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Acetone Basic information
Introduction Uses Production Health Effects
Product Name:Acetone
Synonyms:ACETONE ALCOHOL;GRAMS DECOLORIZER;GRAM STAIN NO 3;(CH3)2CO;2-Propanon;aceton;aceton(german,dutch,polish);Acetone oil
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Mol File:67-64-1.mol
Acetone Structure
Acetone Chemical Properties
Melting point -94 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 56 °C760 mm Hg(lit.)
density 0.791 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 184 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index n20/D 1.359(lit.)
Fp 1 °F
storage temp. Store at RT.
pka19.3(at 25℃)
form Liquid
color Colorless, invisible vapor
Relative polarity0.355
Water Solubility soluble
Merck 14,66
BRN 63580
CAS DataBase Reference67-64-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceAcetone(67-64-1)
EPA Substance Registry System2-Propanone(67-64-1)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes F,Xi,T
Risk Statements 11-36-66-67-39/23/24/25-23/24/25
Safety Statements 9-16-26-45-36/37-7
RIDADR UN 1090 3/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
RTECS AL3150000
HazardClass 3
PackingGroup II
HS Code 29141100
Hazardous Substances Data67-64-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
Acetone English
Acetone Usage And Synthesis
IntroductionAcetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the group of chemical compounds known as ketones. It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid.
Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important laboratory solvent for cleaning purposes. Acetone is a highly effective solvent for many organic compounds such as Methanol, ethanol, ether, chloroform, pyridine, etc., and is the active ingredient in nail polish remover. It is also used to make various plastics, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals.
Acetone exists in nature in the Free State. In the plants, it mainly exists in essential oils, such as tea oil, rosin essential oil, citrus oil, etc.; human urine and blood and animal urine, marine animal tissue and body fluids contain a small amount of acetone.
  • An important organic raw material in the chemical, artificial fiber, medicine, paint, plastics, organic glass, cosmetics and other industries; an excellent organic solvent that dissolves many organic products such as resin, cellulose acetate, acetylene and so on.
  • An important raw material for the synthesis of ketene, acetic anhydride, iodoform, polyisoprene rubber, methacrylic acid, methyl ester, chloroform, and epoxy resins.
  • The acetone cyanohydrin obtained from the reaction of acetone with hydrocyanic acid is the raw material of methacrylic resin (perspex).
  • A raw material in the production of epoxy resin intermediate bisphenol A.
  • In pharmaceuticals, acetone is used as extractants for a variety of vitamins and hormones in addition to vitamin C, and dewaxing solvents for petroleum refining.
  • A raw material for nail polish remover in cosmetics
  • One of the raw materials for synthesizing pyrethroids in pesticide industry
  • Acetone is often used to wipe the black ink above the copper tube in the precision copper tube industry.
ProductionIn 1913, the United Kingdom developed a method for fermenting cereals to produce acetone and butanol. In 1920, the dehydrogenation of isopropanol (synthesized by hydration of propylene) appeared. From 1953 to 1955, the United States Hercules and the British Distilling Company jointly developed the cumene process method, thereafter, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands also developed other methods. Now, Most of the worldwide industrial production of acetone (and phenol) is based on the cumene process, which uses benzene and propylene as raw materials, via cumene intermediates, then oxidized, hydrolyzed to produce acetone and co-produced phenol.

Acetone is mainly used as an organic solvent and methyl methacrylate (the main raw material for organic glass).In the United States and Western Europe, the two accounts for 70% of the total consumption. It is used for bisphenol A, accounting for 10% to 15%, and the others 15% % to 20%.
Health EffectsSummary: Acetone is mainly responsible for the inhibition and anesthesia of the central nervous system and exposure to high concentrations may cause liver, kidney, and pancreas impair to particular people. Because of its low toxicity, rapid metabolism and detoxification, acute poisoning under production conditions is rare. In case acute poisoning happens, symptoms of vomiting, shortness of breath, paralysis, and even coma can occur. After oral administration, burning sensation in the lips and throat may occur after hours of incubation, such as dry mouth, vomiting, drowsiness, acidity and ketosis, and even temporary disturbance of consciousness. The long-term damage of acetone to the human body is manifested as irritation to the eyes such as tearing, photophobia and infiltration of the corneal epithelium, as well as dizziness, burning sensation, throat irritation, and coughing.

Metabolism in the body: After being absorbed by the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin, acetone is easily absorbed into the bloodstream due to its high water solubility and is rapidly distributed throughout the body. The excretion depends on the dose. When the dose is large, the main tract is mainly through the lungs and kidneys, and a very small amount is discharged through the skin. When the dose is small, most of them are oxidized into carbon dioxide. The biological half-life of acetone in blood is 5.3 h for rats, 11 h for dogs, and 3 h for humans. The metabolites of acetone in the human body are mostly a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate that is decomposed to acetoacetate and converted to glycogen.
Chemical PropertiesColorless liquid
UsesAcetone′s luminesence intensity is dependent upon the solution components 1. The absorption of UV light by acetone, results in its photolysis and the production of radials 1.
UsesSuitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, environmental testing
UsesUsed in liquid chromotography; cleaning glassware; extraction of solid waste.
UsesSolvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, rubber, plastics, lacquers, varnishes, rubber cements. manufacture of methyl isobutyl ketone, mesityl oxide, acetic acid (ketene process), diacetone alcohol, chloroform, iodoform, bromoform, explosives, aeroplane dopes, rayon, photographic films, isoprene; storing acetylene gas (takes up about 24 times its vol of the gas); extraction of various principles from animal and plant substances; in paint and varnish removers; purifying paraffin; hardening and dehydrating tissues. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent).
DefinitionChEBI: A methyl ketone that consists of propane bearing an oxo group at C2.
General DescriptionA clear colorless liquid with a sweetish odor. Flash point 0°F. Less dense than water. Vapors are heavier than air. Used as a solvent in paint and nail polish removers.
Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Water soluble.
Reactivity ProfileAcetone was reported that a mixture of Acetone and chloroform, in a residue bottle, exploded. Since addition of Acetone to chloroform in the presence of base will result in a highly exothermic reaction, Acetone is thought that a base was in the bottle [MCA Case History 1661. 1970]. Also, Nitrosyl chloride, sealed in a tube with a residue of Acetone in the presence of platinum catalyst, gave an explosive reaction [Chem. Eng. News 35(43):60. 1967]. The reaction of nitrosyl perchlorate and Acetone ignites and explodes. Explosions occur with mixtures of nitrosyl perchlorate and primary amine [Ann. Chem. 42:2031. 1909]. Reacts violently with nitric acid. Also causes exothermic reaction when in contact with aldehydes.
Health HazardINHALATION: vapor irritating to eyes and mucous membranes; acts as an anesthetic in very high concentrations. INGESTION: low order of toxicity but very irritating to mucous membranes. SKIN: prolonged excessive contact causes defatting of the skin, possibly leading to dermatitis.
Fire HazardHIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Tag:Acetone(67-64-1) Related Product Information
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