|Tamoxifen citrate Chemical Properties|
|Tamoxifen citrate Usage And Synthesis|
|Overview||Tamoxifen citrate(Tamoxifen, abbreviation TCT ), is an estrogen competitive antagonist and non-steroidal anti-estrogen drug. It can compete with estrogen (estradiol) to combine with estrogen receptor of breast cancer cells, inhibiting the effect of estrogen on cancer cells, and stunting growth and development of tumor cells to show anticancer effects. Clinically Tamoxifen citrate is commonly used to treat various types of breast cancer, especially for postmenopausal breast cancer women with the positive of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and with low prostate-specific antigen levels.|
|Mechanism of action||TCT has cis-trans isomers, whose cis isomer shows a weak estrogenic effect, while the trans isomer has an anti-estrogenic effect. When early application of Tamoxifen or existence of low concentration, it binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) in cytoplasm, showing a weak estrogenic effect. After TCT entering into cell nucleus, it can inhibit transcription and synthesis of nuclear ER, generating a lasting anti-estrogen effect. The study found that many new features of TCT were related to the mechanism of action which was beyond its competitive estrogen receptors-membrane regulating mechanisms. TCT as the membrane modifier, can reduce cell circulation. On this basis, TCT can also serve as an antioxidant to protect cell membranes and human LDL from happening oxidative damage.|
|Pharmacodynamics||The oral absorption of TCT is slow, plasma concentration reaches peak at 3 to 6 hours. After absorbed in the liver, Tamoxifen citrate is metabolized into N-demethyl tamoxifen whose activity is similar to Tamoxifen citrate. The half-life of Tamoxifen citrate is 5 to 7 days, and its metabolite N-demethyl tamoxifen is 7 to 14 days. Animal experiments show that tamoxifen citrate and N-demethyl tamoxifen cycle in extensive enterohepatic. As for single oral dose of TCT 20mg, its peak of plasma concentration is approximately 40 ng/ml (range; 67~183ng/ml) and 336ng ml (range: 148~654ng/ml). Steady-state plasma concentration of tamoxifen citrate is needed continuous administration for 3 to 4 weeks, and N-demethyl tamoxifen is generally needed continuous administration for 3 to 8 weeks. Tamoxifen citrate and most other metabolites are mainly excreted in feces, small part metabolites are excreted in the urine.|
|Clinical application||1. Treatment of breast cancer. |
2. Prevention of breast cancer.
3. Anti-tumor and anti-multidrug resistance.
By reducing membrane negotiability and enhancing rigidity of inter-cell binding site, Tamoxifen citrate can reduce concentration and activity of cancer metastasis promoter and various activating enzymes, so as to inhibit or hinder growth and metastasis of cancer cell. In addition, it can promote cells surrounding tumor focus to secrete a negative growth factor-transforming growth factor TGF-G, inhibiting multiply indefinitely of cancer cells; inhibiting oxidative damage of DNA bases which is caused by hydrogen peroxide generated from human neutrophils. So except for breast cancer, it is good for treatment and prevention of other malignant neoplasms, and is used for treatment of brain tumors, liver cancer, prostate cancer, etc. In addition, Tamoxifen citrate can reduce release effect of membrane P170 glycoprotein through reducing membrane negotiability, improving intracellular effective concentration of cytotoxic drug and reducing drug resistance.
4. Heart protection.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Liu Yujie.
|Side effects||Common slight side effects includes nausea, vomiting and facial flushing etc.|
|Uses||For the treatment of advanced and recurrent breast cancer and ovarian cancer, etc.|
|Chemical Properties||white to off-white powder|
|Usage||estrogen antagonist, antineoplastic|
|Usage||anti-estrogen, protein kinase C inhibitor, beneficial cardiovascular effects, bone cancer treatment, induces DNA adduct formation|
|Usage||An antiestrogen with potent anti-cancer and PKC inhibitory activities|
|Biological Activity||Estrogen receptor antagonist/partial agonist. Selective and potent inhibitor of mammalian sterol isomerase. Neuroprotective in female rats in vivo . Also high affinity agonist at the membrane estrogen receptor GPR30.|
|Tamoxifen citrate Preparation Products And Raw materials|