dye

Dyes refer to the organic substances enable the strong coloring of fiber and some other materials. There are various kinds of dyes. According to the source, they can be divided into natural dyes (such as vegetable dyes, animal dyes and mineral dyes, etc.) and synthetic dyes (or artificial dyes). According to the molecular structure, it can be divided into azo dyes, anthraquinone dyes, phthalocyanine dyes, aromatic dyes and nitro dyes. Based on the application methods, it can be divided into acid dyes, basic dyes, sulfur dyes, reactive dyes, disperse dyes, direct dyes and so on. Dyes have color, but substance having color does not necessarily belong to dyes. Dye must have a chromophore and auxochrome group. Dye contained in the ink should also have water-soluble group such as sulfonic acid group.

Natural dyes are dyes obtained from animals, plants and minerals. According to sources they can be divided into:
1    Plant dyes; dyes extracted from the roots, stems, leaves and fruit of some plants such as indigo extracted from the leaves of indigo (blue); curcumin extracted from turmeric (yellow); alizarin extracted from madder (red) and so on;
2    Animal dyes; dyes extracted from animal body such as carmine extracted from cochineal, etc;
3    Mineral dyes; dyes extracted from the colored inorganic substance of mineral such as chrome yellow, ultramarine blue, brown and other manganese. Owing to its various disadvantages compared with artificial dyes such as incomplete chromatography, application inconvenience and poor fastness, most natural dyes have been eliminated except for a few still in use.

Synthetic dyes, also known as "artificial dyes." is mainly made through the chemical processing of coal tar (or oil processing) fractionation products (such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and carbazole, etc.), sometimes are also known as coal tar dyes. Since the earliest several synthetic dyes all took aniline as raw material, it is also known as "aniline dyes." Compared with the natural dyes, synthetic dyes have various kinds with complete chromatography and most of them being colorful, washable and being able to be produced in large scale. Thus, almost all of the current so-called dye refers to synthetic dyes with its dyeing products being one of the common samples of Forensic evidence.

There are two ways for classifications of dyes:
The first type is the basic chemical taxonomy based on the chromophore. According to this, dyes can be classified into azo dyes, sulfur dyes, anthraquinone dyes, indigo dyes, heterocyclic dyes and phthalocyanine dyes, 10 categories in total.

The second type is based on the property of the dye to the fiber or coloring properties. Based on this, the dyes can be divided into acid dyes, neutral dyes, azoic dyes, basic dyes, cationic dyes, direct dyes, reactive dyes, sulfur dyes, vat dyes and other dyes, 14 categories in total.

There are various kinds of dyes of different properties and wide range of applications. However, dyes used as physical evidence are largely fixed in textile fibers or paper, or as a kind of organizational component of ink, printing ink and pen oil. Usually after extraction, it can subject to comparison testing using micro-chemical method, thin layer chromatography, liquid chromatography, UV - visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy.

The international development of dye was very rapid in 1970s while people have mainly focused on develop new varieties and improve quality since 1990s with the annual output being maintained at the level of 100 million tons.

Chinese dyes got rapid development in 1980s with the main focus being improving the quality after 1990 as well. The production output still maintain a certain growth rate with annual output being around 300,000 t. In 2000, the output is 315 600 t. Dyes used for textile dyeing account about 85% with the rest being used for the coloring of leather, plastic, paper and paint.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Acid Orange 7 Acid Orange 7 633-96-5 C16H11N2NaO4S
Solvent Orange 2 Solvent Orange 2 2646-17-5 C17H14N2O
Solvent Red 43 Solvent Red 43 15086-94-9 C20H8Br4O5
Basic Violet 2 Basic Violet 2 3248-91-7 C22H24ClN3
Basic Blue 11 Basic Blue 11 2185-86-6 C29H32N3.Cl
1-AMINO-2-METHYLANTHRAQUINONE 1-AMINO-2-METHYLANTHRAQUINONE 82-28-0 C15H11NO2
Solvent Yellow 56 Solvent Yellow 56 2481-94-9 C16H19N3
Basic Red 9 Basic Red 9 569-61-9 C19H17N3.ClH
Crystal Violet Crystal Violet 548-62-9 C25H30ClN3
DIRECT FAST BROWN M DIRECT FAST BROWN M 2429-82-5 C29H19N5Na2O7S
Acid Yellow 23 Acid Yellow 23 1934-21-0 C16H9N4Na3O9S2
Acid Brown 14 Acid Brown 14 5850-16-8 C26H16N4Na2O8S2
Acid Red 87 Acid Red 87 548-26-5 C20H8Br4O5
Acid Red 27 Acid Red 27 915-67-3 C20H11N2Na3O10S3
Acid Blue 119 Acid Blue 119 1324-80-7 C21H14NNaO6S
Fuchsin Acid Fuchsin Acid 3244-88-0 C20H17N3Na2O9S3
LIGHT GREEN SF YELLOWISH LIGHT GREEN SF YELLOWISH 93942-43-9 C37H34N2Na2O9S3
Solvent Yellow 33 Solvent Yellow 33 8003-22-3 C18H11NO2
ACID BLUE 113 ACID BLUE 113 3351-05-1 C32H21N5Na2O6S2
Acid Green 50 Acid Green 50 3087-16-9 C27H25N2NaO7S2
Acid Green 25 Acid Green 25 4403-90-1 C28H20N2Na2O8S2
4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 89-63-4 C6H5ClN2O2
Disperse Red 11 Disperse Red 11 2872-48-2 C15H12N2O3
ACID RED 88 ACID RED 88 1658-56-6 C20H13N2NaO4S
Solvent Red 41 Solvent Red 41 3248-93-9 C20H19N3
Solvent Red 23 Solvent Red 23 85-86-9 C22H16N4O
ACID RED 151 ACID RED 151 6406-56-0 C22H15N4NaO4S
NEUTRAL RED IODIDE NEUTRAL RED IODIDE 34038-87-4 C15H17IN4
3-Chloro-2-methylaniline 3-Chloro-2-methylaniline 87-60-5 C7H8ClN
Sulphur Black 1 Sulphur Black 1 1326-82-5 C6H4N2O5
Solvent Red 27 Solvent Red 27 1320-06-5 C26H24N4O
Solvent Red 1 Solvent Red 1 1229-55-6 C17H14N2O2
2-Amino-5-chlorobenzotrifluoride 2-Amino-5-chlorobenzotrifluoride 445-03-4 C7H5ClF3N
Solvent Red 24 Solvent Red 24 85-83-6 C24H20N4O
Acid blue 1 Acid blue 1 129-17-9 C27H31N2NaO6S2
Acid Orange 10 Acid Orange 10 1936-15-8 C16H10N2Na2O7S2
RHODAMINE 110 RHODAMINE 110 13558-31-1 C20H15ClN2O3
Basic Blue 17 Basic Blue 17 92-31-9 C15H16ClN3S
ORANGE I ORANGE I 523-44-4 C16H11N2NaO4S
ETHYL VIOLET ETHYL VIOLET 2390-59-2 C31H42ClN3
2-Methyl-5-nitroaniline 2-Methyl-5-nitroaniline 99-55-8 C7H8N2O2
Disperse Blue 3 Disperse Blue 3 2475-46-9 C17H16N2O3
Basic Orange 14 Basic Orange 14 10127-02-3 C34H40Cl4N6Zn
2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline 2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline 99-52-5 C7H8N2O2
Vat Violet 10 Vat Violet 10 128-64-3 C34H16O2
Indigo Indigo 482-89-3 C16H10N2O2
Rhodamine B Rhodamine B 81-88-9 C28H31ClN2O3
Benzonitrile Benzonitrile 100-47-0 C7H5N
Basic Red 5 Basic Red 5 553-24-2 C15H17ClN4
Acid Red 92 Acid Red 92 18472-87-2 C20H2Br4Cl4Na2O5
Acid Green 1 Acid Green 1 19381-50-1 C30H15FeN3Na3O15S3
Acid Red 94 Acid Red 94 632-69-9 C20H2Cl4I4Na2O5
BRILLIANT YELLOW BRILLIANT YELLOW 3051-11-4 C26H18N4Na2O8S2
2,5-Dichloroaniline 2,5-Dichloroaniline 95-82-9 C6H5Cl2N
Disperse Violet 28 Disperse Violet 28 81-42-5 C14H8Cl2N2O2
2,4-DIAMINOAZOBENZENE 2,4-DIAMINOAZOBENZENE 495-54-5 C12H12N4
COUMARIN 7 COUMARIN 7 27425-55-4 C20H19N3O2
METANIL YELLOW METANIL YELLOW 587-98-4 C18H14N3NaO3S
DIRECT SCARLET B DIRECT SCARLET B 3530-19-6 C30H22N4Na2O8S2
Basic Brown 1 Basic Brown 1 10114-58-6 C18H20Cl2N8
Acid Blue 129 Acid Blue 129 6397-02-0 C23H19N2NaO5S
Direct Black 38 Direct Black 38 1937-37-7 C34H25N9Na2O7S2
Disperse Red 54 Disperse Red 54 12217-86-6 C19H18ClN5O4
Acid Black 1 Acid Black 1 1064-48-8 C22H14N6Na2O9S2
AURAMINE O AURAMINE O 2465-27-2 C17H22ClN3
Acid Blue 83 Acid Blue 83 6104-59-2 C45H44N3NaO7S2
Acid Violet 17 Acid Violet 17 4129-84-4 C41H44N3NaO6S2
CI 63010 CI 63010 2861-02-1 C14H8N2Na2O10S2
Acid Black 234 Acid Black 234 157577-99-6 C34H26N10Na2O9S3
Tracid Brilliant Red B Tracid Brilliant Red B 6416-66-6 C29H20ClN3Na2O10S3
Acid Blue 90 Acid Blue 90 6104-58-1 C47H48N3NaO7S2
Basic Red 1 Basic Red 1 989-38-8 C28H31ClN2O3
ACID RED 13 ACID RED 13 2302-96-7 C20H12N2Na2O7S2
Methylene Blue Methylene Blue 61-73-4 C16H18ClN3S
CHLORAZOL VIOLET N CHLORAZOL VIOLET N 2586-60-9 C32H22N6Na2O8S2
DIRECT PURE YELLOW 5G DIRECT PURE YELLOW 5G 10130-29-7 C24H19N4NaO5S2
ACID VIOLET 7 ACID VIOLET 7 4321-69-1 C20H16N4Na2O9S2
DISPERSE ORANGE 13 DISPERSE ORANGE 13 6253-10-7 C22H16N4O
Basic Green 1 Basic Green 1 633-03-4 C27H34N2O4S
Solvent Yellow 82 Solvent Yellow 82 12227-67-7
Solvent Black 27 Solvent Black 27 12237-22-8
Basic Green 4 Basic Green 4 2437-29-8 C52H54N4O12
Acid chrome blue K Acid chrome blue K 3270-25-5 C16H9N2Na3O12S3
Orange IV Orange IV 554-73-4 C18H14N3NaO3S
ACID BLUE 119 ACID BLUE 119 30586-13-1 C37H29N3O3S
Eriochrome Black T Eriochrome Black T 1787-61-7 C20H12N3NaO7S
Solvent Red 26 Solvent Red 26 4477-79-6 C25H22N4O
Solvent Black 3 Solvent Black 3 4197-25-5 C29H24N6
1-(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-3-(5-amino-2-chloroanilino)-5-pyrazolone 1-(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-3-(5-amino-2-chloroanilino)-5-pyrazolone 53411-33-9 C15H10Cl4N4O
Solvent Violet 36 Solvent Violet 36 61951-89-1
Basic Red 2 Basic Red 2 477-73-6 C20H19ClN4
ACID BLUE 120 ACID BLUE 120 3529-01-9 C33H23N5Na2O6S2
ORANGE G ORANGE G 1936-96-5 C16H10N2Na2O7S2
Disperse Yellow 54 Disperse Yellow 54 12223-85-7 C18H11NO3
Ethyl 3-ethoxy-3-iminopropionate hydrochloride Ethyl 3-ethoxy-3-iminopropionate hydrochloride 2318-25-4 C7H14ClNO3
Solvent Yellow 2 Solvent Yellow 2 60-11-7 C14H15N3
CI 13015 CI 13015 2706-28-7 C12H9N3Na2O6S2
Acid Red 87 Acid Red 87 17372-87-1 C20H6Br4Na2O5
Sudan I Sudan I 842-07-9 C16H12N2O
Disperse Yellow 3 Disperse Yellow 3 2832-40-8 C15H15N3O2
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