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Phenol Produkt Beschreibung

Phenol Struktur
108-95-2
CAS-Nr.
108-95-2
Bezeichnung:
Phenol
Englisch Name:
Phenol
Synonyma:
Izal;PhOH;Fenol;PHENOL;Fenolo;NA 2821;Paoscle;Phenole;BENZENOL;PhenolGr
CBNumber:
CB4362168
Summenformel:
C6H6O
Molgewicht:
94.11124
MOL-Datei:
108-95-2.mol

Phenol Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
40-42 °C(lit.)
Siedepunkt:
182 °C(lit.)
Dichte
1.071 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Dampfdichte
3.24 (vs air)
Dampfdruck
0.09 psi ( 55 °C)
Brechungsindex
n20/D 1.53
FEMA 
3223 | PHENOL
Flammpunkt:
175 °F
storage temp. 
2-8°C
Löslichkeit
H2O: 50 mg/mL at 20 °C, clear, colorless
pka
9.89(at 20℃)
Aggregatzustand
liquid
Farbe
faintly yellow
Wichte
1.071
PH
3.0-6.0 (25℃, 0.5M in H2O)
Geruch (Odor)
Sweet, medicinal odor detectable at 0.06 ppm
Odor Threshold
0.0056ppm
Explosionsgrenze
1.3-9.5%(V)
Wasserlöslichkeit
8 g/100 mL
FreezingPoint 
41℃
Sensitive 
Air & Light Sensitive
JECFA Number
690
Merck 
14,7241
BRN 
969616
Henry's Law Constant
1.09 at 5 °C (average derived from six field experiments, Lüttke and Levsen, 1997)
Expositionsgrenzwerte
TLV-TWA skin 5 ppm (~19 mg/m3 ) (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA); 10-hour TWA 5.2 ppm (~20 mg/m3 ) (NIOSH); ceiling 60 mg (15 minutes) (NIOSH); IDLH 250 ppm (NIOSH).
InChIKey
ISWSIDIOOBJBQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS Datenbank
108-95-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
Phenol(108-95-2)
EPA chemische Informationen
Phenol (108-95-2)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher T,C,F,Xn
R-Sätze: 23/24/25-34-48/20/21/22-68-40-39/23/24/25-11-36-20/21/22-24/25
S-Sätze: 26-36/37/39-45-36/37-28A-28-24/25-1/2-36-16-7
RIDADR  UN 2821 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS-Nr. SJ3325000
8-23
Selbstentzündungstemperatur 715 °C
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  6.1
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  29071100
Giftige Stoffe Daten 108-95-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 orally in rats: 530 mg/kg (Deichmann, Witherup)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H225 Flüssigkeit und Dampf leicht entzündbar. Entzündbare Flüssigkeiten Kategorie 2 Achtung P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H227 Combustible liquid Flammable liquids Category 4 Warnung P210, P280, P370+P378, P403+P235,P501
H301 Giftig bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 3 Achtung P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H302 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 4 Warnung P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H311 Giftig bei Hautkontakt. Akute Toxizität dermal Kategorie 3 Achtung P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H312 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Hautkontakt. Akute Toxizität dermal Kategorie 4 Warnung P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H314 Verursacht schwere Verätzungen der Haut und schwere Augenschäden. Ätzwirkung auf die Haut Kategorie 1B Achtung P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Einatmen. Akute Toxizität inhalativ Kategorie 4 Warnung P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H340 Kann genetische Defekte verursachen. Keimzellmutagenität Kategorie 1B Achtung
H341 Kann vermutlich genetische Defekte verursachen. Keimzellmutagenität Kategorie 2 Warnung P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H360 Kann die Fruchtbarkeit beeinträchtigen oder das Kind im Mutterleib schädigen. Fertility (Fruchtbarkeit) Kategorie 1 Achtung
H370 Schädigt die Organe. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 1 Achtung P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 Schädigt bei Hautkontakt und Verschlucken die Organe bei längerer oder wiederholter Exposition. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (wiederholte Exposition) Kategorie 1 Achtung P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 Kann die Organe schädigen bei längerer oder wiederholter Exposition. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (wiederholte Exposition) Kategorie 2 Warnung P260, P314, P501
H401 Toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 2 P273, P501
H411 Giftig für Wasserorganismen, mit langfristiger Wirkung. Langfristig (chronisch) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 2
Sicherheit
P201 Vor Gebrauch besondere Anweisungen einholen.
P260 Dampf/Aerosol/Nebel nicht einatmen.
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P273 Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P310 Sofort GIFTINFORMATIONSZENTRUM/Arzt/ anrufen.
P301+P310 BEI VERSCHLUCKEN: Sofort GIFTINFORMATIONSZENTRUM/Arzt/... (geeignete Stelle für medizinische Notfallversorgung vom Hersteller/Lieferanten anzugeben) anrufen.
P303+P361+P353 BEI BERÜHRUNG MIT DER HAUT (oder dem Haar): Alle kontaminierten Kleidungsstücke sofort ausziehen. Haut mit Wasser abwaschen oder duschen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.

Phenol Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

FARBLOSE BIS GELBE ODER ROSAFARBENE KRISTALLE MIT CHARAKTERISTISCHEM GERUCH.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Beim Erhitzen bilden sich giftige Rauche. Schwache Säure in wässriger Lösung. Reagiert mit Oxidationsmitteln. Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV: 5 ppm (als TWA) Hautresorption; Krebskategorie A4 (nicht klassifizierbar als krebserzeugend für den Menschen); BEI vorhanden; (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: Hautresorption; Krebserzeugend Kategorie 3B; (DFG 2005).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Schnelle Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation der Dämpfe, über die Haut und durch Verschlucken.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Beim Verdampfen bei 20 °C tritt langsam eine gesundheitsschädliche Kontamination der Luft ein.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz bzw. der Dampf verätzt die Augen, die Haut und die Atmungsorgane. Inhalation des Dampfes kann zu Lungenödem führen (s. Anm.). Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Zentralnervensystem, Herz und Nieren mit nachfolgenden Krämpfen, Koma, Herzfunktionsstörungen, Atemversagen und Kollaps. Exposition kann zum Tod führen. Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein. ärztliche Beobachtung notwendig.

WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION

Wiederholter oder andauernder Hautkontakt kann Dermatitis hervorrufen. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Leberund Nieren.

LECKAGE

Verschüttetes Material in abdichtbaren Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Reste sorgfältig sammeln. An sicheren Ort bringen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Vollschutzanzug mit umgebungsluftunabhängigem Atemschutzgerät. NICHT in die Umwelt gelangen lassen.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R23/24/25:Giftig beim Einatmen, Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
R34:Verursacht Verätzungen.
R48/20/21/22:Gesundheitsschädlich: Gefahr ernster Gesundheitsschäden bei längerer Exposition durch Einatmen, Berührung mit der Haut und durch Verschlucken.
R68:Irreversibler Schaden möglich.
R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.
R39/23/24/25:Giftig: ernste Gefahr irreversiblen Schadens durch Einatmen, Berührung mit der Haut und durch Verschlucken.
R11:Leichtentzündlich.
R36:Reizt die Augen.
R20/21/22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen,Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
R24/25:Giftig bei Berührung mit der Haut und beim Verschlucken.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
S28:Bei Berührung mit der Haut sofort abwaschen mit viel . . . (vom Hersteller anzugeben).
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
S1/2:Unter Verschluss und für Kinder unzugänglich aufbewahren.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

C6H6O
Monohydroxybenzol, Karbolsäure

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Mit Aluminium, Aldehyden, Brom, Calciumhypochlorit, Natriumnitrit, Natriumnitrat, Peroxoschwefelsäuren, Wasserstoffperoxid/eisen(III)-katalysator gefährliche Reaktionen möglich.
Mit Luft Bildung explosionsfähiger Gemische möglich.
Verätzungen nach Augen- und Hautkontakt, Erblindungsgefahr! Schleimhautirritationen nach Verschlucken. ZNS-Störungen, Herz-kreislaufstörungen, Blutbildveränderungen. Gefahr der Hautresorption, NTP-bewertung auf Kanzerogenität negativ beim Tier.
toxisch für Wasserorganismen: Gefahr für das Trinkwasser!
Wassergefährdend (WGK 2).

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Dicht verschlossen, trocken, unter Lichtschutz, an gut belüftetem Ort.
Schutzbrille mit Seitenschutz und oberer Augenraumabdeckung
Neoprenhanschuhe (als kurzzeitiger Spritz- und Staubschutz).

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Vorsichtig trocken aufnehmen, entsorgen, nachreinigen.

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Mit viel Wasser waschen, mit Polyethylenglykol 400 abtupfen.
Nach Augenkontakt: 15 Minuten bei gespreizten Lidern unter fließendem Wasser mit Augendusche ausspülen. Augenarzt konsultieren!
Nach Einatmen: Frischluft, ggf. Atemspende/Gerätebeatmung
Nach Verschlucken: Viel Wasser trinken, erbechen, Aktivkohle (20-40g), Arzt!
Nach Kleidungskontakt: kontaminierte Kleidung sofort ausziehen
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

Als Sonderabfall entsorgen, zuständige Stellen: Hubland-Herr Riepl:8884711, Klinikum-Herr Uhl:2015557.

Beschreibung

Phenol is a stable chemical substance and appear as colourless/white crystals with a characteristic, distinct aromatic/acrid odour. It is reactive and incompatible with strong oxidising agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. Phenol is flammable and may discolour in light. Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertiliser, coke, illuminating gas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, wood preservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is also extensively used as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye, and agricultural industries.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Phenol, C6H5OH, also known as carbolic acid and phenylic acid, is a white poisonous crystalline solid that melts at 43 °C (110 OF) and boils at 182°C (360 OF). Phenol has a sharp burning taste,a distinctive odor, and it irritates tissue. It is toxic not only by ingestion or inhalation, but also by skin absorption. Phenol is soluble in water,alcohol,and ether. It is used in the production of resins,germicides,weedkillers,pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent in the refining of lubricating oils.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Phenol is a stable chemical substance of colorless/white crystals with a characteristically distinct aromatic/acrid odor. It is reactive and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, strong acids, alkalis, and calcium hypochlorite. It is flammable and discolors in light. Phenol is used in the manufacture or production of explosives, fertilizer, coke, illuminating gas, lampblack, paints, paint removers, rubber, perfumes, asbestos goods, wood preservatives, synthetic resins, textiles, drugs, and pharmaceutical preparations. It is also used extensively as a disinfectant in the petroleum, leather, paper, soap, toy, tanning, dye, and agricultural industries. Phenol is a systemic poison and constitutes a serious health hazard. The risks of using it in the laboratory must be fully assessed before work begins. Typical MEL 2 ppm; typical OEL 1 ppm.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Phenol is a colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid. Sweet, acrid odor. Phenol liquefies by mixing with about 8% water. The Odor Threshold in air is 0.04 ppm and in water is 7.9 ppm.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Phenol occurs as colorless to light pink, caustic, deliquescent needleshaped crystals or crystalline masses with a characteristic odor. When heated gently phenol melts to form a highly refractive liquid. The USP 32 permits the addition of a suitable stabilizer; the name and amount of substance used for this purpose must be clearly stated on the label.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Phenol has a strong odor that is sickeningly sweet and irritating. Phenol has powerful disinfectant and sanitizing qualities. It has been used as a topical anesthetic and antiseptic preservative, reagent and chemical reactant. Its use for direct addition to food is limited to a role as a flavoring ingredient in a few foods at a maximum level below 10 ppm.

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Phenol is a colorless or white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water. Phenol is the simplest of the large group of organic chemicals known as phenols, which consist of compounds where a carbon in the phenyl aromatic group (C6H5) is directly bonded to hydroxyl, OH.

Occurrence

It is reported found in over 150 natural products including apricot, sour cherry, black currant, bilberry, cranberry, other berries, grapes, guava fruit, peach, pineapple, asparagus, onion, cooked potato, tomato, cinnamon bark, cassia leaf, ginger, pennyroyal oil, many cheeses, butter, milk, milk powder, boiled egg, fish and fish oil, cooked and cured meats, beer, wheaten bread, crisp bread, cognac, rose wine, cocoa, coffee, tea, whiskies, roasted filbert, roasted peanut, soybean, pecans, honey, avocado, Arctic bramble, passion fruit, beans, mushrooms, burley tobacco, cooked beef and chicken, fermented soy sauce, trassi, roasted almonds, sesame seed, fenugreek, mango, tamarind, Brazil nut, rice, rhubarb, licorice, buckwheat, watercress, malt, wort, dried bonito, loquat, myrtle berry, rosemary, Tahiti and Bourbon vanilla, endive, shrimp, crab, crayfish, clam, squid, truffle and Chinese quince.

History

Phenol’s first prominent use was by Joseph Lister (1827–1912) as an antiseptic. Throughout human history,infection often resulted in death,even when the wound could be surgically treated.A broken bone piercing the skin, which today is a painful but not life-threatening injury,historically resulted in infection and possible amputation or death. Lister was inspired by Louis Pasteur’s (1822–1895) germ theory of disease,and he began to use antiseptic methods during routine surgery during the 1860s.

Verwenden

The predominant use of phenol today is for phenolic resins.it is a powerful bactericide,phenol can be found in numerous consumer products includingmouthwashes,antiseptic ointments,throat lozenges,air fresheners,eardrops,and lipbalms.
Phenol continues to be a primary chemical used to make thermoset resins.These resinsare made by combining phenol with aldehydes such as formaldehyde.More than 4 billionpounds of phenolic resins are used annually in the United States.Phenolic resins findtheir widest use in the construction industry.They are used as binding agents and fillers inwood products such as plywood,particleboard,furniture, and paneling.Phenolic resins areimpregnated into paper,which,after hardening,produces sheets that can be glued togetherto form laminates for use in wall paneling and countertops.Decking in boats and docksare made from phenolic resin composites.Phenolic resins are used as sealing agents andfor insulation. Because phenolic resins have high heat resistance and are good insulators,they are used in cookware handles.Because they are also good electrical insulators,they areused in electrical switches,wall plates, and for various other electrical applications.In theautomotive industry,phenolic resins are used for parts such as drive pulleys,water pumphousings, brakes,and body parts.
In addition to the construction industry,phenol has many other applications.It isused in pharmaceuticals,in herbicides and pesticides,and as a germicide in paints.It can beused to produce caprolactam,which is the monomer used in the production of nylon 6.Another important industrial compound produced from phenol is bisphenol A,which ismade from phenol and acetone.Bisphenol A is used in the manufacture of polycarbonateresins.Polycarbonate resins are manufactured into structural parts used in the manufactureof various products such as automobile parts,electrical products,and consumer appliances.Items such as compact discs, reading glasses,sunglasses,and water bottles are made frompolycarbonates.

Verwenden

Phenol is used in the manufacture of variousphenolic resins; as an intermediate in the production of many dyes and pharmaceuticals;as a disinfectant for toilets, floors, and drains;as a topical antiseptic; and as a reagentin chemical analysis. It has been detectedin cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust.Smoke emitted from a burning mosquito coil(a mosquito repellent) has been found to con-tain submicron particles coated with phenoland other substances; a lengthy exposure canbe hazardous to health (Liu et al. 1987).

Verwenden

Base raw material for Alkyl Phenols, Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins, Epoxy Resins and Lube & Fuel Additives

Verwenden

phenol is frequently used for medical chemical face peels. It may trap free radicals and can act as a preservative. Phenol, however, is an extremely caustic chemical with a toxicity potential. It is considered undesirable for use in cosmetics. even at low concentrations, it frequently causes skin irritation, swelling, and rashes.

Verwenden

Purified for molecular genetics applications

Definition

ChEBI: An organic hydroxy compound that consists of benzene bearing a single hydroxy substituent. The parent of the class of phenols.

synthetische

Phenol is formed in dry distillation of wood, peat and coal; coal tar is one of the commercial sources of phenol and its homologues.

Indications

Phenol in dilute solution (0.5% to 2%) decreases itch by anesthetizing the cutaneous nerve endings. Phenol should never be used on pregnant women or infants younger than 6 months of age.

Vorbereitung Methode

Phenol was prepared before World War I through the distillation of coal tar. The firstsynthetic process involved the sulfonation of benzene followed by desulfonation with abase.
The most common current method of phenol production is from the cumene hydroperoxiderearrangement process.In this process,benzene reacts with propylene to produce cumene.Cumene is oxidized to cumene hydroperoxide.When cumene hydroperoxide is treated withdilute sulfuric acid,it rearranges and splits into phenol and acetone. Because the reactants areinexpensive and the process is simple,the acidic oxidation of cumene is used to produce morethan 95% of the world’s supply of phenol.

Vorbereitung Methode

Historically, phenol was produced by the distillation of coal tar. Today, phenol is prepared by one of several synthetic methods, such as the fusion of sodium benzenesulfonate with sodium hydroxide followed by acidification; the hydrolysis of chlorobenzene by dilute sodium hydroxide at high temperature and pressure to give sodium phenate, which on acidification liberates phenol (Dow process); or the catalytic vapor-phase reaction of steam and chlorobenzene at 500°C (Raschig process).

Definition

1. (carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, C6H5OH) A white crystalline solid used to make a variety of other organic compounds.
2. A type of organic compound in which at least one hydroxyl group is bound directly to one of the carbon atoms of an aromatic ring. Phenols do not show the behavior typical of alcohols. In particular they are more acidic because of the electron-withdrawing effect of the aromatic ring. The preparation of phenol itself is by fusing the sodium salt of the sulfonic acid with sodium hydroxide:
C6H5SO2.ONa + 2NaOH → C6H5ONa
+ Na2SO3 + H2O
The phenol is then liberated by sulfuric acid:
2C6H5ONa + H2SO4 → 2C6H5OH + Na2SO4
Reactions of phenol include:
1. Replacement of the hydroxyl group with a chlorine atom using phosphorus(V) chloride.
2. Reaction with acyl halides to form esters of carboxylic acids. 3. Reaction with haloalkanes under alkaline conditions to give mixed alkyl–aryl ethers.
In addition phenol can undergo further substitution on the benzene ring. The hydroxyl group directs other substituents into the 2- and 4-positions.

Trademarks

3p maid;Agre-gola;Anbesol;Apralan;Benamine;Carbolic acid;Cepastat;Chloraseptic dm;Derma cas;Ego psoryl;Egomycol;Epivetol;Fenicado;Hydroxybenzene;Izal germicide;Merastat;Monophenol;Pao sole;Pernomol;Phenylic acid;Poscle;Pregine;Protaphane hm insulin;Sarna;Sedaural;Vaopin.

Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO)

Phenol became widely used as an antiseptic following demonstration of its germicidal activity in 1867. It is an intensely corrosive substance and percutaneous absorption can produce serious systemic toxicity. It has been withdrawn from pharmaceutical preparations by at least one national regulatory authority. However, it is still used widely in concentrations of the order of 1.4% in proprietary preparations for the relief of soreness of the mouth and throat.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 5.5 ppm. Aroma characteristics at 1.0%: medicinal, creosote, smoky, spicy, phenolic, leatherlike with notes of fried meat and coffee.

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 3 ppm: spicy, phenolic, tobacco, musty, woody, medicinal, smoky, tarlike and slightly spicy clovelike.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

A solid melting at 110°F. Colorless if pure, otherwise pink or red. Flash point 175°F. Density 9.9 lb / gal. Vapors are heavier than air Corrosive to the skin (turning skin white) but because of its anesthetic quality numbs rather than burn. Lethal amounts can be absorbed through the skin. Used to make plastics and adhesives.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Decomposes slowly in air. Mixtures of 9-10% phenol in air are explosive. Soluble in water

Reaktivität anzeigen

PHENOL is a weak acid. Reacts exothermically with bases. Reacts with strong oxidizing agents. Emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes when heated to decomposition. Undergoes, in the presence of aluminum chloride, potentially explosive reactions with nitromethane, butadiene, formaldehyde, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxosulfuric acid, and sodium nitrite . Reacts violently with sodium nitrate in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 770]. May corrode lead, aluminum and its alloys, certain plastics, and rubber. Phenol may explode in contact with peroxodisulfuric acid (Dns, J. Ber., 1910, 43, 1880; Z. Anorg. Chem., 1911, 73, 1911.) or peroxomonosulfuric acid. (Sidgwick, 1950, 939)

Health Hazard

Toxic hazard rating is very toxic: probable oral lethal dose (human) is 50-500 mg/kg. Ingestion of 1 gram has been lethal to humans. Lethal amounts may be absorbed through skin or inhaled. Industrial contact can cause chronic poisoning with kidney and liver damage. Persons affected with hepatic or kidney diseases are at a greater risk.

Health Hazard

Exposures to phenol cause adverse health effects and poisoning. Phenol is absorbed very rapidly through surfaces of the skin, lungs, and stomach. The symptoms of prolonged exposures and poisoning include, but are not limited to, vomiting, diffi culty in swallowing, diarrhea, lack of appetite, headache, fainting, dizziness, mental disturbances, and skin rash. Direct contact with phenol causes burning of the mouth, irritation to the eyes, nose, and dermatitis, discoloration of the skin, and damage to the liver and kidneys. Exposure to phenol in different concentrations is known to cause mental disturbances, depression of the CNS, and coma.

Health Hazard

Phenol is a corrosive and moderately toxic substance that affects the central nervous system and can cause damage to the liver and kidneys. Phenol is irritating to the skin but has a local anesthetic effect, so that no pain may be felt on initial contact. A whitening of the area of contact generally occurs, and later severe burns may develop. Phenol is rapidly absorbed through the skin, and toxic or even fatal amounts can be absorbed through relatively small areas. Exposure to phenol vapor can cause severe irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Acute overexposure by any route may lead to nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and coma. Contact of phenol with the eyes may cause severe damage and possibly blindness. Ingestion of phenol leads to burning of the mouth and throat and rapid development of digestive disturbances and the systemic effects described above. As little as 1 g can be fatal to humans. Phenol is regarded as a substance with good warning properties.
Chronic exposure to phenol may cause vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, difficulty in swallowing, headache, skin discoloration, and injury to the liver. Phenol has not been shown to be a carcinogen in humans. There is some evidence from animal studies that phenol may be a reproductive toxin.

Health Hazard

Phenol is a corrosive substance with mod-erate to high toxicity. The acute poisoning effects are high in most animals. In humans,ingestion of 5–10 g of solid can cause death.The toxic symptoms include nausea, vomiting, weakness, muscular pain, dark urine,cyanosis, tremor, convulsions, and kidneyand liver damage. In addition, it is an irritant to the eyes, nose, and throat and cancause skin burn and dermatitis. Inhalation ofits vapors or absorption of the solid solutionor vapor through skin can produce similartoxic effects. Phenol vapors can readily beabsorbed through the skin.
Absorption of phenol through intact skin,as determined from the blood phenol levelsin the test animals, depended on the surfacearea of applications rather than its concentrations in the test solutions (Pullin 1978). Theanimals (swines) showed the signs of twitching and tremors within a few minutes ofapplications, which were followed by salivation, nasal discharge, and labored breathing.
LD50 value, oral (mice): 270 mg/kg
LC50 value, inhalation (mice): 177 mg/kg
Krajnovic-Ozretic and Ozretic (1988)investigated the effects of water pollutionby phenol on fish. An 8-day exposure to7.5 mg/L of phenol produced damage tothe gills, gallbladder, liver, and kidney ingray mullet. A higher concentration, above10 mg/L, was lethal in several hours, while alower level of 0.5 mg/L was nontoxic duringan 8-day exposure.
Snails (Indoplanorbis exustus) secretedmucus and developed hemorrhage in a highlyconcentrated phenol environment. A 96-hourmedian lethal concentration was determinedas 125.75 mg/L (Agrawal 1987).
Suppiah and Perry (2005) have reporteda case history of phenol-induced hepatitisin a male patient. The patient was admittedwith jaundice six days after phenol-injectionschlerotherapy for haemorrhoids.

Brandgefahr

Phenol is a combustible solid (NFPA rating = 2). When heated, phenol produces flammable vapors that are explosive at concentrations of 3 to 10% in air. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires.

Brandgefahr

Flammable vapors when heated. Runoff from fire control water may give off poisonous gases and cause pollution. Mixtures of 9-10% phenol in air are explosive. Avoid aluminum chloride/nitrobenzene mixture, peroxodisulfuric acid, peroxomonosulfuric acid and strong oxidizing agents. Decomposes slowly on air contact. Avoid contact with strong oxidizing agents.

Flammability and Explosibility

Phenol is a combustible solid (NFPA rating = 2). When heated, phenol produces flammable vapors that are explosive at concentrations of 3 to 10% in air. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight phenol fires.

Pharmazeutische Anwendungen

Phenol is used mainly as an antimicrobial preservative in parenteral pharmaceutical products. It has also been used in topical pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics;
Phenol is widely used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and therapeutic agent, although it should not be used to preserve preparations that are to be freeze-dried.

Industrielle Verwendung

Phenol is the simplest member of a class oforganic compounds possessing a hydroxylgroup attached to a benzene ring or to a morecomplex aromatic ring system.
Also known as carbolic acid or monohydroxybenzene,phenol is a colorless to whitecrystalline material of sweet odor, having thecomposition C6H5OH, obtained from the distillationof coal tar and as a by-product ofcoke ovens.
Phenol has broad biocidal properties, anddilute aqueous solutions have long been usedas an antiseptic. At higher concentrations itcauses severe skin burns; it is a violent systemicpoison. It is a valuable chemical raw materialfor the production of plastics, dyes, pharmaceuticals,syntans, and other products.
Phenol is one of the most versatile industrialorganic chemicals. It is the starting point formany diverse products used in the home andindustry. A partial list includes nylon, epoxyresins, surface active agents, synthetic detergents,plasticizers, antioxidants, lube oil additives,phenolic resins (with formaldehyde, furfural,and so on), cyclohexanol, adipic acid,polyurethanes, aspirin, dyes, wood preservatives,herbicides, drugs, fungicides, gasolineadditives, inhibitors, explosives, and pesticides.

Sicherheitsprofil

Human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, parenteral, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by skin contact. A severe eye and skin irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Mutation data reported. An experimental teratogen. Absorption of phenolic solutions through the skin may be very rapid, and can cause death within 30 minutes to several hours by exposure of as little as 64 square inches of skin. Lesser exposures can cause damage to the ladneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen, and edema of the lungs. Ingestion can cause corrosion of the lips, mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach, and gangrene. Ingestion of 1.5 g has lulled. Chronic exposures can cause death from liver and kidney damage. Dermatitis resulting from contact with phenol or phenol-containing products is fairly common in industry. A common air contaminant.Combustible when exposed to heat, flame or oxidizers. Potentially explosive reaction with aluminum chloride + nitromethane (at 1 10°C/lOO bar), formaldehyde, perijxydisulfuric acid, peroxymonosulfuric acid, sodium nitrite + heat. Violent reaction with aluminum chloride + nitrobenzene (at 120℃), sodium nitrate + trifluoroacetic acid, butadiene. Can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Sicherheit(Safety)

Phenol is highly corrosive and toxic, the main effects being on the central nervous system. The lethal human oral dose is estimated to be 1 g for an adult.
Phenol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and mucous membranes, and is metabolized to phenylglucuronide and phenyl sulfate, which are excreted in the urine.
Although there are a number of reports describing the toxic effects of phenol, these largely concern instances of accidental poisoning or adverse reactions during its use as a therapeutic agent.Adverse reactions associated with phenol used as a preservative are less likely owing to the smaller quantities that are used; however, it has been suggested that the body burden of phenol should not exceed 50 mg in a 10-hour period.This amount could be exceeded following administration of large volumes of phenolpreserved medicines.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.11 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 0.3 g/kg
LD50 (rabbit, skin): 0.85 g/kg
LD50 (rat, skin): 0.67 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 0.32 g/kg
LD50 (rat, SC): 0.46 g/kg

mögliche Exposition

Phenol is used as a pharmaceutical, in the production of fertilizer; coke, illuminating gas; lampblack, paints, paint removers; rubber, asbestos goods; wood preservatives; synthetic resins; textiles, drugs, pharmaceutical preparations; perfumes, bakelite, and other plastics (phenolformaldehyde resins); polymer intermediates (caprolactam, bisphenol-A and adipic acid). Phenol also finds wide use as a disinfectant and veterinary drug.

Carcinogenicity

Phenol had been investigated for carcinogenicity in animals by the oral and dermal routes. IARC and IRIS determined that animal human evidence for carcinogenicity was inadequate.

Source

Detected in distilled water-soluble fractions of 87 octane unleaded gasoline (1.53 mg/L), 94 octane unleaded gasoline (0.19 mg/L), Gasohol (0.33 mg/L), No. 2 fuel oil (0.09 mg/L), jet fuel A (0.09 mg/L), diesel fuel (0.07 mg/L), and military jet fuel JP-4 (0.22 mg/L) (Potter, 1996). Phenol was also detected in 80% of 65 gasoline (unleaded regular and premium) samples (62 from Switzerland, 3 from Boston, MA). At 25 °C, phenol concentrations ranged from 63 to 130,000 μg/L in gasoline and from 150 to 1,500 μg/L in water-soluble fractions. Average concentrations were 26 mg/L in gasoline and 6.1 mg/L in water-soluble fractions (Schmidt et al., 2002).
Thomas and Delfino (1991) equilibrated contaminant-free groundwater collected from Gainesville, FL with individual fractions of three individual petroleum products at 24–25 °C for 24 h. The aqueous phase was analyzed for organic compounds via U.S. EPA approved test method 625. Average phenol concentrations reported in water-soluble fractions of unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel were 20, 8, and 19 μg/L, respectively.
A high-temperature coal tar contained phenol at an average concentration of 0.61 wt % (McNeil, 1983).
Phenol occurs naturally in many plants including blueberries (10 to 60 ppb), marjoram (1,431– 8,204 ppm), sweetflag, safflower buds (40 ppb), mud plantain, capillary wormwood, asparagus shoots, tea leaves, petitgrain, cinnamon, cassia, licorice, witch hazel, Japanese privet, St. John’s wort, European pennyroyal, tomatoes, white mulberries, tobacco leaves, benneseed, sesame seeds, tamarind, white sandlewood, patchouli leaves, rue, slash pine, bayberries, Scotch pine, and tarragon (Duke, 1992).
A liquid swine manure sample collected from a waste storage basin contained phenol at a concentration of 22.0 mg/L (Zahn et al., 1997).
Schauer et al. (2001) measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle phase organic compounds from the residential (fireplace) combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rates of phenol were 525 mg/kg of pine burned, 300 mg/kg of oak burned, and 434 mg/kg of eucalyptus burned.
Releases toxic and noxious fumes when heated at temperatures greater than its boiling point.
Drinking water standard: No MCLGs or MCLs have been proposed, however, a DWEL of 20 mg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).

Environmental Fate

Biological. Under methanogenic conditions, inocula from a municipal sewage treatment plant digester degraded phenol to carbon dioxide and methane (Young and Rivera, 1985). Chloroperoxidase, a fungal enzyme isolated from Caldariomyces fumago, reacted with phenol forming 2- and 4-chlorophenol, the latter in a 25% yield (Wannstedt et al., 1990). In activated sludge, 41.4% mineralized to carbon dioxide after 5 d (Freitag et al., 1985). When phenol was statically incubated in the dark at 25 °C with yeast extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum, significant biodegradation with rapid adaptation was observed. At concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L, 96 and 97% biodegradation, respectively, were observed after 7 d (Tabak et al., 1981). Phenol is rapidly degraded in aerobically incubated soil but is much slower under anaerobic conditions (Baker and Mayfield, 1980).
Soil. Loehr and Matthews (1992) studied the degradation of phenol in different soils under aerobic conditions. In a slightly basic sandy loam (3.25% organic matter) and in acidic clay soil (<1.0% organic matter), the resultant degradation half-lives were 4.1 and 23 d, respectively. Soil sorption distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined from centrifuge column tests using kaolinite as the absorbent (Celorie et al., 1989). Values for Kd ranged from 0.010 to 0.054 L/g.
Surface Water. Vaishnav and Babeu (1987) reported a half-life of 11 d in river waters and 3 d in harbor waters.
Groundwater. Nielsen et al. (1996) studied the degradation of phenol in a shallow, glaciofluvial, unconfined sandy aquifer in Jutland, Denmark. As part of the in situ microcosm study, a cylinder that was open at the bottom and screened at the top was installed through a cased borehole approximately 5 m below grade. Five liters of water was aerated with atmospheric air to ensure aerobic conditions were maintained. Groundwater was analyzed weekly for approximately 3 months to determine phenol concentrations with time. The experimentally determined first-order biodegradation rate constant and corresponding half-life were 0.5/d and 33.4 h, respectively. Vaishnav and Babeu (1987) reported a biodegradation rate constant of 0.035/d and a half-life of 20 d in groundwater.
Photolytic. Absorbs UV light at a maximum wavelength of 269 nm (Dohnal and Fenclová, 1995). In an aqueous, oxygenated solution exposed to artificial light (λ = 234 nm), phenol was photolyzed to hydroquinone, catechol, 2,2 -, 2,4 - and 4,4 -dihydroxybiphenyl (Callahan et al., 1979). When an aqueous solution containing potassium nitrate (10 mM) and phenol (1 mM) was irradiated with UV light (λ = 290–350 nm) up to a conversion of 10%, the following products formed: hydroxyhydroquinone, hydroquinone, resorcinol, hydroxybenzoquinone, benzoquinone, catechol, nitrosophenol, 4-nitrocatechol, nitrohydroquinone, 2- and 4-nitrophenol. Catechnol and hydroquinone were the major and minor products, respectively (Niessen et al., 1988). Titanium dioxide suspended in an aqueous solution and irradiated with UV light (λ = 365 nm) converted phenol to carbon dioxide at a significant rate (Matthews, 1986).
Chemical/Physical. In an environmental chamber, nitrogen trioxide (10,000 ppb) reacted quickly with phenol (concentration 200 ppb to 1.4 ppm) to form phenoxy radicals and nitric acid (Carter et al., 1981). The phenoxy radicals may react with oxygen and nitrogen dioxide to form quinones and nitrohydroxy derivatives, respectively (Nielsen et al., 1983).

Lager

Because of its corrosivity and ability to penetrate the skin, all work with phenol and its solutions should be conducted while wearing impermeable gloves, appropriate protective clothing, and splash goggles. Operations with the potential to produce dusts or aerosols of phenol or its solutions should be carried out in a fume hood.

Lager

When exposed to air and light, phenol turns a red or brown color, the color being influenced by the presence of metallic impurities. Oxidizing agents also hasten the color change. Aqueous solutions of phenol are stable. Oily solutions for injection may be sterilized in hermetically sealed containers by dry heat. The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed, light-resistant container at a temperature not exceeding 15°C.

Versand/Shipping

UN1671 Phenol, solid, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN2312 Molten phenol, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN2821 Phenol solutions, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.

läuterung methode

Steam is passed through a boiling solution containing 1mole of phenol and 1.5-2.0moles of NaOH in 5L of H2O until all non-acidic material has distilled. The residue is cooled, acidified with 20% (v/v) H2SO4, and the phenol is separated, dried with CaSO4 and fractionally distilled under reduced pressure. It is then fractionally crystallised several times from its melt [Andon et al. J Chem Soc 5246 1960]. Purification via the benzoate has been used by Berliner, Berliner and Nelidow [J Am Chem Soc 76 507 1954]. The benzoate,(m 70o, b 314o/760mm), is crystallised from 95% EtOH, then hydrolysed to the free phenol by refluxing with two equivalents of KOH in aqueous EtOH until the solution becomes homogeneous. It is acidified with HCl and extracted with diethyl ether. The ether layer is freed from benzoic acid by thorough extraction with aqueous NaHCO3, and, after drying and removing the ether, the phenol is distilled. Phenol has also been crystallised from a 75% w/w solution in water by cooling to 11o and seeding with a crystal of the hydrate. The crystals are centrifuged off, rinsed with cold water (0-2o), saturated with phenol, and dried. It can be crystallised from pet ether [Berasconi & Paschalis J Am Chem Soc 108 2969 1986]. Draper and Pollard [Science 109 448 1949] added 12% water, 0.1% aluminium (can also use zinc) and 0.05% NaHCO3 to phenol, and distilled it at atmospheric pressure until the azeotrope was removed, The phenol was then distilled at 25mm. Phenol has also been dried by distillation from the *benzene solution to remove the water/*benzene azeotrope and the excess *benzene, followed by distillation of the phenol at reduced pressure under nitrogen. Processes such as this are probably adequate for analytical grade phenol which has as its main impurity water. Phenol has also been crystallised from pet ether/*benzene or pet ether (b 40-60o). The purified material is stored in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5 or CaSO4. [Beilstein 6 IV 531.]

Inkompatibilitäten

Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. The aqueous solution is a weak acid. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, calcium hypochlorite; aluminum chloride. acids. Reacts with metals.

Inkompatibilitäten

Phenol undergoes a number of chemical reactions characteristic of alcohols; however, it possesses a tautomeric enol structure that is weakly acidic. It will form salts with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, but not with their carbonates or bicarbonates.
Phenol is a reducing agent and is capable of reacting with ferric salts in neutral to acidic solutions to form a greenish-colored complex. Phenol decolorizes dilute iodine solutions, forming hydrogen iodide and iodophenol; stronger solutions of iodine react with phenol to form the insoluble 2,4,6-triiodophenol.
Phenol is incompatible with albumin and gelatin as they are precipitated. It forms a liquid or soft mass when triturated with compounds such as camphor, menthol, thymol, acetaminophen, phenacetin, chloral hydrate, phenazone, ethyl aminobenzoate, methenamine, phenyl salicylate, resorcinol, terpin hydrate, sodium phosphate, or other eutectic formers. Phenol also softens cocoa butter in suppository mixtures.

Waste disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration.

Vorsichtsmaßnahmen

Acute poisoning of phenol by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact may lead to death. Phenol is readily absorbed through the skin. It is highly toxic by inhalation. It is corrosive and causes burns and severe irritation effects. During use and handling of phenol, occupational workers should be very careful. Workers should use protective clothing, rubber boots, and goggles to protect the eyes from vapors and spillage.

Regulatory Status

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (injections). Included in medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Phenol Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Phenol Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 502)Lieferanten
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Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
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Standardpharm Co. Ltd.
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108-95-2(Phenol)Verwandte Suche:


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