|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Company Name:||INTATRADE GmbH |
|17-Hydroxy-7-alpha-mercapto-3-oxo-17-alpha-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid-gamma-lactone-7-acetate Chemical Properties|
|17-Hydroxy-7-alpha-mercapto-3-oxo-17-alpha-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid-gamma-lactone-7-acetate Usage And Synthesis|
|Diuretics||Spironolactone is a kind of weak potassium-sparing diuretics, and is fine white or white-like crystalline powder with slightly bitter taste. It is odorless or with slight mercaptan odor. It is highly soluble in chloroform but insoluble in water and soluble in ethanol, and easily soluble in benzene or ethyl acetate. It has a similar chemical structure as aldosterone and can compete with aldosterone for the aldosterone receptors in the cytoplasm of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting tube duct cells, affecting the binding of the aldosterone to its receptor, thus preventing the synthesis of aldosterone-induced protein and further inhibiting the exchange between K+ and Na+ with reduced potassium excretion and plays potassium-sparing diuretic effect.
The strength of the diuretic effect of spironolactone is related to the in vivo secretion of aldosterone with increased secretion also causing stronger effect while lower secretion causing weaker effects. It has no diuretic effect on patients without aldosterone secretion.
Because the drug only acts on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct while having no effect on the other segments of tubular, it only has a weak diuretic effect with slow onset but long duration time. It is mainly used for treating refractory edema accompanied with higher amount of aldosterone such as cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, and nephrotic syndrome with excellent efficacy in treating the patients with hyperaldosteronism caused by the lack of sodium in the congestive heart failure. Single drug administration usually only give a poor diuretic and therefore, it is often used in combination with hydrochlorothiazide or dihydrochlorothiazide for enhancing the effect. In addition, it can also be applied to the treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism and hypertension. Patients of hyperkalemia or renal failure should be disabled. |
This product has a rapid and irregular absorption rate after oral administration with the absorption rate being relate to the spironolactone particle size. According to general process, the bioavailability is only about 5% while the absorption rate can reach 90% when made into fine particles with the time for the plasma concentration reaching the peak with approximately 3 hours. It has rapid metabolism rate in vivo with its major metabolites being canrenone which can exert the pharmacological activity and other metabolites also being gradually converted into canrenone. The serum metabolites level will reach peak at 2 to 4 hours after single dose of oral administration. The concentration of metabolites will decrease rapidly within 12 hours with slow decline in 12 to 96 hours. After oral administration of multiple doses, the half life of the canrenone metabolite was 13 to 24 hours. The half-life of spironolactone is only about 10 minutes. The plasma protein binding rate of canrenone is about 98%. Its metabolites can be secreted through the bile and urine. The canrenone metabolism includes enterohepatic circulation. It can penetrate through the placental barrier and enter into breast milk. It also has effects of inhibiting estrogen and androgen synthesis.
|Indications||Spironolactone is a kind of competitive aldosterone inhibitors with the drug itself being not active. Its diuretic effect is through its competitive antagonism against endogenous aldosterone, belonging to potassium-sparing diuretics. |
1. edema disease, being used in combination other diuretics for the treatment of congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, renal edema, edema disease; the purpose in to correct the increased secondary aldosterone secretion associated with those above diseases and fight against the potassium excretion of other diuretics; it can also used in the treatment of idiopathic edema.
2. Hypertension, as the auxiliary treatment drug of high blood pressure.
3. For primary hyperaldosteronism, spironolactone can be used to diagnose and treat the disease.
4. For the prevention of hypokalemia; being used in combination with thiazide diuretics to enhance the diuretic effect and prevent hypokalemia.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
|Uses||It can be used as a kind of inefficient diuretic drugs. |
It is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid which is a kind of renal competitive aldosterone antagonist in a class of pharmaceuticals called potassium-sparing diuretics, used primarily to treat ascites in patients with liver disease, low-renin hypertension and hypokalemia.
The active metabolite of lactone (spironolactone); It can be used for the Inhibition of aldosterone biosynthesis. It can also be used as the blocker of the Quabain effect.
|Toxicity grading||highly toxic
|Acute toxicity||intraperitoneal - rat LD50: 277 mg / kg; intraperitoneal port - Mouse LD50: 260 mg / kg
|Flammability and hazardous characteristics||easily flammable with combustion generating toxic fumes of sulfur oxides
|Storage characteristics||Treasury: ventilation, low-temperature and dry; store it separately from food raw materials
|Extinguishing agent||Dry powder foam, sand, carbon dioxide, spray water|
|Chemical Properties||White to Off White Solid|
|Usage||It is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid which is a renal competitive aldosterone antagonist in a class of pharmaceuticals called potassium-sparing diuretics, used primarily to treat ascites in patients with liver disease, low-renin hypertension, hypokalemia|
|Usage||diuretic, aldosterone antagonist|
|Biological Activity||Competitive mineralocorticoid (aldosterone) receptor antagonist that exhibits antihypertensive activity in vivo . Also displays antiandrogen activity and inhibits steroid hormone biosynthesis.|
|17-Hydroxy-7-alpha-mercapto-3-oxo-17-alpha-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid-gamma-lactone-7-acetate Preparation Products And Raw materials|