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Natriumnitrit Produkt Beschreibung

Sodium nitrite Struktur
7632-00-0
CAS-Nr.
7632-00-0
Bezeichnung:
Natriumnitrit
Englisch Name:
Sodium nitrite
Synonyma:
erinitrit;filmerine;anti-rust;nci-c02084;synfat1004;azotynsodowy;dusitansodny;natriumnitrit;nitritosodico;Sodiumnirite
CBNumber:
CB6392237
Summenformel:
NaNO2
Molgewicht:
69
MOL-Datei:
7632-00-0.mol

Natriumnitrit Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
271 °C (lit.)
Siedepunkt:
320 °C
Dichte
2.17g/cm3
storage temp. 
2-8°C
Löslichkeit
aqueous acid: 1 - 2μl acetic acid per ml H2Osoluble
Aggregatzustand
powder
Farbe
White or colorless
Wichte
2.168
Geruch (Odor)
Odorless
Säure-Base-Indikators(pH-Indikatoren)
9
PH
9 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Wasserlöslichkeit
820 g/L (20 ºC)
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
14,8648
Stabilität:
Stable. Incompatible with reducing agents, strong oxidizing agents, organics and other flammable materials, finely powdered metals. Contact with combustible material may lead to fire. Hygroscopic.
InChIKey
LPXPTNMVRIOKMN-UHFFFAOYSA-M
CAS Datenbank
7632-00-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA chemische Informationen
Sodium nitrite (7632-00-0)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher O,T,N,Xn
R-Sätze: 8-25-50-22-36/38
S-Sätze: 45-61-36-26
RIDADR  UN 3219 5.1/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS-Nr. RA1225000
10
Selbstentzündungstemperatur 914 °F
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  5.1
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  28341000
Giftige Stoffe Daten 7632-00-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 orally in rats: 180 mg/kg (Smyth)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H272 Kann Brand verstärken; Oxidationsmittel. Oxidierende Flüssigkeiten (Kapitel 2.13), Kategorie 2 (Ox. Liq. 2), H272 Oxidierende Flüssigkeiten (Kapitel 2.13), Kategorie 2 Achtung
Warnung
P210, P220, P221P280, P370+P378,P501
H301 Giftig bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 3 Achtung P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H302 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 4 Warnung P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H330 Lebensgefahr bei Einatmen. Akute Toxizität inhalativ Kategorie 1 Achtung P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H400 Sehr giftig für Wasserorganismen. Kurzfristig (akut) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 1 Warnung P273, P391, P501
H402 Harmful to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 3
Sicherheit
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P220 Von Kleidung und anderen brennbaren Materialien fernhalten.
P221 Mischen mit brennbaren Stoffen unbedingt verhindern.
P273 Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden.
P320 Besondere Behandlung dringend erforderlich
P330 Mund ausspülen.
P304+P340 BEI EINATMEN: Die Person an die frische Luft bringen und für ungehinderte Atmung sorgen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.
P370+P378 Bei Brand: zum Löschen verwenden.
P405 Unter Verschluss aufbewahren.

Natriumnitrit Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

HYGROSKOPISCHER, WEISSER BIS GELBER FESTSTOFF IN VERSCHIEDENEN FORMEN.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Kann beim Erhitzen über 530°C explodieren. Zersetzung bei Kontakt mit Säuren unter Bildung giftiger Rauche (Stickstoffoxide). Starkes Oxidationsmittel. Reagiert mit brennbaren und reduzierenden Stoffen unter Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr. Schwache Base in wässriger Lösung. Reagiert mit Aluminium, Ammoniumverbindungen und Aminen.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
MAK nicht festgelegt (DFG 2005).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation des Aerosols und durch Verschlucken.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Verdampfung bei 20°C vernachlässigbar; eine gesundheitsschädliche Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann jedoch schnell erreicht werden.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz reizt die Augen. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Herzkreislaufsystemund Blut mit nachfolgendem niedrigen Blutdruck und Methämoglobinbildung. Exposition kann zum Tod führen. Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein. ärztliche Beobachtung notwendig.

LECKAGE

Verschüttetes Material in Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Reste sorgfältig sammeln. An sicheren Ort bringen. NICHT in die Umwelt gelangen lassen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzgerät, P3-Filter für giftige Partikel.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R8:Feuergefahr bei Berührung mit brennbaren Stoffen.
R25:Giftig beim Verschlucken.
R50:Sehr giftig für Wasserorganismen.
R22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Verschlucken.
R36/38:Reizt die Augen und die Haut.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S61:Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden. Besondere Anweisungen einholen/Sicherheitsdatenblatt zu Rate ziehen.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

NaNO2. Farblose bis leicht gelbliche Kristalle. In Wasser unter starker Abkühlung und alkalischer Reaktion sehr leicht lösliche Kristalle.

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Giftig beim Verschlucken. Reversible Methämoglobinbildung, Abbau im Körper benötigt ca 12 Stunden. Brandgase verursachen Lungenödem.
Feuergefahr bei Berührung mit brennbaren Stoffen. Zu vermeidende Stoffe sind brennbare Stoffe (Explosionsgefahr!), Aluminium, Ammoniumverbindungen, Cyanide, Hydrazinund Derivate, ungesättigte Kohlenwaserstoffe und Ethylenoxid. Stark brandfördernd, vor allen bei höheren Temperaturen. Wird an Luft langsam zu Natriumnitrat oxidiert.
LD50 (oral, Ratte): 85 mg/kg.

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Schutzbrille mit Seitenschutz und oberer Augenraumabdeckung
Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Staubschutz.

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Staubentwicklung vermeiden.
Trocken aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen.
Wasser, auf Umgebung abstimmen.
Brandfördernd. Brennbare Stoffe fernhalten. Entstehung nitroser Gase möglich.

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser abwaschen.
Nach Augenkontakt: Mit Augendusche bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 15 Minuten ausspülen. Augenarzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Einatmen: Frischluft, ggf. Atemspende.
Nach Verschlucken: Viel Wasser trinken lassen. Erbrechen auslösen. Gabe von 20 - 40 g Aktivkohle als 10 %ige Aufschlemmung. Sofort Arzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung sofort ausziehen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

In Wasser gelöst als wäßrige, alkalische Lösemittelabfälle entsorgen.

Beschreibung

Sodium nitrite is similar in name and use to sodium nitrate. Both are preservatives used in processed meats, such as salami, hot dogs, and bacon. Sodium nitrite has been synthesized by several chemical reactions that involve the reduction of sodium nitrate. Industrial production of sodium nitrite is primarily by the absorption of nitrogen oxides into aqueous sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide. Over the years, sodium nitrite has raised some concerns about its safety in foods, but it remains in use and there are indications that it may actually be healthy. Sodium nitrite was developed during the 1960s. In 1977, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) considered banning it but the USDA’s final ruling on the additive came out in 1984, allowing its use. Studies in the 1990s indicated some adverse effects of sodium nitrite, for instance the potential to cause childhood leukemia and brain cancers. In the late 1990s, the National Toxicity Program (NTP) began a review of sodium nitrite and proposed listing sodium nitrite as a developmental and reproductive toxicant, but a report in 2000 by NTP proposed that sodium nitrite is not a toxic substance and removed it from the list of developmental and reproductive toxicants. It is now believed that it can help with organ transplants and leg vascular problems, while preventing heart attacks and sickle cell disease.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Sodium nitrite, NaN02, is a fire-hazardous, air-sensitive, yellowish white powder that is soluble in water and decomposes at temperatures above 320°C (608 °F). Sodium nitrite is used as an intermediate for dye stuffs and for pickling of meat, in dyeing of textiles, in rustproofing, in medicine, and as a reagent in organic chemistry.

Verwenden

Sodium nitrite is a myeloperoxidase inhibitor with IC50 of 1.3 μM

Verwenden

manufacture of diazo dyes, nitroso Compounds, and in many other processes of manufacture of organic chemicals; dyeing and printing textile fabrics; bleaching flax, silk, and linen; photography. In meat curing, coloring and preserving; in processing smoked chub. Also as reagent In animal chemistry.

Verwenden

Sodium Nitrite is the salt of nitrous acid that functions as an anti- microbial agent and preservative. it is a slightly yellow granular powder or nearly white, opaque mass or sticks. it is deliquescent in air. it has a solubility of 1 g in 1.5 ml of water. it is used in meat cur- ing for color fixation and development of flavor. see nitrite.

Definition

sodium nitrite: A yellow hygroscopiccrystalline compound, NaNO2,soluble in water, slightly soluble inether and in ethanol; rhombohedral;r.d. 2.17; m.p. 271°C; decomposesabove 320°C. It is formed by the thermal decomposition of sodium nitrateand is used in the preparation of nitrousacid (reaction with cold dilutehydrochloric acid). Sodium nitrite isused in organic diazotization and asa corrosion inhibitor.

Vorbereitung Methode

Sodium nitrite, yellowish-white solid, soluble, formed (1) by reaction of nitric oxide plus nitrogen dioxide and sodium carbonate or hydroxide, and then evaporating, (2) by heating sodium nitrate and lead to a high temperature, and then extracting the soluble portion (lead monoxide insoluble) with H2O and evaporating. Used as an important reagent (diazotizing) in organic chemistry.

Definition

ChEBI: An inorganic sodium salt having nitrite as the counterion. Used as a food preservative and antidote to cyanide poisoning.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

A yellowish white crystalline solid. Noncombustible but will accelerate the burning of combustible material. If large quantities are involved in a fire or if the combustible material is finely divided, an explosion may result. If contaminated by ammonium compounds, spontaneous decomposition can occur and the resulting heat may ignite surrounding combustible material. Prolonged exposure heat may result in an explosion. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires involving Sodium nitrite. Used as a food preservative, and to make other chemicals.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Soluble in water.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Sodium nitrite is an oxidizing agent. Mixtures with phosphorus, tin(II) chloride or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979 p. 108-109]. If contaminated by ammonium compounds, spontaneous decomposition can occur and resulting heat may ignite surrounding combustible material. Reacts with acids to form toxic nitrogen dioxide gas. Mixing with liquid ammonia forms dipotassium nitrite, which is very reactive and easily explosive [Mellor 2, Supp. 3:1566 1963]. Melting together wilh an ammonium salt leads to a violent explosion [Von Schwartz 1918 p. 299]. A mixture with potassium cyanide may cause an explosion. Noncombustible but accelerates the burning of all combustible material. If large quantities are involved in fire or if the combustible material is finely divided, an explosion may result. When a little ammonium sulfate is added to fused potassium nitrite, a vigorous reaction occurs attended by flame [Mellor 2:702. 1946-47].

Hazard

Dangerous fire and explosion risk when heated to 537C (1000F) or in contact with reducing materials; a strong oxidizing agent. Carcinogen in test animals; its use in curing fish and meat products is restricted to 100 ppm.

Health Hazard

Ingestion (or inhalation of excessive amounts of dust) causes rapid drop in blood pressure, persistent and throbbing headache, vertigo, palpitations, and visual disturbances; skin becomes flushed and sweaty, later cold and cyanotic; other symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (sometimes), fainting, methemoglobinemia. Contact with eyes causes irritation.

Sicherheitsprofil

Human poison by ingestion. Experimental poison by ingestion, inhalation, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: motor activity changes, coma, decreased blood pressure with possible pulse rate increase without fall in blood pressure, arteriolar or venous dlation, nausea or vomiting, and blood me themoglo binemiacarboxyhemoglobinemia. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. An eye irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental neoplas tigenic and tumorigenic data. Human mutation data reported. It may react with organic amines in the body to form carcinogenic nitrosamines. Flammable; a strong oxidizing agent. In contact with organic matter, will ignite by friction. May explode when heated to over 100O0F or on contact with cyanides, NH4' salts, cellulose, LI, (K + NH3), Na2S203. Incompatible with aminoguanidine salts, butadene, phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, reductants, sodlum amide, sodmm disulfite, sodium thocyanate, urea wood. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx and NaaO. See also NITRITES.

Environmental Fate

Routes and Pathways, and Relevant Physicochemical Properties
Sodium nitrite is a strong oxidizing agent at high temperature and also is a strong supporter of combustion. It is freely soluble in water (very soluble in water (80%) at 20 °C), and slightly soluble in ethanol (0.3%) and methanol (0.45%). Partition coefficient in octanol–water and log Pow is equal to -3.7. Vapor pressure is 9.9E-17 hPa (7.44E-17mmHg). Sodium nitrite may explode on heating above 530 °C, is not combustible but enhances combustion of other substances, and gives irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Furthermore, based on the estimated Henry’s law constant at 25 °C =2.06E-07 atm-m3 mol-1 for sodium nitrite, volatilization from water and moist soil surface is not plausible.
Partition Behavior in Water, Sediment, and Soil
This substance dissociates immediately into sodium and nitrite ions in water. Concentrations of nitrate in rainwater of up to 5mg l-1 have been observed in industrial areas.
Environmental Persistency
In the air, the vapor phase of norethisterone can be degraded by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated half-life of 1.1 h, while the particulate phase can be removed by wet or dry deposition. Norethisterone is likely susceptible to photolysis by sunlight because of posing chromophores that absorb at wavelengths more than 290 nm. Hydrolysis of norethisterone is not anticipated under environmental condition because it lacks a functional group to hydrolyze.
Indirect photo oxidation by hydroxy radicals (1500 000 molecules cm-3) is predicted to occur with a half-life estimated at 82.3 days.

läuterung methode

Crystallise NaNO2 from hot water (0.7mL/g) by cooling to 0o, or from its own melt. Dry it over P2O5. (See KNO2.)

Toxicity evaluation

Nitrite in blood is highly reactive with hemoglobin and causes methemoglobinemia. The oxygen-carrying capacity of methemoglobin is much less than that of hemoglobin. Human is more sensitive than rat in this respect. So, the primary acute toxic effects of sodium nitrite in animals results from methemoglobinemia. The secondary toxic effects of acute sodium nitrite in animals result in vasodilatation, relaxation of smooth muscle, and lowering of blood pressure. In humans, sodium nitrite causes smooth muscle relaxation, methemoglobinemia, and cyanosis. Also in humans, nitrosating agents (e.g., nitrous acid and nitrous anhydride that produced from nitrite under acidic gastric conditions) react with amines or amides to form nitrosamines or nitrosamides, and the induction of tumors in animals via endogenous synthesis of N-nitroso compounds in the absence of inhibitors of nitrosation such as vitamin C. Nitrosamines need to be activated metabolically by cytochrome P450 enzymes to electrophilic intermediates to exert a carcinogenic effect. Nitrosation of primary amines produces electrophiles that alkylate nucleophilic sites in DNA. Nitrosation of primary exocyclic amino groups on DNA, followed by deamination, may lead directly to mutations.

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