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Poly(ethylene glycol) Produkt Beschreibung

Poly(ethylene glycol) Struktur
25322-68-3
CAS-Nr.
25322-68-3
Englisch Name:
Poly(ethylene glycol)
Synonyma:
PEO;PEG;hm500;peo18;PEG50;PEG-8;PEG-4;PEG-7;HM 500;M 9000
CBNumber:
CB6145866
Summenformel:
N/A
Molgewicht:
0
MOL-Datei:
25322-68-3.mol

Poly(ethylene glycol) Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
64-66 °C
Siedepunkt:
>250°C
Dichte
1.27 g/mL at 25 °C
Dampfdichte
>1 (vs air)
Dampfdruck
<0.01 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
Brechungsindex
n20/D 1.469
Flammpunkt:
270 °C
storage temp. 
2-8°C
Löslichkeit
H2O: 50 mg/mL, clear, colorless
Aggregatzustand
waxy solid
Farbe
White to very pale yellow
Wichte
1.128
PH
5.5-7.0 (25℃, 50mg/mL in H2O)
Wasserlöslichkeit
Soluble in water.
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
maximale Wellenlänge (λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.6
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.3
Merck 
14,7568
Stabilität:
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
NIST chemische Informationen
Polyethylene glycol(25322-68-3)
EPA chemische Informationen
Polyethylene glycol (25322-68-3)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher Xi,T
R-Sätze: 36/38-52/53-33-23/24/25
S-Sätze: 26-36-24/25-61-45-36/37
WGK Germany  3
RTECS-Nr. TQ4110000
3-9
Selbstentzündungstemperatur 581 °F
Hazard Note  Harmful
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  39072011
Giftige Stoffe Daten 25322-68-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 orally in Rabbit: 28000 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit > 20000 mg/kg
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H302 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 4 Warnung P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H311 Giftig bei Hautkontakt. Akute Toxizität dermal Kategorie 3 Achtung P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H373 Kann die Organe schädigen bei längerer oder wiederholter Exposition. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (wiederholte Exposition) Kategorie 2 Warnung P260, P314, P501
H411 Giftig für Wasserorganismen, mit langfristiger Wirkung. Langfristig (chronisch) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 2
Sicherheit
P273 Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P391 Verschüttete Mengen aufnehmen.
P501 Inhalt/Behälter ... (Entsorgungsvorschriften vom Hersteller anzugeben) zuführen.

Poly(ethylene glycol) Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

FARBLOSE, VISKOSE, LEICHT HYGROSKOPISCHE FLüSSIGKEIT.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: (Einatembare Fraktion) 1000 mg/m? Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor II(8); Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; (DFG 2005).

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Eine belästigende Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann beim Dispergieren schnell erreicht werden.

LECKAGE

Ausgelaufene Flüssigkeit in abgedeckten Behältern sammeln. Verschüttete Flüssigkeit mit viel Wasser wegspülen.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R36/38:Reizt die Augen und die Haut.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.

Beschreibung

Polyethylene glycols are a family of linear polymers formed by a base-catalyzed condensation reaction with repeating ethylene oxide units being added to ethylene. The molecular formula is (C2H4O)multH2O where mult denotes the average number of oxyethylene groups. The molecular weight can range from 200 to several million corresponding to the number of oxyethylene groups. The higher-molecular-weight materials (100 000 to 5 000 000) are also referred to as polyethylene oxides. The average molecular weight of any specific polyethylene glycol product falls within quite narrow limits (°5%). The number of ethylene oxide units or their approximate molecular weight (e.g., PEG-4 or PEG-200) commonly designates the nomenclature of specific polyethylene glycols. Polyethylene glycols with amolecular weight less than 600 are liquid, whereas those of molecular weight 1000 and above are solid. These materials are nonvolatile, water-soluble, tasteless, and odorless. They are miscible with water, alcohols, esters, ketones, aromatic solvents, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, but immiscible with alkanes, paraffins, waxes, and ethers.

Chemische Eigenschaften

The USP32–NF27 describes polyethylene glycol as being an addition polymer of ethylene oxide and water. Polyethylene glycol grades 200–600 are liquids; grades 1000 and above are solids at ambient temperatures.
Liquid grades (PEG 200–600) occur as clear, colorless or slightly yellow-colored, viscous liquids. They have a slight but characteristic odor and a bitter, slightly burning taste. PEG 600 can occur as a solid at ambient temperatures.
Solid grades (PEG>1000) are white or off-white in color, and range in consistency from pastes to waxy flakes. They have a faint, sweet odor. Grades of PEG 6000 and above are available as freeflowing milled powders.

Chemische Eigenschaften

White waxy crystalline flakes

Originator

MiraLax ,Braintree Laboratories

Verwenden

Polyethylene Glycol is a binder, coating agent, dispersing agent, flavoring adjuvant, and plasticizing agent that is a clear, colorless, viscous, hygroscopic liquid resembling paraffin (white, waxy, or flakes), with a ph of 4.0–7.5 in 1:20 concentration. it is soluble in water (mw 1,000) and many organic solvents.

Verwenden

Used in conjunction with carbon black to form a conductive composite.1 Polymer nanospheres of poly(ethylene glycol) were used for drug delivery.2

Verwenden

Poly(ethylene Glycol) molecules of approximately 2000 monomers. Poly(ethylene Glycol) is used in various applications from industrial chemistry to biological chemistry. Recent research has shown PEG m aintains the ability to aid the spinal cord injury recovery process, helping the nerve impulse conduction process in animals. In rats, it has been shown to aid in the repair of severed sciatic axons, helping with nerve damage recovery. It is industrially produced as a lubricating substance for various surfaces to reduce friction. PEG is also used in the preparation of vesicle transport systems in with application towards diagnostic procedures or drug delivery methods.

Verwenden

H2 histamine receptor antagonist, anti-ulcer agent

Verwenden

nonionic emulsifier

Verwenden

A polymer used to precipitate proteins, viruses, DNA and RNA

Verwenden

polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a binder, solvent, plasticizing agent, and softener widely used for cosmetic cream bases and pharmaceutical ointments. Pegs are quite humectant up to a molecular weight of 500. Beyond this weight, their water uptake diminishes.

Definition

Any of several condensa-tion polymers of ethylene glycol with thegeneral formula HOCH2(CH2OCH2)nCH2OH orH(OCH2CH2)nOH. Average molecular weightsrange from 200 to 6000. Properties vary with molec-ular weight.

Vorbereitung Methode

Polyethylene glycol polymers are formed by the reaction of ethylene oxide and water under pressure in the presence of a catalyst.

Indications

Polyethylene glycol (Miralax) is another osmotic laxative that is colorless and tasteless once it is mixed.

Manufacturing Process

Polyethylene glycol 3350 was obtained by polymerization of ethylene oxide in an autoclave at 80-100°C using as a catalyst dipotassium alcogolate of polyethylene glycol 400.
Dipotassium alcogolate of polyethylene glycol 400 was synthesized by a heating of the dry mixture of polyethylene glycol 400 and potassium hydroxide. The molecular weight of polymer was regulated by the ratio of monomer:catalyst.

Trademarks

Atpeg 4000 (ICI Americas).

Therapeutic Function

Laxative

Allgemeine Beschreibung

Clear colorless viscous liquid.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Water soluble.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Poly(ethylene glycol) is heat-stable and inert to many chemical agents; Poly(ethylene glycol) will not hydrolyze or deteriorate under normal conditions. Poly(ethylene glycol) has a solvent action on some plastics.

Brandgefahr

Poly(ethylene glycol) is combustible.

Pharmazeutische Anwendungen

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations, including parenteral, topical, ophthalmic, oral, and rectal preparations. Polyethylene glycol has been used experimentally in biodegradable polymeric matrices used in controlled-release systems.
Polyethylene glycols are stable, hydrophilic substances that are essentially nonirritant to the skin;They do not readily penetrate the skin, although the polyethylene glycols are water-soluble and are easily removed from the skin by washing, making them useful as ointment bases.Solid grades are generally employed in topical ointments, with the consistency of the base being adjusted by the addition of liquid grades of polyethylene glycol.
Mixtures of polyethylene glycols can be used as suppository bases,for which they have many advantages over fats. For example, the melting point of the suppository can be made higher to withstand exposure to warmer climates; release of the drug is not dependent upon melting point; the physical stability on storage is better; and suppositories are readily miscible with rectal fluids. Polyethylene glycols have the following disadvantages: they are chemically more reactive than fats; greater care is needed in processing to avoid inelegant contraction holes in the suppositories; the rate of release of water-soluble medications decreases with the increasing molecular weight of the polyethylene glycol; and polyethylene glycols tend to be more irritating to mucous membranes than fats.
Aqueous polyethylene glycol solutions can be used either as suspending agents or to adjust the viscosity and consistency of other suspending vehicles. When used in conjunction with other emulsifiers, polyethylene glycols can act as emulsion stabilizers. Liquid polyethylene glycols are used as water-miscible solvents for the contents of soft gelatin capsules. However, they may cause hardening of the capsule shell by preferential absorption of moisture from gelatin in the shell.
In concentrations up to approximately 30% v/v, PEG 300 and PEG 400 have been used as the vehicle for parenteral dosage forms. In solid-dosage formulations, higher-molecular-weight polyethylene glycols can enhance the effectiveness of tablet binders and impart plasticity to granules.However, they have only limited binding action when used alone, and can prolong disintegration if present in concentrations greater than 5% w/w. When used for thermoplastic granulations,a mixture of the powdered constituents with 10–15% w/w PEG 6000 is heated to 70–75°C. The mass becomes pastelike and forms granules if stirred while cooling. This technique is useful for the preparation of dosage forms such as lozenges when prolonged disintegration is required. Polyethylene glycols can also be used to enhance the aqueous solubility or dissolution characteristics of poorly soluble compounds by making solid dispersions with an appropriate polyethylene glycol.Animal studies have also been performed using polyethylene glycols as solvents for steroids in osmotic pumps. In film coatings, solid grades of polyethylene glycol can be used alone for the film-coating of tablets or can be useful as hydrophilic polishing materials. Solid grades are also widely used as plasticizers in conjunction with film-forming polymers.The presence of polyethylene glycols in film coats, especially of liquid grades, tends to increase their water permeability and may reduce protection against low pH in enteric-coating films. Polyethylene glycols are useful as plasticizers in microencapsulated products to avoid rupture of the coating film when the microcapsules are compressed into tablets.
Polyethylene glycol grades with molecular weights of 6000 and above can be used as lubricants, particularly for soluble tablets. The lubricant action is not as good as that of magnesium stearate, and stickiness may develop if the material becomes too warm during compression. An antiadherent effect is also exe

Biochem/physiol Actions

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) helps in the purification and crystal growth of proteins and nucleic acids. PEG also interacts with cell membrane, thereby allowing cell fusion.

Sicherheitsprofil

When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Sicherheit(Safety)

Polyethylene glycols are widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations. Generally, they are regarded as nontoxic and nonirritant materials.
Adverse reactions to polyethylene glycols have been reported, the greatest toxicity being with glycols of low molecular weight. However, the toxicity of glycols is relatively low.
Polyethylene glycols administered topically may cause stinging, especially when applied to mucous membranes. Hypersensitivity reactions to polyethylene glycols applied topically have also been reported, including urticaria and delayed allergic reactions.
The most serious adverse effects associated with polyethylene glycols are hyperosmolarity, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure following the topical use of polyethylene glycols in burn patients. Topical preparations containing polyethylene glycols should therefore be used cautiously in patients with renal failure, extensive burns, or open wounds.
Oral administration of large quantities of polyethylene glycols can have a laxative effect. Therapeutically, up to 4 L of an aqueous mixture of electrolytes and high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol is consumed by patients undergoing bowel cleansing.
Liquid polyethylene glycols may be absorbed when taken orally, but the higher-molecular-weight polyethylene glycols are not significantly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Absorbed polyethylene glycol is excreted largely unchanged in the urine, although polyethylene glycols of low molecular weight may be partially metabolized.
The WHO has set an estimated acceptable daily intake of polyethylene glycols at up to 10 mg/kg body-weight.
In parenteral products, the maximum recommended concentration of PEG 300 is approximately 30% v/v as hemolytic effects have been observed at concentrations greater than about 40% v/v

Environmental Fate

Like other polymeric substances, polyethylene glycols are not readily biodegradable, with reported 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 0–1%. However, owing to their hydrophilicity, they have a low potential to bioaccumulate.

Lager

Polyethylene glycols are chemically stable in air and in solution, although grades with a molecular weight less than 2000 are hygroscopic. Polyethylene glycols do not support microbial growth, and they do not become rancid.
Polyethylene glycols and aqueous polyethylene glycol solutions can be sterilized by autoclaving, filtration, or gamma irradiation.
Sterilization of solid grades by dry heat at 150℃ for 1 hour may induce oxidation, darkening, and the formation of acidic degradation products. Ideally, sterilization should be carried out in an inert atmosphere. Oxidation of polyethylene glycols may also be inhibited by the inclusion of a suitable antioxidant.
If heated tanks are used to maintain normally solid polyethylene glycols in a molten state, care must be taken to avoid contamination with iron, which can lead to discoloration. The temperature must be kept to the minimum necessary to ensure fluidity; oxidation may occur if polyethylene glycols are exposed for long periods to temperatures exceeding 50℃. However, storage under nitrogen reduces the possibility of oxidation.
Polyethylene glycols should be stored in well-closed containers in a cool, dry place. Stainless steel, aluminum, glass, or lined steel containers are preferred for the storage of liquid grades.

läuterung methode

PEG is available commercially as a powder or as a solution in various degrees of polymerization depending on the average molecular weight, e.g. PEG 400 and PEG 800 have average molecular weights of 400 and 800, respectively. They may be contaminated with aldehydes and peroxides. Solutions deteriorate in the presence of air due to the formation of these contaminants. Methods available for purification are as follows: Procedure A: A 40% aqueous solution of PEG 400 (2L, average molecular weight 400) is de-aerated under vacuum and made 10mM in sodium thiosulfate. After standing for 1hour at 25o, the solution is passed through a column (2.5x20cm) of mixed-bed R-208 resin which has a 5cm layer of Dowex 50-H+ at the bottom of the column. The column was previously flushed with 30% aqueous MeOH, then thoroughly with H2O. A flow rate of 1mL/minute is maintained by adjusting the fluid head. The first 200mL are discarded, and the effluent is then collected at an increased flow rate. The concentration of PEG solution is checked by density measurement, and it is stored (preferably anaerobically) at 15o. Procedure B: A solution of PEG 800 (500g in 805mL H2O) is made 1mM in H2SO4 and stirred overnight at 25o with 10g of treated Dowex 50-H+ (8% crosslinked, 20-50 mesh). The resin, after settling, is filtered off on a sintered glass funnel. The filtrate is treated at 25o with 1.5g of NaBH4 (added over a period of 1minute) in a beaker with tight but removable lid through which a propeller-type mechanical stirrer is inserted and continuously flushed with N2. After 15minutes, 15g of fresh Dowex 50-H+ are added, and the rate of stirring is adjusted to maintain the resin suspended. The addition of an equal quantity of Dowex 50-H+ is repeated and the reaction times are 30 and 40minutes. The pH of a 1 to 10 dilution of the reaction mixture should remain above pH 8 throughout. If it does not, more NaBH4 is added or the addition of Dowex 50-H+ is curtailed. (Some samples of PEG can be sufficiently acidic, at least after the hydrolysis treatment, to produce a pH that is too low for efficient reduction when the above ratio of NaBH4 to Dowex 50-H+ is used.) About 30minutes after the last addition of NaBH4, small amounts of Dowex 50-H+ (~0.2g) are added at 15minute intervals until the pH of a 1 to 10 dilution of the solution is less than 8. After stirring for an additional 15minutes the resin is allowed to settle, and the solution is transferred to a vacuum flask for brief de-gassing under a vacuum. The de-gassed solution is passed through a column of mixed-bed resin as in procedure A. The final PEG concentration would be about 40% w/v. Assays for aldehydes by the purpural method and of peroxides are given in the reference below. Treatment of Dowex 50-H+ (8% crosslinked, 20-50 mesh): The Dowex (500g) is suspended in excess 2N NaOH, and 3mL of liquid Br2 is stirred into the solution. After the Br2 has dissolved, the treatment is repeated twice, and then the resin is washed with 1N NaOH on a sintered glass funnel until the filtrate is colourless. The resin is then converted to the acid form (with dilute HCl, H2SO4 or AcOH as required) and washed thoroughly with H2O and sucked dry on the funnel. The treated resin can be converted to the Na salt and stored. [Ray & Purathingal Anal Biochem 146 307 1985.]

Toxicity evaluation

Many years of human experience in the workplace and in the use of consumer products containing polyethylene glycols have not shown any adverse health effects, except in situations where very high doses are administered to hypersusceptible individuals or persons with underlying diseases.

Inkompatibilitäten

The chemical reactivity of polyethylene glycols is mainly confined to the two terminal hydroxyl groups, which can be either esterified or etherified. However, all grades can exhibit some oxidizing activity owing to the presence of peroxide impurities and secondary products formed by autoxidation.
Liquid and solid polyethylene glycol grades may be incompatible with some coloring agents.
The antibacterial activity of certain antibiotics is reduced in polyethylene glycol bases, particularly that of penicillin and bacitracin. The preservative efficacy of the parabens may also be impaired owing to binding with polyethylene glycols.
Physical effects caused by polyethylene glycol bases include softening and liquefaction in mixtures with phenol, tannic acid, and salicylic acid. Discoloration of sulfonamides and dithranol can also occur, and sorbitol may be precipitated from mixtures. Plastics, such as polyethylene, phenolformaldehyde, polyvinyl chloride, and cellulose-ester membranes (in filters) may be softened or dissolved by polyethylene glycols. Migration of polyethylene glycol can occur from tablet film coatings, leading to interaction with core components.

Regulatory Status

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; IM and IV injections; ophthalmic preparations; oral capsules, solutions, syrups, and tablets; rectal, topical, and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Poly(ethylene glycol) Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Poly(ethylene glycol) Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 760)Lieferanten
Firmenname Telefon Fax E-Mail Land Produktkatalog Edge Rate
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
+86-0551-65418679
86-0551-65418697 info@tnjchem.com China 3000 55
HENAN BON INDUSTRIAL CO.,LTD
0371-55170695
info@hnbon.com CHINA 26742 58
Jiangxi Alpha Hi-tech Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd
86-51085010237
overseamarketing@alphahi-tech.com CHINA 38 58
Univar Solutions(China) Co., Ltd.
15902132654
86-21-61932700 Ivy.zhuang@univarsolutions.com CHINA 295 58
Qingdao kaimoshi biochemical technology co., ltd.
+(86) 571 87700752
+(86) 571 87700752 info@kaimosi.com CHINA 145 58
HONG KONG IPURE BIOLOGY CO.,LIMITED
18062405514 86 18062405514
ada@ipurechemical.com CHINA 3475 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com China 22607 55
Hebei Henghe Import and Export Trading Co. LTD
18032916000 +8618032935937
demi@hbtycoon.com CHINA 453 58
Capot Chemical Co.,Ltd.
+86(0)13336195806 +86-571-85586718
+86-571-85864795 sales@capotchem.com China 20012 60
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-66670886
info@dakenchem.com China 15427 58

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