|Nitrogen fertilizer||Ammonium sulfate, also known as ammonium sulfate, is the earliest production and use of nitrogen fertilizer in domestic and foreign. It is usually used as a standard nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen content is between 20% to 30%. |
In the 1960s, Ammonium sulfate is the main variety of nitrogen fertilizer, but also is a major source to provide crop nutrients sulfur. Firstly ammonia and sulfuric acid was neutralized to obtain, but later increasing proportion of by-product ammonium sulfate, and now basically all domestic-product is from byproduct of other industries, such as coking industry, caprolactam, sulfuric acid tail gas desulfurization, desulfurization of power plant, acrylonitrile and methyl methacrylate, zinc oxide. By-product ammonium sulfate followed the principle of " waste control by waste ", to achieve the comprehensive utilization of waste, to achieve energy saving purposes. Especially with the breakthrough technology of ammonia desulfurization project, by-product ammonium sulfate production of power plant desulfurization will increase substantially in the future.
Pure product of ammonium sulfate is white crystals, heated to 100 ℃ , began to be decomposed into ammonia and ammonium bisulfate, a by-product with a yellowish or gray, small moisture absorption, easy to agglomerate, it is easier to save and easily soluble in water, insoluble ethanol and acetone.
Ammonium sulfate serves as physiological acidic nitrogen fertilizer, is generally more suitable for wheat, corn, rice, cotton, potato, hemp, fruit trees, vegetables and other crops. For soils, the ammonium sulfate is most suitable for neutral soil and alkaline soil, but not suitable for acidic soil. Also used as analytical reagents (precipitating agent, masking agent), in electrochemical analysis, supports electrolyte, microbiological culture media and preparation of ammonium salts.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Liu Yujie.
|Application methods||(1) as base fertilizer. When ammonium sulfate as base fertilizer should be deep application and earthing to facilitate crop uptake. |
(2) as a topdressing. This is the most appropriate method of application. The amount of ammonium sulfate fertilizer is determined according to the different soil types. For poor performance of retaining water and fertilizer of soil, topdressing by stage, the amount of each time should not be excessive; For good performance of retaining water and fertilizer of soil, the amount of each time may be suitable to be more. How much soil moisture has a greater impact on fertilizer, especially in dry land, when applied ammonium sulfate must pay attention to timely watering. As for as topdressing in paddy fields, it should first drain off to dry, and pay attention to combine with used reciprocating simultaneously. In addition, there are also obvious differences when applied ammonium sulfate on different crops, such as for fruit trees, can be ditching for drill fertilization, circulating fertilization or hole fertilization.
(3) more suitable as seed fertilizer. Because ammonium sulfate has no adverse effects on seed germination.
|Precautions||(1) cannot be contacted or mixed contacts with other alkaline fertilizer or alkaline substance to prevent reduce fertility. |
(2) should not be on the same piece of arable land for long-term application of ammonium sulfate, or else soil becomes compaction caused by acid. When administered if it proves necessary, it may be appropriately combined application with lime or organic fertilizer. But must be careful that not mixed lime to prevent the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, resulting in nitrogen loss. General combined application of both should be separated by 3 to 5 days.
(3) Not suitable for application in acidic soils.
|Solubility in water (g / 100ml)||Dissolved grams in per 100 ml of water at different temperatures (℃): |
70.6g / 0 ℃; 73g / 10 ℃; 75.4g / 20 ℃; 78g / 30 ℃; 81g / 40 ℃
88g / 60 ℃; 95g / 80 ℃; 103g / 100 ℃
|Identification test||Positive in ammonium test (IT-3) and sulfate test (IT-29).|
|Content analysis||Accurately weighed 2g sample, was dissolved in 100ml of water, transferred into a 250ml flask. added 40ml a mixture of formaldehyde and water mixed in equal volume [in advance neutralized with 1mol / L sodium hydroxide solution, and phenolphthalein test solution as an indicator (TS-167)], mixed. Standing for 30min. Using 1mol / L sodium hydroxide titrate to the pink end point and maintain for 5min. Per ml 1mol / L sodium hydroxide solution corresponds to 66.06mg ammonium sulfate [(NH4) 2SO4].|
|Toxicity||ADI does not make special provision (FAO / WHO, 2001). |
GRAS (FDA, §184.1143,2000).
LD50 3g / kg (rat, oral).
|Limited use||Bakery products is 0.15%; gelatin and pudding products is 0.1% (FDA, §184.1143,2000).|
|The maximum amount permitted and maximum allowable residue limits of food additives|
|Chemical properties||Pure product is a colorless orthorhombic crystals. Aqueous solution has spicy salty. Industrial products are white or slightly yellow small grains. Soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol.|
|Application||1. Mainly used as fertilizer, for various soil and crop. |
2. For the analysis reagents, also for protein precipitation.
3. Used as a flux, fabric fire agent, etc.
4. Used as a fertilizer, also can be used as flux, fire retardant fabric, as the salting-out agent, osmotic pressure regulating agents in medicine.
5. Used as raw materials of hydrogen peroxide , ammonium chloride, ammonium alum and production in chemical industry, as a flux in the welding industry. As a fire retardant in textile fabric industry. As a plating bath additives in electroplating industry. As a nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture, for general soil and crops. As a dough modifier, yeast nutrients in food grade product.
6. Dough modifier; yeast nutrients. Used as nitrogen source of yeast culture in fresh yeast used production, the dosage is not specified. As yeast nutrients in bread, the amount is about 10% (approximately 0.25% of the amount of wheat flour). As a processing aid listed in GB 2760-90.
|Production methods||After ammonium hydroxide neutralized with sulfuric acid, crystallization, centrifugal separation and dry to get. |
Neutralizational process, neutralization reaction of ammonia and sulfuric acid is performed at about 100 ℃, the generated ammonium sulfate crystals slurry separated by centrifugal separation and dried to obtain ammonium sulfate product. its
Recovery method is to recycle ammonia from the coke oven gas, and then performed neutralization reaction with sulfuric acid to obtain.
|Chemical Properties||White crystalline powder|
|Acute toxicity||Oral - rat LD50: 3000 mg / kg; intraperitoneal - mouse LD50: 610 mg / kg|
|Usage||May be used for the precipitation or fractionation of proteins or for purification of antibodies. Useful for crystallographic analysis of nucleic acids and proteins.|
|Explosive hazardous characteristics||Heated with potassium chlorate occurs white light.|
|Flammability hazard characteristics||Combustible; heated to produce nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ammonia fumes|
|Storage characteristics||Treasury is ventilation, low-temperature and dry; and separately stored with potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite.|
|Extinguishing agent||Dry powder, foam, sand, carbon dioxide, water mist|
|General Description||White odorless solid. Sinks and dissolves in water.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Dissolves in water with evolution of some heat.|
|Reactivity Profile||Ammonium sulfate is acidic in aqueous solution. When a little Ammonium sulfate is added to fused potassium nitrite, a vigorous reaction occurs attended by flame [Mellor 2:702 1946-47].|