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Palladium Produkt Beschreibung

Palladium Struktur
7440-05-3
CAS-Nr.
7440-05-3
Bezeichnung:
Palladium
Englisch Name:
Palladium
Synonyma:
1%PD;10%Pd;PD007940;PD004700;PD005146;PD000260;PD005116;PD000202;PD007200;PD007260
CBNumber:
CB5854181
Summenformel:
Pd
Molgewicht:
106.42
MOL-Datei:
7440-05-3.mol

Palladium Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
1554 °C(lit.)
Siedepunkt:
2970 °C(lit.)
Dichte
1.025 g/mL at 25 °C
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
Aggregatzustand
wire
Farbe
Silver-gray
Wichte
12.03
Geruch (Odor)
Odorless
Widerstand (resistivity)
9.96 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Wasserlöslichkeit
INSOLUBLE
Merck 
14,6989
Stabilität:
Stable. Flammable - fine powder may cause fire or explosion in air. Incompatible with ozone, sodium tetrahydroborate, sulphur, arsenic.
InChIKey
KDLHZDBZIXYQEI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS Datenbank
7440-05-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
Palladium(7440-05-3)
EPA chemische Informationen
Palladium (7440-05-3)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher T,F,Xi
R-Sätze: 61-33-37/38-40-41-36/37/38-11
S-Sätze: 53-26-36/37/39-24/25-36-22
RIDADR  UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany  -
RTECS-Nr. RT3480500
Selbstentzündungstemperatur >1120 °F
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  4.1
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  28439000
Giftige Stoffe Daten 7440-05-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 oral (rat) 200 mg/kg (palladium chloride)
LC50 intratracheal (rat) 6 mg/kg (palladium chloride)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H228 Entzündbarer Feststoff. Entzündbare Feststoffe Kategorie 1 Achtung
Warnung
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H252 In großen Mengen selbsterhitzungsfähig; kann in Brand geraten. Self-heating substances and mixtures Category 2 Warnung P235+P410, P280, P407, P413, P420
H315 Verursacht Hautreizungen. Hautreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H333 May be harmful if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 5 P304+P312
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
H360 Kann die Fruchtbarkeit beeinträchtigen oder das Kind im Mutterleib schädigen. Fertility (Fruchtbarkeit) Kategorie 1 Achtung
H401 Toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 2 P273, P501
H402 Harmful to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 3
H411 Giftig für Wasserorganismen, mit langfristiger Wirkung. Langfristig (chronisch) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 2
Sicherheit
P201 Vor Gebrauch besondere Anweisungen einholen.
P202 Vor Gebrauch alle Sicherheitshinweise lesen und verstehen.
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P240 Behälter und zu befüllende Anlage erden.
P241 Explosionsgeschützte [elektrische/Lüftungs-/ Beleuchtungs-/...] Geräte verwenden.
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P235+P410 Kühl halten. Vor Sonnenbestrahlung schützen.
P304+P340 BEI EINATMEN: Die Person an die frische Luft bringen und für ungehinderte Atmung sorgen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.
P420 Von anderen Materialien entfernt aufbewahren.

Palladium Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R61:Kann das Kind im Mutterleib schädigen.
R33:Gefahr kumulativer Wirkungen.
R37/38:Reizt die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.
R41:Gefahr ernster Augenschäden.
R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R11:Leichtentzündlich.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S53:Exposition vermeiden - vor Gebrauch besondere Anweisungen einholen.
S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S22:Staub nicht einatmen.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

Pd, schwarzes Metallpulver

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Palladium ist ein entzündlicher Feststoff, der bei Brand giftige Dämpfe freisetzt. Ein Gemisch mit brennbaren Substanzen sind leichtentzündlich und brennen auch unter Luftabschluß heftig ab. Kann in Pulverform zu einer Staubexplosion führen.
Dämpfe wirken stark reizend auf Augen, Atmungsorgane und die Haut.

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Unbedingt im Abzug arbeiten. Von brennbaren Stoffen und Zündquellen fernhalten. Immer unter Inertgas aufbewahren und Behälter an gut gelüfteten Ort aufbewahren.
Staubmaske
Schutzbrille mit Seitenschutz und oberer Augenraumabdeckung

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Staubbildung vermeiden. Mechanisch aufnehmen. Bei Feuer und damit verbundender Freisetzung von giftigen Dämpfen Saal räumen.
Wasser, Schaum, Kohlendioxid, Löschpulver

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Bei berührung mit der Haut sofort mit viel Wasser und Seife abwaschen.
Nach Augenkontakt: 15 min bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mittels Augendusche spülen, Arzt konsultieren.
Nach Einatmen: Nach Einatmen Person an frische Luft bringen.
Nach Verschlucken: Bei Verschluken Wasser trinken lassen. Den Betroffenen nur bei vollen Bewußstsein selbsttätig erbrechen lassen. Sofort Arzt hinzuziehen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

Katalytisch wirksame Metalle sollten zum erneuten Gebrauch zurückgewonnen werden.

Beschreibung

Palladium was discovered in 1803 by W.H. Wollaston during refining and purification of- platinum metal. This new metal was found in the aqua regia extract of native platinum and was detected in solution after platinum was precipitated. It was removed as ammonium chloroplatinate. Treating this solution with mercurous cyanide precipitated a yellow palladium complex salt. The precipitate was washed and ignited to form palladium metal. Wollaston named the element palladium after the newly discovered asteroid Pallas.
Palladium in nature is always associated with other platinum group metals. Its abundance in earth's crust is estimated at 0.015 mg/kg, about three times more abundant than platinum. Palladium is used mostly in alloys and the majority of its alloys are used for electronics and telecommunications. They are contacts in electrical relays and automatic switching gear. Palladium-gold alloys are applied widely in dentistry and medicine. They are in devices for replacement of damaged bones and joints and as support in porcelain-overlay bridgework. Palladium alloys are used in decoration and jewelry as a substitute for gold. They are used in gems, watch cases and brooches.
One of the most important applications of palladium is to catalyze hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, and petroleum cracking. Such reactions are widely employed in organic syntheses and petroleum refining. Palladium and platinum are installed in catalytic converters in automobiles to cut down the emission of unsaturated hydrocarbon gasses.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Palladium, a transition element belonging to group III in the periodic table (nickel group) and light platinum metals, is a medium-hard, moderately forgeable, and ductile silverwhite metal.  Soluble in aqua regia, hot nitric acid, sulfuric acid, slightly soluble in hydrochloric acid, insoluble in cold water and hot water. In its compounds, palladium usually assumes oxidation state +2 and +4, forming bivalent and tetravalent salts.
Palladium
Palladium occurs in the form of six isotopes: 102Pd (1.0%), 104Pd (11%), 105Pd (22.2%), 106Pd (27.3%), 108Pd (26.7%), and 110Pd (11.8%). Insignificant quantities of palladium can be found in the lithosphere in the form of native palladium and allopalladium, PdPt and PdAu alloys, and as a contaminant of silver and nickel ores. Red heating of palladium results in a volatile palladium oxide, PdO2. At elevated temperatures, palladium can react with fluorine or chlorine to form palladium dihalides. It also reacts with sulfuric and nitric acids and slightly with hydrochloric acid. When palladium is heated in the presence of sulfur or phosphorus, palladium sulfides or phosphides are formed, respectively.
A characteristic feature of palladium is its high hydrogen absorption, which allows for its use in the form of palladium sponge or palladium black as a catalyst in reduction processes. Contrary to other platinum metals, palladium is considerably less resistant to chemicals. At elevated temperatures, palladium reacts with oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, sulfur, and selenium. Palladium dust may constitute fire and explosion hazards. Palladium compounds show different water solubility. Palladium is soluble only in nitric and sulfuric acids, as well as in aqua regia; its compounds such as PdCl2, K2(PdCl4), and (NH3)2PdCl2 are soluble in water.

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Palladium is the middle element in group 10 of the transition elements (periods 4, 5, and6). Many of its properties are similar to nickel located above it and platinum just below it inthis group.
Palladium is a soft, silvery-white metal whose chemical and physical properties closelyresemble platinum. It is mostly found with deposits of other metals. It is malleable and ductile,which means it can be worked into thin sheets and drawn through a die to form very thinwires. It does not corrode. Its melting point is 1,554°C, its boiling point is 3,140°C, and itsdensity is 12.02 g/cm3.

Isotopes

There are 42 isotopes of palladium, ranging from Pd-91 to Pd-124. All but sixare radioactive and artificially produced in nuclear reactors with half-lives ranging from159 nanoseconds to 6.5×10+6 years. The six stable isotopes of palladium and theirproportional contribution to their existence in the Earth’s crust are as follows: Pd-102 =1.02%, Pd-104 = 11.14%, Pd-105 = 22.23%, Pd-106 = 27.33%, Pd-108 = 26.46%,and Pd-110 = 11.72%.

Origin of Name

Palladium is named after the asteroid Pallas, which was discovered at about the same time as the element. Pallas is the name of two mythological Greek figures, one male and the other female.

Occurrence

Palladium is considered a rare metal, making up only about 1 part per 100 million partsof the Earth’s crust. It is considered the 77th most abundant element on Earth, although it is seldom found in pure states. Rather, it is mixed with other metals or in compounds of palladium.
It was originally found in gold ores from Brazil, where the miners thought the gold wascontaminated by what they referred to as “white gold.” Later, it was considered an alloy combinationof palladium and gold.
Deposits of ores containing palladium, as well as other metals, are found in Siberia and theUral Mountains of Russia, Canada, and South Africa, as well as in South America.

Charakteristisch

One of palladium’s unique characteristics is its ability to absorb 900 times its own volumeof hydrogen gas. When the surface of the pure metal is exposed to hydrogen gas (H2), the gasmolecules break into atomic hydrogen. These hydrogen atoms then seep into the holes in thecrystal structure of the metal. The result is a metallic hydride (PdH0.5) that changes palladiumfrom an electrical conductor to a semiconductor. The compound palladium dichloride (PdCl2)also has the ability to absorb large quantities of carbon monoxide (CO). These characteristicsare useful for many commercial applications. Palladium is the most reactive of all the platinumfamily of elements (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Is, and Pt.)

History

Discovered in 1803 by Wollaston. Palladium is found along with platinum and other metals of the platinum group in deposits of Russia, South Africa, Canada (Ontario), and elsewhere. Natural palladium contains six stable isotopes. Twenty-nine other isotopes are recognized, all of which are radioactive. It is frequently found associated with the nickel-copper deposits such as those found in Ontario. Its separation from the platinum metals depends upon the type of ore in which it is found. It is a steel-white metal, does not tarnish in air, and is the least dense and lowest melting of the platinum group of metals. When annealed, it is soft and ductile; cold working greatly increases its strength and hardness. Palladium is attacked by nitric and sulfuric acid. At room temperatures the metal has the unusual property of absorbing up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen, possibly forming Pd2H. It is not yet clear if this a true compound. Hydrogen readily diffuses through heated palladium and this provides a means of purifying the gas. Finely divided palladium is a good catalyst and is used for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. It is alloyed and used in jewelry trades. White gold is an alloy of gold decolorized by the addition of palladium. Like gold, palladium can be beaten into leaf as thin as 1/250,000 in. The metal is used in dentistry, watchmaking, and in making surgical instruments and electrical contacts. Palladium recently has been substituted for higher priced platinum in catalytic converters by some automobile companies. This has caused a large increase in the cost of palladium. The prices of the two metals are now, in 2002, about the same. Palladium, however, is less resistant to poisoning by sulfur and lead than platinum, but it may prove useful in controlling emissions from diesel vehicles. The metal sells for about $350/tr. oz. ($11/g).

Verwenden

Palladium’s ability to absorb large amounts of hydrogen makes it an excellent catalyst forchemical reactions as well as catalytic converters for internal combustion engines. Palladiumis also an excellent catalyst for cracking petroleum fractions and for hydrogenation of liquidvegetable oils into solid forms, such as corn oil into margarine. It is also used to purifyhydrogen gas by passing raw H2 gas under pressure through thin sheets of palladium, wherethe pure hydrogen passes through the metal’s crystal structure, leaving behind impurities.Palladium is used to manufacture CO-monitoring devices because of its ability to absorbcarbon monoxide.
Palladium is used in the manufacture of surgical instruments, electrical contacts, springs forwatches and clocks, high-quality spark plugs, and special wires and as “white gold” in jewelry.Because it is noncorrosive, it is used as a coating for other metals and to make dental fillingsand crowns.

Verwenden

Palladium is a soft white metal found in copper and nickel ores. The chloride compound of this element was used after the turn of the century for printing and also in combination with platinum for printing.
Palladium is a transition metal element used in catalytic reactions involving processes such as hydrogenation. Lindlar Catalyst.
In form of gold, silver, and copper alloys in dentistry; for alloy bearings, springs, balance wheels of watches; for mirrors in astronomical instruments; as catalyzer in manufacture of sulfuric acid and in other oxidizing processes; in powder form as catalyst in hydrogenation and in ignition of hydrogen or hydrocarbons with oxygen; the spongy form is used in gas analysis for separating hydrogen from mixtures of gases.

Vorbereitung Methode

Palladium and platinum have been used since 1974 as catalyst to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide in automobile engines and in hydrocarbon conversion. This use of palladium results in palladium being emitted as solid particles with automotive exhaust gases.

synthetische

It can be made from the ore with dry process in Industrial production; can also copper, nickel sulfide ore preparation of copper, nickel production process as a by-product as raw materials, made by wet smelting. It can also be obtained from the wet process with the byproduct of copper, nickel production from the copper sulfide ore or nickel sulfide ore.
The wet method is using the residue of extracted nickel and copper as raw materials, adding aqua for extraction, filtration, adding ammonia and hydrochloric acid to react, thus forming the precipitation of ammonium chloropalladate. After refining, filtration, reduction of ammonium chloropalladate with hydrogen 99.95% finished product of palladium can be obtained.

Definition

palladium: Symbol Pd. A soft whiteductile transition element (see alsoplatinum metals); a.n. 46; r.a.m.106.4; r.d. 12.02; m.p. 1552°C; b.p.3140±1°C. It occurs in some copperand nickel ores and is used in jewelleryand as a catalyst for hydrogenationreactions. Chemically, itdoes not react with oxygen at normaltemperatures. It dissolves slowly inhydrochloric acid. Palladium is capableof occluding 900 times its ownvolume of hydrogen. It forms fewsimple salts, most compounds beingcomplexes of palladium(II) with somepalladium(IV). It was discovered byWilliam Woolaston (1766–1828) in1803.

Definition

ChEBI: Chemical element (nickel group element atom) with atomic number 46.

Reaktionen

Among the platinum group metals, palladium is the least noble metal, exhibiting greater reactivity than other metals of the group. The metal forms mostly bivalent compounds, although a small number of tetravalent and a fewer trivalent compounds are known. Palladium exhibits a strong tendency to form complexes, most of which are four-coordinated square planar complexes of the metal in +2 oxidation state. When heated in air or oxygen above 350°C, palladium forms a black oxide, PdO coated over its surface. On further heating to over 790°C, the oxide decomposes back to the metal. Palladium dissolves more oxygen in molten state than in solid form.
Palladium reacts with fluorine and chlorine at 500°C forming its halides, the black PdF3 and the red deliquescent solid PdCl2.
Palladium is attacked by concentrated nitric acid, particularly in the presence of nitrogen oxides. The reaction is slow in dilute nitric acid. Finely divided palladium metal reacts with warm nitric acid forming palladium(II) nitrate, Pd(NO3)2. Hydrochloric acid has no affect on the metal. Reaction with boiling sulfuric acid yields palladium sulfate, PdSO4, and sulfur dioxide.
Palladium readily dissolves in aqua regia forming chloropalladic acid, H2PdCl6. Evaporation of this solution yields palladium(II) chloride, PdCl2.
Palladium absorbs hydrogen over 800 times its own volume over a range of temperature. By doing so, the metal swells, becoming brittle and cracked. Such absorption of hydrogen decreases the electrical conductivity of the metal. Also, such absorption activates molecular hydrogen, dissociating it to atomic hydrogen.

Hazard

Palladium is not combustible except as fine powder or dust. Several of palladium’s compoundsare oxidizing agents, and some react violently with organic substances.

Flammability and Explosibility

Palladium on carbon catalysts containing adsorbed hydrogen are pyrophoric, particularly when dry and at elevated temperatures. Palladium on carbon catalysts prepared by formaldehyde reduction are less pyrophoric than those reduced with hydrogen. Finely divided carbon, like most materials in powder form, is capable of creating a dust explosion.

Industrielle Verwendung

A rare metal, palladium (symbol Pd) is foundin the ores of platinum. It resembles platinum,but is slightly harder and lighter in weight andhas a more beautiful silvery luster. It is onlyhalf as plentiful but is less costly. The specificgravity is 12.10 and the melting point is1552°C. Annealed, the metal has a hardness ofBrinell 40 and a tensile strength of 186 MPa.
It is highly resistant to corrosion and toattack by acids, but, like gold, it is dissolved inaqua regia. It alloys readily with gold and isused in some white golds. It alloys in all proportionswith platinum and the alloys are harderthan either constituent.
Palladium is soft and ductile and can be fabricatedinto wire and sheet. The metal forms ductilealloys with a broad range of elements. Palladiumis not tarnished by dry or moist air atordinary temperatures. At temperatures from350 to 790°C a thin protective oxide forms inair, but at temperatures from 790°C this filmdecomposes by oxygen loss, leaving the brightmetal. In the presence of industrial sulfur-containinggases a slight brownish tarnish develops;however, alloying palladium with small amountsof iridium or rhodium prevents this action.
The major applications of palladium are in theelectronics industry, where it is used as an alloywith silver for electrical contacts or in pastes inminiature solid-state devices and in integratedcircuits. Palladium is widely used in dentistryas a substitute for gold. Other consumer applicationsare in automobile exhaust catalysts andjewelry.

Lager

In particular, palladium on carbon should always be handled under an inert atmosphere (preferably argon), and reaction vessels should be flushed with inert gas before the catalyst is added. Dry catalyst should never be added to an organic solvent in the presence of air. Palladium on carbon recovered from catalytic hydrogenation reactions by filtration requires careful handling because it is usually saturated with hydrogen and will ignite spontaneously on exposure to air. The filter cake should never be allowed to dry, and the moist material should be added to a large quantity of water and disposed of properly.

Inkompatibilitäten

Catalysts prepared on high surface area supports are highly active and readily cause ignition of hydrogen/air and solvent/air mixtures. Methanol is notable for easy ignition because of its high volatility. Addition of catalyst to a tetrahydroborate solution may cause ignition of liberated hydrogen.

Waste disposal

Excess palladium on carbon and waste material containing this substance should be covered in water, placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines.

Palladium Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Palladium Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 333)Lieferanten
Firmenname Telefon Fax E-Mail Land Produktkatalog Edge Rate
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 linda@hubeijusheng.com CHINA 28231 58
Capot Chemical Co.,Ltd.
+86(0)13336195806 +86-571-85586718
+86-571-85864795 sales@capotchem.com China 19929 60
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-55531817
info@dakenchem.com CHINA 21841 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 22624 55
AB PharmaTech,LLC
323-480-4688
323-480-4688 sales01@abpharmatechusa.com United States 989 55
Shanghai Zheyan Biotech Co., Ltd.
18017610038
zheyansh@163.com CHINA 3623 58
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258
sales@coreychem.com CHINA 30039 58
Accela ChemBio Inc.
(+1)-858-699-3322
(+1)-858-876-1948 info@accelachem.com United States 19988 58
Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd
86-531-88032799
+86 531 8582 1093 export@haihangchem.com CHINA 10206 58
Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8619930501651
whatsapp: +8619930501651 breeduan@crovellbio.com CHINA 2586 58

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  • PALLADIUM FOIL 0.1 MM THICK (3G 20X20MM) (99.95%)
  • PALLADIUM POWDER 10-20 NM 99.9%
  • PALLADIUM, 5% ON CALCIUM CARBONATE LEAD (1.6%) POISONED (LINDLAR CATALYST), REDUCED, DRY (ESCAT 1391)
  • PALLADIUM (ON ACTIVE CARBON, 10%, WETTED WITH CA. 53% WATER)
  • Paladium(Metal)Powder
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