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Hydrogenchlorid

Hydrochloric acid Struktur
7647-01-0
CAS-Nr.
7647-01-0
Bezeichnung:
Hydrogenchlorid
Englisch Name:
Hydrochloric acid
Synonyma:
HCL;en chL;Basilin;NA 1789;IPA?HCl;Zoutzuur;Itaconic;7647-01-0;Salzsaeure;bowlcleaner
CBNumber:
CB7421538
Summenformel:
ClH
Molgewicht:
36.46
MOL-Datei:
7647-01-0.mol

Hydrogenchlorid Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
-35 °C
Siedepunkt:
>100 °C (lit.)
Dichte
1.2 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
Dampfdichte
1.3 (vs air)
Dampfdruck
613 psi ( 21.1 °C)
Flammpunkt:
10℃ (tag closed test)
Brechungsindex
1.3535
storage temp. 
Store at +2°C to +25°C.
Löslichkeit
H2O: soluble
Aggregatzustand
liquid
pka
-7(at 25℃)
Farbe
Light Yellow
Wichte
1.19
Geruch (Odor)
Sharp, irritating odor detectable at 0.25 to 10 ppm
PH
3.01(1 mM solution);2.04(10 mM solution);1.08(100 mM solution);
Wasserlöslichkeit
miscible
Sensitive 
Air & Light Sensitive
Merck 
14,4780
Expositionsgrenzwerte
Ceiling limit 5 ppm (~ 7 mg/m3).
Stabilität:
Stable. Incompatible with alkalies, most metals. Avoid contact with water.
CAS Datenbank
7647-01-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
IARC
3 (Vol. 54) 1992
NIST chemische Informationen
Hydrogen chloride(7647-01-0)
EPA chemische Informationen
Hydrochloric acid (7647-01-0)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher T,C,F,Xi,F+,Xn
R-Sätze: 36/37/38-37-34-35-23-20-11-67-66-22-19-12-10-40-20/22-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-41-37/38
S-Sätze: 26-45-36/37/39-9-33-29-16-46-36/37-39
RIDADR  UN 2924 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS-Nr. MW4025000
3
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2806 10 00
DOT Classification 2.3, Hazard Zone C (Gas poisonous by inhalation)
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  I
Giftige Stoffe Daten 7647-01-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LC50 (30 min) in mice, rats: 2142, 5666 ppm (Darmer)
IDLA 50 ppm
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Warnung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H225 Flüssigkeit und Dampf leicht entzündbar. Entzündbare Flüssigkeiten Kategorie 2 Achtung P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H226 Flüssigkeit und Dampf entzündbar. Entzündbare Flüssigkeiten Kategorie 3 Warnung
H302 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 4 Warnung P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H303 May be harmfulif swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 5 P312
H311 Giftig bei Hautkontakt. Akute Toxizität dermal Kategorie 3 Achtung P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H312 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Hautkontakt. Akute Toxizität dermal Kategorie 4 Warnung P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H314 Verursacht schwere Verätzungen der Haut und schwere Augenschäden. Ätzwirkung auf die Haut Kategorie 1B Achtung P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 Verursacht Hautreizungen. Hautreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 Verursacht schwere Augenschäden. Schwere Augenschädigung Kategorie 1 Achtung P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 Giftig bei Einatmen. Akute Toxizität inhalativ Kategorie 3 Achtung P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H332 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Einatmen. Akute Toxizität inhalativ Kategorie 4 Warnung P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
H336 Kann Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit) Warnung P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Kann vermutlich Krebs verursachen. Karzinogenität Kategorie 2 Warnung P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 Schädigt die Organe. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 1 Achtung P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
Sicherheit
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P260 Dampf/Aerosol/Nebel nicht einatmen.
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P301+P330+P331 BEI VERSCHLUCKEN: Mund ausspülen. KEIN Erbrechen herbeiführen.
P303+P361+P353 BEI BERÜHRUNG MIT DER HAUT (oder dem Haar): Alle kontaminierten Kleidungsstücke sofort ausziehen. Haut mit Wasser abwaschen oder duschen.
P304+P340 BEI EINATMEN: Die Person an die frische Luft bringen und für ungehinderte Atmung sorgen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.
P405 Unter Verschluss aufbewahren.

Hydrogenchlorid Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

FARBLOSES KOMPRIMIERTES FLüSSIGGAS MIT STECHENDEM GERUCH.

PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN

Das Gas ist schwerer als Luft.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Starke Säure in wässriger Lösung. Reagiert sehr heftig mit Basen. ätzend. Reagiert sehr heftig mit Oxidationsmitteln. Greift viele Metalle in Gegenwart von Wasser an unter Bildung von brennbarem Gas (Wasserstoff, s.ICSC-Nr. 0001).

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV: 2 ppm; (als STEL, ceiling); Krebskategorie A4 (nicht klassifizierbar als krebserzeugend für den Menschen); (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: 2 ppm 3,0 mg/m?Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor I(2); Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; (DFG 2005).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Eine gesundheitsschädliche Konzentration des Gases in der Luft wird beim Entweichen aus dem Behälter sehr schnell erreicht.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Schnelle Verdampfung kann zu Erfrierungen führen. Das Gas verätzt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege. Inhalation hoher Gaskonzentrationen kann zu Lungenentzündung und Lungenödem mit nachfolgendem Reaktivem Atemwegsfunktionsstörungssyndrom (RADS) führen (s.Anm.). Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein. ärztliche Beobachtung notwendig.

WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION

Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf die Lunge. Führt zu chronischer Bronchitis. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf die Zähne mit nachfolgenden Zahnerosionen.

LECKAGE

Gefahrenbereich verlassen! Fachmann zu Rate ziehen! Belüftung. Gas mit feinem Wassersprühstrahl niederschlagen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Vollschutzanzug mit umgebungsluftunabhängigem Atemschutzgerät.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R37:Reizt die Atmungsorgane.
R34:Verursacht Verätzungen.
R35:Verursacht schwere Verätzungen.
R23:Giftig beim Einatmen.
R20:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen.
R11:Leichtentzündlich.
R67:Dämpfe können Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen.
R66:Wiederholter Kontakt kann zu spröder oder rissiger Haut führen.
R22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Verschlucken.
R19:Kann explosionsfähige Peroxide bilden.
R12:Hochentzündlich.
R10:Entzündlich.
R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.
R20/22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen und Verschlucken.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S9:Behälter an einem gut gelüfteten Ort aufbewahren.
S33:Maßnahmen gegen elektrostatische Aufladungen treffen.
S29:Nicht in die Kanalisation gelangen lassen.
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.
S46:Bei Verschlucken sofort ärztlichen Rat einholen und Verpackung oder Etikett vorzeigen.

Beschreibung

A water solution of hydrogen chloride of varied concentrations. It is a clear, colorless or slightly yellowish, corrosive liquid having a pungent odor. It is miscible with water and with alcohol. Concentrations of hydrochloric acid are expressed in percent by weight, or may be expressed in Baume degrees (Be0) from which percentages of hydrochloric acid and specific gravities may readily be derived. The usually available concentrations are 18°, 20°, 22°, and 23° Be. Concentrations above 13° Be (19.6%) fume in moist air, lose hydrogen chloride, and create a corrosive atmosphere. Because of these characteristics, suitable precautions must be observed during sampling and analysis to prevent losses. Note: Hydrochloric acid is produced by various methods that might impart trace amounts of organic compounds as impurities. The manufacturer, vendor, or user is responsible for identifying the specific organic compounds that are present and for meeting the requirements for organic compounds. Methods are provided for their determination. In applying the procedures any necessary standards should be used to quantitate the organic compounds present in each specific product.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Hydrochloric acid, or hydrogen chloride, is either a colorless liquid with a pungent odor, or a colorless to slightly yellow gas that can be shipped as a liquefi ed compressed gas. The acid is used in the production of fertilizers, dyes, dyestuffs, artifi cial silk, and paint pig- ments, and in refi ning edible oils and fats. Hydrochloric acid is also used in electroplating, leather tanning, ore refi ning, soap refi ning, petroleum extraction, and pickling of metals, and is used in the photographic, textile, and rubber industries. In addition, hydrochloric acid is used as an antiseptic in toilet bowls against animal pathogenic bacteria, and in food processing as a starch modifi er.

History

Hydrochloric acid is a strong, corrosive acid that results when the gas hydrogen chloride dissolves in water.Ancient alchemists prepared hydrochloric acid and Jabbar ibn Hayyan, known in Latin as Geber (721–815), is credited with its discovery around the year 800. The original method of preparation involved reacting salt with sulfuric acid, producing sodium hydrogen sulfate and hydrogen chloride gas. The hydrogen chloride gas is captured and dissolved in water to produce hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid was formerly called muriatic acid. Terms such as muriatic and muriate were used in association with chloride substances before the discovery and nature of chlorine were fully understood. The Latin term muriaticus means pickled from muri, which is the Latin term for brine. Chlorides were naturally associated with seawater salt solutions, as chloride is the principal ion in seawater.

Verwenden

Hydrochloric Acid is an acid that is the aqueous solution of hydro- gen chloride of varying concentrations. it is miscible with water and with alcohol. it is used as an acidulant and neutralizing agent.

Definition

A colorless fuming liquid made by adding hydrogen chloride to water:
HCl(g) + H2O1. → H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Dissociation into ions is extensive and hydrochloric acid shows the typical properties of a strong acid. It reacts with carbonates to give carbon dioxide and yields hydrogen when reacted with all but the most unreactive metals. Hydrochloric acid is used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, and photographic materials. It is also used to pickle metals, i.e. clean the surface prior to electroplating. Hydrochloric acid donates protons with ease and is the strongest of the hydrohalic acids. The concentrated acid is oxidized to chlorine by such agents as potassium manganate(VII) and manganese( IV) oxide.

Vorbereitung Methode

Hydrochloric acid is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas produced by a number of methods including: the reaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid; the constituent elements; as a by-product from the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide; and as a by-product during the chlorination of hydrocarbons.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Fumes strongly in moist air. Soluble in water with evolution of heat.

Reaktivität anzeigen

ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE is an anhydrous (no water) strong acid. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with bases of all kinds (including amines and amides). Reacts exothermically with carbonates (including limestone and building materials containing limestone) and hydrogen carbonates to generate carbon dioxide. Reacts with sulfides, carbides, borides, and phosphides to generate toxic or flammable gases. Reacts with many metals (including aluminum, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, tin and all of the alkali metals) to generate flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, calcium phosphide, chlorosulfonic acid, 1,1-difluoroethylene, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, perchloric acid, b-propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver perchlorate/carbon tetrachloride mixture, sodium hydroxide, uranium(IV) phosphide, vinyl acetate, calcium carbide, rubidium carbide, cesium acetylide, rubidium acetylide, magnesium boride, mercury(II) sulfate [Lewis]. Undergoes a very energetic reaction with calcium phosphide [Mellor 8:841(1946-1947)]. Corrosive to metals and tissues and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Corrodes galvanized or copper-alloy metals (brass, bronze); fittings of stainless steel or mild or cast steel must therefore be used. Reacts with calcium carbide with incandescence [Mellor 5:862(1946-1947]. Absorption on mercuric sulfate becomes violent at 125°C. [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:462(1956)].

Hazard

Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant to eyes and skin. Questionable carcinogen.

Health Hazard

Gas concentrations of 50 to 100 ppm are tolerable for 1 hour. Concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 ppm are dangerous, even for brief exposures. More severe exposures will result in serious respiratory distress and prolonged exposures will result in death. Mists of hydrochloric acid are considered less harmful than anhydrous hydrochloric acid, because droplets have no dehydrating action. Individuals with respiratory problems and digestive diseases may be adversely affected by low level exposures to the gas or mist.

Brandgefahr

Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Containers may explode in heat of fire. At high temperatures, Hydrochloric acid decomposes into hydrogen and chlorine. The following materials should be avoided: Mercuric sulfate -- violent reaction with gaseous hydrochloric acid at 250F. Sodium -- reacts vigorously with gaseous hydrochloric acid. Acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, propiolactone, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, and vinyl acetate -- increase in temperature and pressure when mixed with hydrochloric acid. Calcium phosphide -- energetic reaction with hydrochloric acid. Silver perchlorate and carbon tetrachloride -- when mixed in combination with hydrochloric acid forms a compound that detonates at 105F. Formaldehyde -- when mixed with hydrochloric acid forms a human carcinogen. Material reacts violently with bases and is corrosive with the generation of heat. Reacts with base metals, forming combustible gas (hydrogen). Reacts violently with strong oxidants forming toxic gas (chlorine). Avoid heat; at high temperatures Hydrochloric acid will decompose into hydrogen and chlorine.

Flammability and Explosibility

Noncombustible, but contact with metals may produce highly flammable hydrogen gas.

Pharmazeutische Anwendungen

Hydrochloric acid is widely used as an acidifying agent, in a variety of pharmaceutical and food preparations. It may also be used to prepare dilute hydrochloric acid, which in addition to its use as an excipient has some therapeutic use, intravenously in the management of metabolic alkalosis, and orally for the treatment of achlorhydria.

Industrielle Verwendung

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is soluble in water andis a strong mineral acid made by the action ofsulfuric acid on common salt, or as a byproductof the chlorination of hydrocarbons such asbenzene.HCl is used to some extent in pickling of metal prior to porcelain enameling.

Materials Uses

Piping, valves, and other equipment used in direct contact with anhydrous hydrogen chloride should be of stainless steel or of cast or mild steel. Carbon steel may be used in some components, but only if their temperature is controlled to remain below about 265°F (l29°C). In the presence of moisture, however, hydrogen chloride will corrode most metals. Teflon, Kel F and Hastelloy will resist corrosion.
Smaller sized valves, such as those used on cylinders, constructed of aluminum-siliconbronze with Monel stems have had satisfactory service experience due to frequent maintenance. The satisfactory extension of these materials to other applications should be confirmed by testing prior to use.

Sicherheit(Safety)

When used diluted, at low concentration, hydrochloric acid is not usually associated with any adverse effects. However, the concentrated solution is corrosive and can cause severe damage on contact with the eyes and skin, or if ingested.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.4 g/kg
LD50 (rabbit, oral): 0.9 g/kg

Lager

Splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling this acid, and containers of HCl should be stored in a wellventilated location separated from incompatible metals. Water should never be added to HCl because splattering may result; always add acid to water. Containers of hydrochloric acid should be stored in secondary plastic trays to avoid corrosion of metal storage shelves due to drips or spills.
Cylinders of hydrogen chloride should be stored in cool, dry locations separated from alkali metals and other incompatible substances.

läuterung methode

Pass it through conc H2SO4, then over activated charcoal and silica gel. It fumes in moist air. Hydrogen chloride in gas cylinders contains ethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane and ethyl chloride. The latter two may be removed by fractionating the HCl through a trap cooled to -112o. Ethylene is difficult to remove. HCl fumes in moist air. HARMFUL VAPOURS. Its solubility in H2O is 82% at 0o. A constant boiling aqueous solution (azeotrope) has b 108.6o/760mm with an HCl concentration of ~20%, and is called Hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) (see above). [Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 280-282 1963.]

Inkompatibilitäten

Hydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride react violently with many metals, with the generation of highly flammable hydrogen gas, which may explode. Reaction with oxidizers such as permanganates, chlorates, chlorites, and hypochlorites may produce chlorine or bromine.

Waste disposal

In many localities, hydrochloric acid or the residue from a spill may be disposed of down the drain after appropriate dilution and neutralization. Otherwise, hydrochloric acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. Excess hydrogen chloride in cylinders should be returned to the manufacturer. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental solutions; epidural injections; IM, IV, and SC injections; inhalations; ophthalmic preparations; oral solutions; nasal, otic, rectal, and topical preparations). Included in parenteral and nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Hydrogenchlorid Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Hydrogenchlorid Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 0)Lieferanten
Firmenname Telefon E-Mail Land Produktkatalog Edge Rate

7647-01-0(Hydrogenchlorid)Verwandte Suche:


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  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID FUMING 37% FOR ANALYSI
  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID C(HCL) 25 L
  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID 25% FOR ANALYSIS EMSUR
  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID C(HCL) 10 L
  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID C(HCL) = 1 MOL/L (1 N)
  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID C(HCL) = 2 MOL/L (2 N)
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  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID 30% ULTRAPUR
  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID 32% FOR ANALYSIS EMSUR
  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID FUMING 37% LABGRADE
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  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID FOR 1000 ML C(HCL) = 1
  • HYDROCHLORIC ACID 30% SUPRAPUR
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