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Sodium hydroxide

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CAS:1310-73-2
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CAS:1310-73-2
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CAS:1310-73-2
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CAS:1310-73-2
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CAS:1310-73-2
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Sodium hydroxide Basic information
Characteristic Uses Solubility Solubility in water (g / 100ml) The reaction with carbon dioxide How to test that the reaction of sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide can generate water? Industrial production method Handmade sodium hydroxide should select reagent grade or industrial grade? Identification test Content Analysis Toxicity Limited use The maximum allowed amount as food additives and maximum allowable residue limits Chemical Properties Uses Production method Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Data irritation Flammability and hazard characteristics Storage characteristics Extinguishing agent Professional standards
Product Name:Sodium hydroxide
Synonyms:Aetznatron;Augus hot rod;causticflake;causticsoda,bead;causticsoda,bead(dot);causticsoda,dry(dot);causticsoda,flake(dot);causticsoda,granular(dot)
CAS:1310-73-2
MF:HNaO
MW:40
EINECS:231-659-4
Product Categories:INORGANIC & ORGANIC CHEMICALS;Inorganics;Adsorbents, Filter Aids and Drying Agents;Ascarite;Chromatography/CE Reagents;Eluent concentrates for ICAlphabetic;Ion Chromatography;S;SN - SZ;Puriss p.a. ACS;Q-S, Puriss p.a. ACS;Base solutionsCosmetics;Allergens;Other AdditivesVolumetric Solutions;HPLC;HPLC Buffer;HPLC Buffers;HPLC Buffers - SolutionChromatography/CE Reagents;Solution;Base SolutionsTitration;Base solutionsVolumetric Solutions;Solution containers (VOLPAC);Base ConcentratesConcentrates (e.g. FIXANAL);Reference Material Hydrochloric acid;By Reference Material;Concentrates (e.g. FIXANAL);Titration;Pure Reagents for Wet Digestion (Trace SELECT)Essential Chemicals;TraceSelect;Acids&Bases;Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS);Digestion Reagents;Essential Chemicals;Reagent Grade;Base Solutions;Volumetric Solutions;Analytical Reagents for General Use;Puriss p.a.;Q-S, Puriss p.a.;Electrode BuffersCell Culture;Isoelectric Focusing and Two Dimensional Electrophoresis;Miscellaneous Reagents and Supplements;Reagents and Supplements;BioUltraMolecular Biology;DNA&RNA Purification;Molecular Biology;Molecular Biology Reagents;Reagents;Capillary Electrophoresis;Capillary Isoelectric Focusing;Protein Electrophoresis;metal hydroxide;alkali;inorganic alkali;inorganic chemical raw material
Mol File:1310-73-2.mol
Sodium hydroxide Structure
Sodium hydroxide Chemical Properties
mp 681 °C(lit.)
bp 145 °C
density 1.515 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor density <1 (vs air)
vapor pressure 1 mm Hg ( 745 °C)
refractive index 1,473-1,475
storage temp. 2-8°C
solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form beads
Water Solubility SOLUBLE
Sensitive Air Sensitive & Hygroscopic
Merck 14,8627
CAS DataBase Reference1310-73-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceSodium hydroxide(1310-73-2)
EPA Substance Registry SystemSodium hydroxide (Na(OH))(1310-73-2)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes C,Xi
Risk Statements 36/38-35-34
Safety Statements 26-45-37/39-24/25-36/37/39
RIDADR UN 1824 8/PG 2
WGK Germany 1
RTECS TT2975000
8
HazardClass 8
PackingGroup II
Hazardous Substances Data1310-73-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Sodium hydroxide Usage And Synthesis
CharacteristicPure anhydrous sodium hydroxide is white translucent, crystalline solid with strong corrosive property. It is hydroscopic and can be used as a kind of desiccant but can’t be used for dry sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen chloride gas. It is also easy to subject to deliquescence in the air. Sodium hydroxide is very easily soluble in water with solubility increasing with the increasing temperature and dissolving being able to release a lot of heat. Upon 288K, its saturated solution concentration can reach 16.4mol/L (1:1). Its solution exhibits astringency and creamy feeling and is strongly alkaline with all the property of alkali. Commercially available caustic soda includes both solid type and liquid type: pure solid caustic soda is white, bulk, flake, rod, granular, and crisp; pure liquid caustic soda is colorless and transparent liquid. Sodium hydroxide is also easily soluble in ethanol and glycerol but insoluble in ether, acetone, and liquid ammonia. It has corrosive effect on fiber, skin, glass, and ceramics with dissolving or dilution of concentrated solution being able to release heat; its neutralization reaction of inorganic acid can produce a lot of heat to form the corresponding salts; it can react with metal aluminum and zinc metal, non-metallic boron and silicon to release hydrogen; it can also have disproportionation reaction with chlorine, bromine, iodine and the other halogen. It can precipitate the metal ions from the aqueous solution to generate hydroxides; it can have saponification reaction with oil to generate corresponding organic acid salt and ethanol which is the basic principle for removing the oil on the fabric.
UsesIndustrial-purpose sodium hydroxide should meet the national standard GB 209-2006; the caustic soda produced from industrial-used ion-exchange membrane method should meet the national standard GB/T11199-89; fiber used sodium hydroxide should meet the national standard 11212-89; edible sodium hydroxide should meet the national standard GB 5175-85.
In industry, sodium hydroxide is commonly referred to as caustic soda. This is because when concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is spilled to the skin, it will corrode the skin surface and cause burn wound. It has dissolving ability on protein. It is strongly irritant and corrosive (because of its proteins dissolution, compared with the acid burn wound, alkali burn wound is more difficult for healing). When 0.02% solution gets into the rabbit eyes, it can cause corneal epithelial damage. Intraperitoneal-mice LD50: 40 mg / kg, rabbit-oral LDLo: 500 mg/kg. Its dust can stimulate eye and respiratory tract and cause nasal septum corrosion; when spilled on the skin, especially spilled to the mucous membranes, it can result in soft crust and can penetrate deep tissue which leaving scars after burns; when being splashed into eyes, it can not only damage the cornea, but also destroy the deep tissue of eyes with causing blindness in severe cases; Misuse can cause gastrointestinal burns, colic, mucosal erosion, vomiting of hemorrhagic stomach content, bloody diarrhea, and sometimes hoarse occur, difficulty swallowing, shock, gastrointestinal perforation, as well as intestinal stenosis in late period. Owing to the strong alkaline, it can result in water pollution. Plants and aquatic organisms should be pay special attention.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
SolubilityAt room temperature, the solubility of sodium hydroxide is 53g, that is, 100 grams of water can dissolve 53 g of sodium hydroxide
The solubility curve data of sodium hydroxide
Temperature 0,102,030,405,060,708,090 100
Solubility g 42 51 109 119 129 145 174 299 314 329 347
Source: "Handbook of Chemistry Gram"
The solubility of sodium hydroxide in ethanol;
Very small, if it is 95% alcohol, it can dissolve a small portion. It is almost insoluble in anhydrous alcohol.
Solubility in water (g / 100ml)Solubility per 100 ml of water at different temperatures (℃) in grams:
98g / 10 ℃; 109g / 20 ℃; 119g / 30 ℃; 129g / 40 ℃; 174g / 60 ℃
The reaction with carbon dioxideNormally: 2NaOH + CO2 = Na2CO3 + H2O
Excess amount of carbon dioxide: Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O = 2NaHCO3
How to test that the reaction of sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide can generate water?1, adding a gram of water (or a mL) in a flask, weigh b gram of CuSO4 (should be enough) in another separate flask.
2, dissolve a certain quality of NaOH solid in a gram of water.
3, pass through an appropriate amount (should not in excess for preventing producing sodium bicarbonate) pre-dried carbon dioxide into the resulting solution.
4, Take the resulting product for heating to evaporate water (mouth flask plus single-pole plug).
5, the evaporated water vapor was introduced into the original weighed b g of anhydrous copper sulfate solution until the original solution was totally evaporated to dryness.
6, weigh the copper sulfate which becomes blue after water absorption, is c g.
If c-b> a, it means that water has formed during the reaction.
Industrial production method1, filter the seawater
2, add excess amount of sodium hydroxide to remove calcium and magnesium ions, filter Ca + 2OH = Ca (OH) 2 (slightly soluble) Mg + 2OH = Mg (OH) 2 ↓
3, add excess amount of barium chloride and remove the sulfate ions, filtrate: Ba + SO4 (2 -) = BaSO4 ↓
4, add excess amount of sodium carbonate and remove excess amount of calcium, barium ion, filtered Ca + CO3 = CaCO3 ↓ Ba + CO3 = BaCO3 ↓
5, add an appropriate amount of hydrochloric acid and remove excess carbonate ions 2H + CO3 = CO2 ↑ + H2O
6, heat and purge carbon dioxide
7, add it into the ion exchange column and further remove calcium and magnesium ions
8, perform electrolysis 2NaCl + 2H2O = (electric) H2 ↑ + Cl2 ↑ + 2NaOH
Handmade sodium hydroxide should select reagent grade or industrial grade?Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one of the major raw materials for cold manufacturing of handmade Soap. Sodium hydroxide has different grades. It can be roughly divided into: "Industrial" and "reagent grade" (chemically pure, analytical grade).
The major difference between "Industrial" and "reagent grade" is the purity of sodium hydroxide. "Reagent grade" has a higher purity than the "industrial-grade". Generally the purity of "industrial" purity is mostly 98% or lower while the purity of "reagent grade" can reach more than 99%; The reagent grade contains less content of other substances such as iron, magnesium, chlorine, aluminum, potassium, nitrogen, arsenic, sulfuric acid, sodium carbonate, etc., so that during the usage, it will only change the result of chemical reaction little while the industrial grade containing more than substance.
When dissolving sodium hydroxide, "reagent grade" is also less likely to have the taste of nose irritating; in addition, the higher the purity, the more expensive the price is.
The general principle is that: both these two grades are OK; if you do not care about the cost, it is recommended to choose high purity "reagent grade", chemically pure, analytical grade are both OK. If you want to reduce costs, then you can choose lower purity "industrial grade” and convert the impure part during the calculation.
Typically laboratory uses reagent grade chemicals; high purity products include chemically pure and analytical grade. The purity of analytical grade is very high. Choose different chemical reagent grade according to the actual experimental requirements. Of course, the higher the grade, the higher the price is.
Industrial grade is for industry purpose. But industrial grade is not necessarily bad. For raw material like NaOH which is widely applied in general, it often has high purity, up to 99%. Most of the remaining (less than 1%) impurities are salt. The effect of the rest trace elements on the soap is minimal.
Industrial grade is certainly not suitable for trace instrumentation analysis because the trace amounts of impurities can lead to errors on the analysis. But it is Ok for be applied to the synthesis of soap.
The important thing is that we must know the purity of NaOH in order to facilitate the correct measurement. Many products are packed and thus should has their content known clear so that you can avoid over-irritation due to overuse of NaOH or the rancidity due to insufficient saponification caused by insufficient amount of NaOH. By comparison, the choice of the oil grade is even more important. Because upon making soap, many people are used to add other substances with an even lower purity and so it is possible to ignore the impurities accounting for 1-2% NaOH. It is cheap to apply industrial-grade NaOH and there is no problem for actually use it. Thus for making soap, it is enough to use NaOH of industrial grade.
Identification testAqueous samples can have OH- dissociated and exhibit strongly alkaline reaction.
The result of the sodium test (IT-28) of 4% sample liquid should be positive.
Content AnalysisPreparation of the sample solution: take a weighing bottle of known weight for quickly weighing solid sample of 38g士1g or liquid sample of 50 g with the weighing accuracy being 0.01g; Place it in 100ml beaker and dissolve it with water and transfer it to 1000 ml volumetric flask, dilute with water to be close to the scale; add to constant volume and mix uniformly after cooling to room temperature.
Process for measurement; take sample of 50 ml and inject into 250ml stoppered flask, add 10 mL of 10% barium chloride solution (V/V, before using, use phenolphthalein as an indicator and adjust with sodium hydroxide to reddish solution), further add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein test solution (TS-167), under magnetic stirring, apply 1mol/L hydrochloric acid solution for sealed titration to the reddish standard solution endpoint. c-the concentration of hydrochloric acid standard solution, mol / L
Amount m-- sample, g;
V-- Consumption amount of hydrochloric acid standard solution, m1;
0.040-- per mmol of sodium hydroxide amount, g.
ToxicityADI does not make restrictive regulations (FAO / WHO, 2001).
GRAS (FDA, §184. 1763, 2000);
LD50500mg / kg (rabbit, orally).
It is extremely corrosive with its solution or dust spilled on the skin, especially splashed into mucous membrane being able to produce soft crust and penetrate deep tissue. Burn can often leave scar in the wound place. When it is splashed into the eyes of people, it can not only damage the cornea, but also destroy the eye deep tissue damage. If accidentally splashed on skin, immediately rinse with water for 10mim; if it is splashed into the eyes, immediately rinse with water or saline for 15 min, and then apply 2% novocaine. In severe cases, immediately send the patients to the hospital for treatment.
The maximal allowable concentration of caustic dust in the air should be 0.5 mg / m3.
The operators should wear overalls, masks, protective glasses, and rubber in sets, rubber apron, gumboots and other protective clothing. The worker should be painted with neutral and hydrophobic ointment on the skin. Production workshop should be well ventilated.
Limited useGB 2760-96: processing aids, GMP.
FAO / WHO (1984): artificial butter (by GMP); butter and whey butter, the maximum amount is 2g/kg (on dry solid basis, only for adjusting Ph).
The maximum allowed amount as food additives and maximum allowable residue limitsThe maximum allowed amount as food additives and maximum allowable residue limits
Chemical PropertiesThe pure product is colorless and transparent crystal. It is easily soluble in water, and strongly exothermic. It can also be dissolved in ethanol and glycerol but is insoluble in acetone, ether. Upon exposure to the air, it will eventually be completely dissolved into solution.
Chemical PropertiesWhite solid
UsesIt is basic chemical raw materials and can be used as high-purity reagents and widely used in chemical, metallurgy, paper, petroleum, textile and household chemicals and other sectors.
It can be used in the production of paper and cellulose pulp; it can also be used in the production of soaps, synthetic fatty acid and the refining of synthetic detergents. In cotton textile industry, it can be used as de-sizing agent, scouring agent and mercerizing agent. In the field of chemical industry, it can be used for the production of borax, sodium cyanide, formic acid, oxalic acid, phenol and the like. In the field of petroleum industry, it can be used to refine petroleum products and applied to the mud drilling in oil field. It can also be used in the production of the surface treatment agent of aluminum oxide, metal zinc and metal copper and glass, enamel, leather, pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides. In the fool industry, food-grade product can be used as an acid neutralizer, and can also be used as the peeling agents, bleaching agents, and deodorant of citrus and peaches.
It can be used as analysis reagents, saponification agent, and the absorbent of a small amount of carbon dioxide and as well as used for manufacturing of sodium.
It can be used in textile, printing and dyeing, enamel, paper, synthetic detergents, pesticides, metallurgy, food, rubber and other industries.
It is basic chemical raw material which is widely used in chemical industry, metallurgy, paper, petroleum, textile and household chemicals and other sectors.
For the analysis, it can be used for acid calibration.
It is mainly used for mucus method rayon, synthetic fibers, dyes intermediates, rubber regeneration, fabric dyeing, paper, soap, leather, etc.
It can used as the acid neutralizing agent for being as peeling agent for the processing of fruit but also as the detergent of bottles, cans and other containers. Apply proper amount according to the necessity of the production.
Usagebasic and important chemical feed.used asm textiles industry,printing, detergent,paper-making, soap-mak inmetallurgy, glass enamel,medica mentoil-refining and making synthetic fiber,plastics,and many kinds of organic-mediacy,
UsageCholine acetyltransferase substrate.
Production method1 Trona causticizing method
First crush the trona, dissolve, clarify, and then add the lime to the supernatant for causticization reaction; after the clarification, the resulting supernatant liquid was first subject to evaporation and further filtering to remove impurities in the salt; the filtrate was further evaporated for the second and filtered to remove salt; the final filtrate was brewed into caustic soda.
NaHO3 + Ca (OH) 2 → NaOH + H2O + CaCO3 ↓
2 Soda causticizing method
First dissolve the soda in water and mix with lime for causticization reaction. After the clarification of caustic solution, the supernatant was concentrated by evaporation to a certain concentration of liquid product which was further boiled down to obtain a solid product.
Na2CO3 + Ca (OH) 2 → 2NaOH + CaCO3 ↓
3. Diaphragm electrolysis
Dissolve the salt (sodium chloride) in water; add appropriate amount of soda ash, caustic soda and barium chloride to remove calcium, magnesium and sulfate ions, respectively. To accelerate the precipitation process, the lime can be added with bran type precipitant. Salt mud was filtered, washed with the washing water being used for dissolving salt. Supernatant was first subject sand filtration and neutralization with hydrochloric acid and send into electrolytic cell for electrolysis after being preheated. After the pre-evaporation of the electrolyte, filter to remove sodium chloride and other salts, and finally boil down it into a solid caustic soda.
2NaCl + 2H2O [electrolysis] → 2NaOH + Cl2 ↑ + H2 ↑
4. Ion exchange membrane method
After dissolving the salt, use traditional methods for refining salt water. Put the refined salt water through porous sintered carbon tube filter for filtering, and sent into chelating ion exchange resin column for secondary refining so that brine has the calcium and magnesium content reach down to 0.002% or less; the secondary refined brine is subject to electrolysis to produce chlorine in the anode chamber; the Na+ in the brine of anode chamber went through the membrane into the cathode chamber to react with the OH- in cathode chamber to generate sodium hydroxide while H + is directly discharged in the cathode to generate hydrogen. During the electrolysis process, add an appropriate amount of high pure hydrochloric acid to the anode chamber to neutralize the reverse migrated OH-; pure water should be added to the cathode chamber at the same time. High purity caustic soda of a concentration of 30% to 32% (mass) is produced in the cathode compartment and can be directly used as caustic products or further boiled down to get solid caustic soda.
2NaCl + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2 ↑ + Cl2 ↑
Categorycorrosive materials
Toxicity gradingtoxic
Acute toxicityabdominal- Mouse LD50: 40 mg / kg
Data irritationskin- rabbit 500 mg / 24 hours; severe; Eye - Rabbit 0.05 mg / 24 hours; severe
Flammability and hazard characteristicsit release heat upon acid neutralization or upon water.
Storage characteristicsTreasury: ventilation, low-temperature and drying; store it separately from flammable, combustible materials, and acids.
Extinguishing agentwater, yellow sand
Professional standardsTWA 2 mg / m3; STEL 2 mg / m3
General DescriptionA white solid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used in chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, cleaning compounds, drain cleaners.
Air & Water ReactionsSoluble in water. Dissolution can liberate enough heat to cause steaming and spattering and ignite adjacent combustible material [Haz. Chem. Data 1966].
Reactivity ProfileCAUSTIC SODA (Sodium hydroxide) is a strong base. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with acids, both organic and inorganic. Readily absorbs moisture from the air to give caustic semi-solids that attack aluminum and zinc with the evolution of flammable hydrogen gas. Catalyzes the polymerization of acetaldehyde and other polymerizable compounds; these reactions can occur violently, for example, acrolein polymerizes with extreme violence when put in contact with alkaline materials such as sodium hydroxide [Chem. Safety Data Sheet SD-85 1961]. Reacts with great violence with phosphorus pentaoxide when initiated by local heating [Mellor 8 Supp.3:406 1971]. Contact (as a drying agent) with tetrahydrofuran, which often contains peroxides, may be hazardous---explosions have occurred in such a use of the chemically similar potassium hydroxide [NSC Newsletter Chem. Soc. 1967]. Mixing with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: glacial acetic acid, acetic anhydride, acrolein, chlorohydrin, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene cyanohydrin, glyoxal, hydrochloric acid (36%), hydrofluoric acid (48.7%), nitric acid (70%), oleum, propiolactone, sulfuric acid (96%) [NFPA 1991]. Accidental contact between a caustic cleaning solution (probably containing sodium hydroxide) and Pentol caused a violent explosion. [MCA Case History 363(1964)]. Heating with a mixture of methyl alcohol and trichlorobenzene during an attempted synthesis led to a sudden increase in pressure and an explosion [MCA Guide for Safety Appendix 3 1972]. Hot and/or concentrated NaOH can cause hydroquinone to decompose exothermically at elevated temperature. (NFPA Pub. 491M, 1975, 385)
Health HazardStrong corrosive action on contacted tissues. INHALATION: dust may cause damage to upper respiratory tract and lung itself, producing from mild nose irritation to pneumonitis. INGESTION: severe damage to mucous membranes; severe scar formation or perforation may occur. EYE CONTACT: produces severe damage.
Fire HazardNon-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
Sodium hydroxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
Preparation Products6-AMINO-5-BROMOPYRIMIDIN-2(1H)-ONE-->DL-4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYMANDELIC ACID-->BENZYL 1-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE-->1-[(Benzyloxy)carbonyl]piperidine-4-carboxylic acid-->3-(Acetylamino)thiophene-2-carboxylic acid-->2-(4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)acetic acid-->4-METHYL-2-PHENYL-1,3-THIAZOLE-5-CARBOXYLIC ACID-->SAFFLOWER YELLOW-->STRONTIUM HYDROXIDE OCTAHYDRATE-->Sodium isoamylxanthate-->C^{12~18^} fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene (35) ether-->dodecyl phenyl polyoxyethylene (12) ether-->additive AC1210-->Sodium pyroantimonate -->Sodium O-isobutyl dithiocarbonate-->Tricobalt tetraoxide-->Sodium lactate-->SODIUM PHOSPHOTUNGSTATE-->QUINUCLIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE-->2,3-DIPHENYLPROPIONIC ACID-->2-HYDROXY-1-NAPHTHOIC ACID-->3-Fluoro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-->Disodium tartrate dihydrate-->11-Oxahexadecan-16-olide-->emulsifier C^{8~10^} OPE-10-->calcium disodium bis[2-chloro-5-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]-4-sulphonatobenzoate] -->C^{8~9^} alkyl phenyl polyoxyethylene (18) ether-->Peregal O-25-->SODIUM STANNATE TRIHYDRATE-->2-THIOPHENECARBOXYLIC ACID SODIUM SALT-->5,5-DIETHYLBARBITURIC ACID SODIUM SALT-->emulsifier SOPE-20-->dibenzyl biphenyl polyoxyethylene ether-->SODA LIME-->2', 3'-ribonucleotide-->2-(1-Naphthalenyloxy)propanoic acid-->castor oil poloxyethylene (30) ether-->2-AMINO-4,6-DIMETHOXY-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-->thiourea-formaldehyde resin-->Alkaline Treated Starch
Raw materialsSodium carbonate-->Sodium chloride-->Calcium chloride-->Calcium oxide-->CALCIUM CARBONATE-->Barium chloride dihydrate-->Barium chloride-->Boron tribromide-->Calcium chloride hexahydrate-->Sodium polyacrylate -->Caustic Soda(liquid)30%-48% 
Tag:Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2) Related Product Information
Carbon Black Acetic acid glacial Aluminium sulfate Bromochlorophenol Blue sodium salt ACID BLUE 40 ACID BLUE 25 ACID BLUE 80 Ammonium hydroxide Sodium chloride Lithium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Diclofenac sodium Water Sodium acetate Hydroxide SODIUM CARBONATE, MONOHYDRATE Aluminum hydroxide Caustic Soda(liquid)30%-48%