N2O
Solvent Red 43 Solvent Red 43 15086-94-9 C20H8Br4O5
Pigment Red 53:1 Pigment Red 53:1 5160-02-1 C34H24BaCl2N4O8S2
Basic Violet 2 Basic Violet 2 3248-91-7 C22H24ClN3
Basic Blue 11 Basic Blue 11 2185-86-6 C29H32N3.Cl
Pigment Red 122 Pigment Red 122 980-26-7 C22H16N2O2
Solvent Yellow 56 Solvent Yellow 56 2481-94-9 C16H19N3
Basic Red 9 Basic Red 9 569-61-9 C19H17N3.ClH
Crystal Violet Crystal Violet 548-62-9 C25H30ClN3
Pigment Yellow 65 Pigment Yellow 65 6528-34-3 C18H18N4O6
Acid Yellow 23 Acid Yellow 23 1934-21-0 C16H9N4Na3O9S2
Acid Brown 14 Acid Brown 14 5850-16-8 C26H16N4Na2O8S2
Acid Red 87 Acid Red 87 548-26-5 C20H8Br4O5
Acid Red 27 Acid Red 27 915-67-3 C20H11N2Na3O10S3
Acid Blue 119 Acid Blue 119 1324-80-7 C21H14NNaO6S
Quinacridone Quinacridone 1047-16-1 C20H12N2O2
Fuchsin Acid Fuchsin Acid 3244-88-0 C20H17N3Na2O9S3
Carbon Black Carbon Black 1333-86-4 C
Solvent Yellow 33 Solvent Yellow 33 8003-22-3 C18H11NO2
ACID BLUE 113 ACID BLUE 113 3351-05-1 C32H21N5Na2O6S2
Acid Green 50 Acid Green 50 3087-16-9 C27H25N2NaO7S2
Acid Green 25 Acid Green 25 4403-90-1 C28H20N2Na2O8S2
Pigment Red 49:1 Pigment Red 49:1 1103-38-4 C40H26BaN4O8S2
4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 89-63-4 C6H5ClN2O2
Disperse Red 11 Disperse Red 11 2872-48-2 C15H12N2O3
ACID RED 88 ACID RED 88 1658-56-6 C20H13N2NaO4S
Pigment Red 4 Pigment Red 4 2814-77-9 C16H10ClN3O3
Solvent Red 41 Solvent Red 41 3248-93-9 C20H19N3
Solvent Red 23 Solvent Red 23 85-86-9 C22H16N4O
ACID RED 151 ACID RED 151 6406-56-0 C22H15N4NaO4S
Pigment Orange 13 Pigment Orange 13 3520-72-7 C32H24Cl2N8O2
Pigment Red 48:2 Pigment Red 48:2 7023-61-2 C18H11CaClN2O6S
Barium chromate Barium chromate 10294-40-3 BaCrO4
3-Chloro-2-methylaniline 3-Chloro-2-methylaniline 87-60-5 C7H8ClN
Pigment Yellow 17 Pigment Yellow 17 4531-49-1 C34H30Cl2N6O6
Sulphur Black 1 Sulphur Black 1 1326-82-5 C6H4N2O5
Solvent Red 27 Solvent Red 27 1320-06-5 C26H24N4O
Pigment Orange 5 Pigment Orange 5 3468-63-1 C16H10N4O5
Solvent Red 1 Solvent Red 1 1229-55-6 C17H14N2O2
2-Amino-5-chlorobenzotrifluoride 2-Amino-5-chlorobenzotrifluoride 445-03-4 C7H5ClF3N
Solvent Red 24 Solvent Red 24 85-83-6 C24H20N4O
Pigment Yellow 3 Pigment Yellow 3 6486-23-3 C16H12Cl2N4O4
Pigment Red 122 Pigment Red 122 16043-40-6 C22H16N2O2
Pigment Blue 29 Pigment Blue 29 57455-37-5 Na6Al4Si6S4O20
Pigment Red 57:1 Pigment Red 57:1 5281-04-9 C18H12N2Na2O6S
Acid blue 1 Acid blue 1 129-17-9 C27H31N2NaO6S2
Acid Orange 10 Acid Orange 10 1936-15-8 C16H10N2Na2O7S2
Pigment Yellow 81 Pigment Yellow 81 22094-93-5 C36H32Cl4N6O4
(29H,31H-phthalocyaninato(2-)-N29,N30,N31,N32)copper (29H,31H-phthalocyaninato(2-)-N29,N30,N31,N32)copper 147-14-8 C32H16CuN8
RHODAMINE 110 RHODAMINE 110 13558-31-1 C20H15ClN2O3
Pigment Yellow 12 Pigment Yellow 12 5102-83-0 C32H26Cl2N6O4
Basic Blue 17 Basic Blue 17 92-31-9 C15H16ClN3S
TALC TALC 13376-74-4 H2Mg3O12Si4
ORANGE I ORANGE I 523-44-4 C16H11N2NaO4S
Fast Yellow G Fast Yellow G 2512-29-0 C17H16N4O4
2-Methyl-5-nitroaniline 2-Methyl-5-nitroaniline 99-55-8 C7H8N2O2
Disperse Blue 3 Disperse Blue 3 2475-46-9 C17H16N2O3
Basic Orange 14 Basic Orange 14 10127-02-3 C34H40Cl4N6Zn
2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline 2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline 99-52-5 C7H8N2O2
Vat Violet 10 Vat Violet 10 128-64-3 C34H16O2
Indigo Indigo 482-89-3 C16H10N2O2
Rhodamine B Rhodamine B 81-88-9 C28H31ClN2O3
Pigment Red 170 Pigment Red 170 2786-76-7 C26H22N4O4
Permanent Violet RL Permanent Violet RL 6358-30-1 C35H23Cl2N3O2
Pigment Violet 3 Pigment Violet 3 1325-82-2 C24H27N3
Benzonitrile Benzonitrile 100-47-0 C7H5N
Basic Red 5 Basic Red 5 553-24-2 C15H17ClN4
Acid Red 92 Acid Red 92 18472-87-2 C20H2Br4Cl4Na2O5
Acid Green 1 Acid Green 1 19381-50-1 C30H15FeN3Na3O15S3
Acid Red 94 Acid Red 94 632-69-9 C20H2Cl4I4Na2O5
Lithopone Lithopone 1345-05-7 BaO5S2Zn2
2,5-Dichloroaniline 2,5-Dichloroaniline 95-82-9 C6H5Cl2N
ORANGE G ORANGE G 1936-96-5 C16H10N2Na2O7S2
Solvent Yellow 2 Solvent Yellow 2 60-11-7 C14H15N3
Pigment Red 8 Pigment Red 8 6410-30-6 C24H17ClN4O4
Ethyl 3-ethoxy-3-iminopropionate hydrochloride Ethyl 3-ethoxy-3-iminopropionate hydrochloride 2318-25-4 C7H14ClNO3
Acid Red 87 Acid Red 87 17372-87-1 C20H6Br4Na2O5
Disperse Yellow 3 Disperse Yellow 3 2832-40-8 C15H15N3O2
Sudan I Sudan I 842-07-9 C16H12N2O
Pigment Red 2 Pigment Red 2 6041-94-7 C23H15Cl2N3O2
CI 13015 CI 13015 2706-28-7 C12H9N3Na2O6S2
Disperse Yellow 54 Disperse Yellow 54 12223-85-7 C18H11NO3
ACID BLUE 120 ACID BLUE 120 3529-01-9 C33H23N5Na2O6S2
Basic Red 2 Basic Red 2 477-73-6 C20H19ClN4
CI NO 77605 CI NO 77605 12656-85-8 PbCrO4, PbMoO4, PbSO4
Pigment Red 176 Pigment Red 176 12225-06-8 C32H24N6O5
1-(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-3-(5-amino-2-chloroanilino)-5-pyrazolone 1-(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-3-(5-amino-2-chloroanilino)-5-pyrazolone 53411-33-9 C15H10Cl4N4O
Solvent Violet 36 Solvent Violet 36 61951-89-1
Solvent Black 3 Solvent Black 3 4197-25-5 C29H24N6
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