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Thulium Produkt Beschreibung

THULIUM Struktur
7440-30-4
CAS-Nr.
7440-30-4
Bezeichnung:
Thulium
Englisch Name:
THULIUM
Synonyma:
THULIUM;TM000215;TM000208;TM000205;TM000200;TM000210;TM005120;TM007910;Thulium-169;DG 18 METAL
CBNumber:
CB6351960
Summenformel:
Tm
Molgewicht:
168.93
MOL-Datei:
7440-30-4.mol

Thulium Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
1545 °C (lit.)
Siedepunkt:
1950 °C (lit.)
Dichte
9.332 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
Aggregatzustand
powder
Farbe
Silver-gray
Wichte
9.332
Widerstand (resistivity)
90 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Wasserlöslichkeit
slowly reacts with H2O; soluble in dilute acids [HAW93]
Sensitive 
Air & Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
13,9471
CAS Datenbank
7440-30-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA chemische Informationen
Thulium (7440-30-4)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher F,Xi,C
R-Sätze: 15-17-36/37-34-23/24/25
S-Sätze: 26-36-43-45-36/37/39-27
RIDADR  UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany  3
10
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  4.1
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  28053090
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H228 Entzündbarer Feststoff. Entzündbare Feststoffe Kategorie 1 Achtung
Warnung
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H260 In Berührung mit Wasser entstehen entzündbare Gase, die sich spontan entzünden können. Stoffe und Gemische, die in Berührung mit Wasser entzündbare Gase entwickeln Kategorie 1 Achtung P223, P231+P232, P280, P335+ P334,P370+P378, P402+P404, P501
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
Sicherheit
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P223 Keinen Kontakt mit Wasser zulassen.
P240 Behälter und zu befüllende Anlage erden.
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P231+P232 Unter inertem Gas handhaben. Vor Feuchtigkeit schützen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.

Thulium Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R15:Reagiert mit Wasser unter Bildung hochentzündlicher Gase.
R17:Selbstentzündlich an der Luft. Spontaneously flammable in air.
R36/37:Reizt die Augen und die Atmungsorgane.
R34:Verursacht Verätzungen.
R23/24/25:Giftig beim Einatmen, Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S43:Zum Löschen . . . (vom Hersteller anzugeben) verwenden (wenn Wasser die Gefahr erhöht, anfügen: "Kein Wasser verwenden").
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S27:Beschmutzte, getränkte Kleidung sofort ausziehen.

Chemische Eigenschaften

grey chips

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Thulium is a naturally occurring rare metal that exists is very small amounts mixed withother rare-earths. It is a bright silvery metal that is malleable and ductile and can be cuteasily with a knife. Its melting point is so high that it is difficult to force it into a meltedstate. Its vapor pressure is also high, and thus, much of the molten thulium evaporates intothe atmosphere. Its melting point is 1,545°C, its boiling point is 2,950°C, and its density is9.32g/cm3.

Isotopes

There are a total of 46 isotopes of thulium. One of these, Tm-169 is the onlystable isotope of thulium and accounts for the total atomic mass of the element. All theother isotopes are artificially produced and radioactive and have half-lives ranging from afew microseconds to two years.

Origin of Name

Named for Thule, the Greek word for Scandinavia, the most northerly habitable land in ancient mythology.

Occurrence

Thulium is the 61st most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and is found along withother rare-earths in monazite sand, which is about 50% rare-earths by weight. Only about0.007% of this is thulium. It is also found in bastnasite ore. It ranks 16th out of the 17 rareearthsin abundance. Thulium is usually found as an oxide along with other rare-earths. Likemost rare-earths, thulium can be separated from its ore by the ion-exchange process, whereits positive ion reacts with elements with negative ions like fluorine, chlorine, or oxygen toform binary compounds (e.g., Tm2O2). It can also be recovered as a by-product of the nuclearfission reaction in nuclear reactors.

History

Discovered in 1879 by Cleve. Thulium occurs in small quantities along with other rare earths in a number of minerals. It is obtained commercially from monazite, which contains about 0.007% of the element. Thulium is the least abundant of the rare-earth elements, but with new sources recently discovered, it is now considered to be about as rare as silver, gold, or cadmium. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have recently permitted much easier separation of the rare earths, with much lower costs. Only a few years ago, thulium metal was not obtainable at any cost; in 1996 the oxide cost $20/g. Thulium metal powder now costs $70/g (99.9%). Thulium can be isolated by reduction of the oxide with lanthanum metal or by calcium reduction of the anhydrous fluoride. The pure metal has a bright, silvery luster. It is reasonably stable in air, but the metal should be protected from moisture in a closed container. The element is silver-gray, soft, malleable, and ductile, and can be cut with a knife. Forty-one isotopes and isomers are known, with atomic masses ranging from 146 to 176. Natural thulium, which is 100% 169Tm, is stable. Because of the relatively high price of the metal, thulium has not yet found many practical applications. 169Tm bombarded in a nuclear reactor can be used as a radiation source in portable X-ray equipment. 171Tm is potentially useful as an energy source. Natural thulium also has possible use in ferrites (ceramic magnetic materials) used in microwave equipment. As with other lanthanides, thulium has a low-to-moderate acute toxicity rating. It should be handled with care.

Charakteristisch

Thulium is near the end of the lanthanide series, where the metals tend to be heavier thanthe ones located near the beginning of the series. It is so scarce that it requires the processing ofabout 500 tons of earth to extract four kilograms of thulium. The only element that is scarceris promethium, which is not found naturally on Earth.

Verwenden

Thulium is relatively scarce and expensive, which limits its commercial uses. Thulium-170,which is a radioactive isotope of thulium produced by fission in nuclear reactors, can be usedas small, portable X-ray sources. It also has limited use as an alloy metal with other metals andhas experimentally been used in lasers. (Note: Of all the isotopes of thulium, only thulium-169 is stable and nonradioactive.)

Verwenden

Thulium(III) carbonate hydrate has specialized uses in ceramics, glass, phosphors, lasers, and also is the important dopant for fibre amplifiers. Thulium(III) carbonate hydrate has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Verwenden

Ferrites, X-ray source.

Definition

Atomic number 69, group IIIB of the periodic table, a rare-earth element of the lanthanide groups, aw168.9342, valence of 3; no stable isotopes.

Definition

A soft malleable ductile silvery element of the lanthanoid series of metals. It occurs in association with other lanthanoids. Symbol: Tm; m.p. 1545°C; b.p. 1947°C; r.d. 9.321 (20°C); p.n. 69; r.a.m. 168.93421.

Definition

thulium: Symbol Tm. A soft greymetallic element belonging to thelanthanoids; a.n. 69; r.a.m. 168.934;r.d. 9.321 (20°C); m.p. 1545°C; b.p.1947°C. It occurs in apatite and xenotime.There is one natural isotope,thulium–169, and seventeen artificialisotopes have been produced. Thereare no uses for the element, whichwas discovered by Per Cleve (1840–1905) in 1879.

Application

Thulium products are mainly used in making crystal and lasers. 
An important application of the thulium in the Medicine area, and relatively independent of its high cost, is the production of portable X-ray sources. These sources are available for about one year, as tools in medical and dental diagnosis, as well as to detect defects in mechanical and electronic inaccessible components. This type of sources does not need excessive protection. Usually a small cap of lead is enough. Thulium can also be used in magnetic and ceramic materials (ferrite), similar to the Yttrium-iron alloys, nowadays used in the microwave technologies.
Thulium Metal, is mainly used in making superalloys, and has some application in ferrites (ceramic magnetic materials) used in microwave equipment and also as a radiation source of portable X-ray. Thulium potentially has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment. it is used in arc lighting for its unusual spectrum.

Vorbereitung Methode

Thulium is recovered from xenotime, gadolinite, euxenite, samarskite, and other minerals. The first step of recovery involves opening the ores. If xenotime, (Y)PO4 is the starting material, the mineral is heated with an excess of sulfuric acid (95%). The product mixture is treated with cold water to separate water-soluble sulfates from unreacted mineral, silica, and other insoluble residues. The solution is filtered and yttrium and the individual rare earths are separated from this solution by ion exchange. The tripositive lanthanide metal ions and yttrium are absorbed on an appropriate cation exchange column and eluted with ammonium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 8.4. The cation-exchange resin is pretreated with an equimolar mixture (1 M) of copper sulfate-sulfuric acid. The various eluate fractions are collected, and are treated with oxalic acid. The metals are precipitated as oxalates. Precipitate from the thulium fraction is calcined at 800°C to convert oxalate into oxide, Tm2O3.
If thulium is to be recovered from gadolinite, Be2Fe(Y)2Si2O10, pulverized mineral is opened by digesting with hot nitric acid-hydrochloric acid mixture. Insoluble silica residues are removed by filtration. The solution now contains beryllium, iron, yttrium, and the rare earths. The solution is treated with oxalic acid to precipitate yttrium and the rare earths. The precipitate is calcined at 800°C to form rare earth oxides. The oxide mixture is dissolved in an acid from which yttrium and the rare earths are separated by the ionexchange as above. Caustic fusion may be carried out instead of acid digestion to open the ore. Under this condition silica converts to sodium silicate and is leached with water. The insoluble residue containing rare earths and yttrium is dissolved in an acid. The acid solution is fed to an ion exchange system for separating thulium from other rare earths,
Thulium metal is prepared from its oxide by reduction with lanthanum at its melting point of 1,545°C. Thulium is separated from lanthanum by sublimation in vacuum. The metal vapor is condensed into crystalline metal in purified form free from lanthanum.

Hazard

Fire risk in form of dust.

Hazard

The dust and powder of thulium are explosive and toxic if inhaled or ingested. As with allradioactive elements, thulium can cause radiation poisoning.

Thulium Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Thulium Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 93)Lieferanten
Firmenname Telefon Fax E-Mail Land Produktkatalog Edge Rate
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 linda@hubeijusheng.com CHINA 28229 58
Shaanxi Dideu Medichem Co. Ltd
18192503167 +86-29-89586680
+86-29-88380327 1005@dideu.com CHINA 9938 58
Zhuoer Chemical Co., Ltd
+86-13524231522
+86-21-58816016 sales@zhuoerchem.com CHINA 3014 58
Henan Alfa Chemical Co., Ltd
+8619139973225
adam@alfa-chemical.com;sales4@alfachem.cn;alfa8@alfachem.cn China 12043 58
Alfa Chemistry
+1-516-662-5404
1-516-927-0118 inquiry@alfa-chemistry.com United States 10563 58
Mainchem Co., Ltd. +86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sale@mainchem.com CHINA 32439 55
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 010-82848833-
86-10-82849933 jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com China 96815 76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. 400-660-8290 21-61259100-
86-21-61259102 sh@meryer.com China 40264 62
Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006
021-67582001/03/05 saleschina@alfa-asia.com China 30159 84
BeiJing Hwrk Chemicals Limted 18516978288 0757-86329057-
0757-86311057 sales.gd@hwrkchemical.com China 17295 55

7440-30-4(Thulium)Verwandte Suche:


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