|Benzophenone Chemical Properties|
|mp ||47-51 °C(lit.)|
|bp ||305 °C(lit.)|
|vapor density ||4.21 (vs air)|
|vapor pressure ||1 mm Hg ( 108 °C)|
|refractive index ||1.5893|
|Fp ||>230 °F|
|storage temp. ||Refrigerator|
|Water Solubility ||insoluble (<0.1 g/100 mL at 25 ºC)|
|Stability:||Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents. Combustible.|
|CAS DataBase Reference||119-61-9(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|NIST Chemistry Reference||Benzophenone(119-61-9)|
|EPA Substance Registry System||Methanone, diphenyl-(119-61-9)|
|Benzophenone Usage And Synthesis|
|Outline||Benzophenone appears as colorless prismatic crystals, with sweetness and aroma of roses, melting point is 47-49 ℃, the relative density is 1.1146, refractive index is 1.6077. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and other organic solvents and monomers, insoluble in water. It is a free radical photoinitiator, are mainly used in free radical UV curing systems , such as coatings, inks, adhesives and so on, and also used as the intermediates of organic pigments, pharmaceuticals, perfume, and insecticide . In the pharmaceutical industry, it is mainly used for the production of bicyclic Piperidine Benztropine hydrobromide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride. This product is styrene polymerization inhibitor and perfume fixative agent, to impart a sweet flavor with spices, widely used in the perfume and soap flavor. Attentions should be paid to the products to prevent moisture, sun , heat in the storage and transportation process, the temperature should not exceed 45 ℃.|
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Tian Ye.
|Benzophenone in the fields of sunscreen cosmetics applications||Sunscreen cosmetics is the hot new products of cosmetics, almost all sunscreens contain benzophenone compound on the current market. Benzophenone compounds that protect the skin from harm, often is used to produce high product. In recent years, the cosmetics consumption of benzophenone grows continuesly. Recent studies suggest that fluorescence is also a harmful ultraviolet light source, so benzophenone expands the range of applications in the field of cosmetics, it has been extended to hair conditioners, lotions and lipsticks. In addition, the perfume fixative agent also can give spice sweet flavor, is used in many perfumes and soap flavor. |
Banana Boat company has developed a UVA ultraviolet-absorbing technology called AvoTriplex, which is benzophenone-based, adding a stabilizer to prevent the benzophenone from breaking down in the sun. Enhancer is also added into the formula, and stabilizer may act synergistically, to optimize benzophenone sunscreen capacity.
|Synthesis and kinetics study of high molecular weight benzophenone photoinitiator||Using 4-hydroxy benzophenone (HBP), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 4,4'- dihydroxy benzophenone (DHBP) as raw material, synthesis of a high molecular weight benzophenone photoinitiator is carried out through a two-step reaction: HBP-TDI-DHBP-TDI-HBP (HTDTH). The polymerization kinetics of HTDTH is studied via real-time infrared light, the result shows that HTDTH is an effective photoinitiator. While using HTDTH/ amine photoinitiator system to trigger tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) polymerization, the amine and initiator concentration increases, the reaction rate (Rp) and the final monomer conversion rate (P) increases at the same time. |
[ Imaging Science and Photochemistry] 2008 vol. 26 (04)
Author: Wang camp, Pu Xiao, Deming, the Wugang Qiang, Shi Suqing, Nie Jun.
|Anhydrous indicator||Benzophenone is widely used in the synthesis experiment as an indicator, it can be used as a indicator while handling toluene, benzene, THF, acetonitrile ect.; if there is a beautiful blue after added, it can be distillated and used, it is the best to kept in sodium, but the reason of generating blue is still a puzzle. |
Here is the reason from a foreign book about reactions mechanism : 'a radical anion generated by the one called carbonyl radical, benzophenone acts as the indicator is that benzophenone oxygen atoms in sodium capture electrons to generate dark blue carbonyl radical; the radicals perspective on the electrical aspect is stable, mainly used to indicate 'anaerobic conditions',Widely used.
After the addition of benzophenone, more blue of the solution, indicating less oxygen in the solution, indirectly instructing the little water. However, whether the solution turns blue, is related to the added amount of benzophenone and processing solvent, THF (300ml) contains lots of water, and needs more than about 6 hours to reflux, and of course, it is related to the amount of processing solvent, the more the longer, toluene , benzene and other samples containing less aqueous need less reflux time, it is best to add the common desiccants to pretreat, such as: potassium carbonate, sodium sulfate, sodium hydroxide, etc., so that the processing time will be shortened.
|The maximum amount of food additives permitted maximum allowable residue limits|
|Chemical Properties||Shiny white prismatic crystals with a sweet taste, smell like a rose, melting point is 47-49 ℃, boiling point is 306 ℃, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform.
|Application||1. Uses for photosensitive resins, coatings and adhesives. |
2. GB 2760--1996 allows it for the use of food with spices. Mainly used for the preparation of vanilla, butter and other flavor and as a fixative agent.
3. It can be used as a fixative. Its weak sweet bay leaves fragrant , can be widely used in low-grade flavors, such as roses, bay leaves, sweet curd, shy flower, lily of the valley, sunflower, orchid, hawthorn flowers, incense and Wei Oriental flavor and other flavors. It is also used as an antioxidant in soaps, and occasionally used for almonds, berries, fruit, butter, nuts, peaches, vanilla beans and other food flavors in trace amount.
4. Benzophenone is an intermediate of UV absorbers, organic pigments, pharmaceuticals, perfume, insecticide . It is used for the production of bicyclic Piperidine Benztropine hydrobromide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride in the pharmaceutical industry . The product itself is a styrene polymerization inhibitor and a perfume fixative. Giving sweet taste to flavors, it is used in many perfumes and soap flavors.
5. It is commonly used in soap flavor, used in ultraviolet absorbers, pigments, pharmaceuticals and reagents production, and also is low temperature fast curing agent for fluorine rubber.
6. UV-curable coatings and inks.
7. It is light initiator for UV products, pharmaceutical intermediates, fragrances, light stabilizers etc.
8. It is light pigment, medicine, perfume, pesticides intermediates, it can also be used for UV-curable resins, inks and coatings initiator.
|Production method||There are different methods. 1. Condensation of benzyl chloride and benzene , and then by nitric acid oxidation. 2. The condensation of benzene and carbon tetrachloride, and then by hydrolysis. In the laboratory, the production is based on aluminum chloride as a catalyst, prepared by reacting benzene with benzoyl chloride.3.Condensation of benzene and benzoyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride, and then crystallized from ethanol.
|Acute toxicity||Oral - mouse LD50: 2895 mg / kg; intraperitoneal - Mouse LD50: 727 mg / kg.
|Chemical Properties||Orange Crystals|
|Usage||Reported to bind monsaccharides in the presence of polysaccharides|
|Usage||It is used in the manufacturing of antihistamines, hypnotics, insecticides.|
|Explosive hazardous characteristics||It reacts violently with oxidants.
|Flammability hazard characteristics||It is heat flammable; burning with irritating smoke.
|Storage Characteristics||Ventilation, low-temperature, dry|
|Extinguishing agent||Dry powder, foam, sand, carbon dioxide, water spray.
|General Description||White solid with a flowery odor. May float or sink in water.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Insoluble in water.|
|Reactivity Profile||Ketones, such as Benzophenone, are reactive with many acids and bases liberating heat and flammable gases (e.g., H2). The amount of heat may be sufficient to start a fire in the unreacted portion of the ketone. Ketones react with reducing agents such as hydrides, alkali metals, and nitrides to produce flammable gas (H2) and heat. Ketones are incompatible with isocyanates, aldehydes, cyanides, peroxides, and anhydrides. They react violently with aldehydes, HNO3, HNO3 + H2O2, and HClO4. Benzophenone can react with oxidizing materials.|
|Health Hazard||Ingestion causes gastrointestinal disturbances. Contact causes eye irritation and, if prolonged, irritation of skin.|
|Fire Hazard||Flash point data for Benzophenone are not available, but Benzophenone is probably combustible.|
|Benzophenone Preparation Products And Raw materials|