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Pyrazinamid Produkt Beschreibung

Pyrazinamide Struktur
98-96-4
CAS-Nr.
98-96-4
Bezeichnung:
Pyrazinamid
Englisch Name:
Pyrazinamide
Synonyma:
PZA;PZAD;mk56;MK 56;T 165;Eprazin;Novamid;Pyrafat;Tisamid;Tebrazid
CBNumber:
CB7429387
Summenformel:
C5H5N3O
Molgewicht:
123.11
MOL-Datei:
98-96-4.mol

Pyrazinamid Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
189-191 °C(lit.)
Siedepunkt:
229.19°C (rough estimate)
Dichte
1.3260 (rough estimate)
Brechungsindex
1.5900 (estimate)
Flammpunkt:
>110°(230°F)
storage temp. 
-20°C Freezer
Löslichkeit
H2O: soluble50mg/mL
Aggregatzustand
Crystalline Powder or Needles
pka
0.5(at 25℃)
Farbe
White
PH
7 (H2O)
Wasserlöslichkeit
15 mg/mL
Merck 
14,7956
BRN 
112306
CAS Datenbank
98-96-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
Pyrazine carboxamide(98-96-4)
EPA chemische Informationen
Pyrazinecarboxamide(98-96-4)

Sicherheit

Kennzeichnung gefährlicher F,C
R-Sätze: 11-34
S-Sätze: 22-24/25-45-36/37/39-26-16
WGK Germany  3
RTECS-Nr. UQ2275000
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  29339990
Giftige Stoffe Daten 98-96-4(Hazardous Substances Data)

Pyrazinamid Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R11:Leichtentzündlich.
R34:Verursacht Verätzungen.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S22:Staub nicht einatmen.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Crystalline Solid

Verwenden

Antibacterial (tuberculostatic)

Verwenden

An antibacterial agent used to study liver toxicity prevention

Indications

Pyrazinamide is a synthetic analogue of nicotinamide. Its exact mechanism of action is not known, although its target appears to be the mycobacterial fatty acid synthetase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis. Pyrazinamide requires an acidic environment, such as that found in the phagolysosomes, to express its tuberculocidal activity. Thus, pyrazinamide is highly effective on intracellular mycobacteria. The mycobacterial enzyme pyrazinamidase converts pyrazinamide to pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the drug.A mutation in the gene (pncA) that encodes pyrazinamidase is responsible for drug resistance; resistance can be delayed through the use of drug combination therapy.

Antimicrobial activity

It is principally active against actively metabolizing intracellular bacilli and those in acidic, anoxic inflammatory lesions. Activity against M. tuberculosis is highly pH dependent: at pH 5.6 the MIC is 8–16 mg/L, but it is almost inactive at neutral pH. Other mycobacterial species, including M. bovis, are resistant. Activity requires conversion to pyrazinoic acid by the mycobacterial enzyme pyrazinamidase, encoded for by the pncA gene, which is present in M. tuberculosis but not M. bovis. A few resistant strains lack mutations in pncA, indicating alternative mechanisms for resistance, including defects in transportation of the agent into the bacterial cell.

Acquired resistance

Drug resistance is uncommon and cross-resistance to other antituberculosis agents does not occur. Susceptibility testing is technically demanding as it requires very careful control of the pH of the medium, but molecular methods for detection of resistance-conferring mutations are available.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

Pyrazinecarboxamide (PZA) occurs as a white crystalline powder that is sparingly soluble in water and slightly soluble in polar organic solvents. Its antitubercular properties were discovered as a result of an investigation of heterocyclic analogs of nicotinic acid, with which it is isosteric. Pyrazinamide has recently been elevated to first-line status in short-term tuberculosis treatment regimens because of its tuberculocidal activity and comparatively low short-term toxicity. Since pyrazinamide is not active against metabolically inactive tubercle bacilli, it is not considered suitable for long-term therapy. Potential hepatotoxicity also obviates long-term use of the drug. Pyrazinamide is maximally effective in the low pH environment that exists in macrophages (monocytes). Evidence suggests bioactivation of pyrazinamide to pyrazinoic acid by an amidase present in mycobacteria.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

White powder. Sublimes from 318°F.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Water soluble.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Pyrazinamide is a carbamate ester. Incompatible with strong acids and bases, and especially incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrides. May react with active metals or nitrides to produce flammable gaseous hydrogen. Incompatible with strongly oxidizing acids, peroxides, and hydroperoxides.

Pharmazeutische Anwendungen

Like isoniazid, pyrazinamide is a synthetic nicotinamide analog, although its mode of action is quite distinct.

Pharmakokinetik

Oral absorption: >90%
Cmax 20–22 mg/kg oral: 10–50 mg/L after 2 h
Plasma half-life: c. 9 h
Plasma protein binding: c. 50%
It readily crosses the blood–brain barrier, achieving CSF concentrations similar to plasma levels. It is metabolized to pyrazinoic acid in the liver and oxidized to inactive metabolites, which are excreted in the urine, although about 70% of an oral dose is excreted unchanged.

Pharmakologie

Pyrazinamide is well absorbed from the GI tract and is widely distributed throughout the body. It penetrates tissues, macrophages, and tuberculous cavities and has excellent activity on the intracellular organisms; its plasma half-life is 9 to 10 hours in patients with normal renal function. The drug and its metabolites are excreted primarily by renal glomerular filtration.

Clinical Use

Tuberculosis (a component of the early, intensive phase of short-course therapy)

Clinical Use

Pyrazinamide is an essential component of the multidrug short-term therapy of tuberculosis. In combination with isoniazid and rifampin, it is active against the intracellular organisms that may cause relapse.

Nebenwirkungen

It is usually well tolerated. Moderate elevations of serum transaminases occur early in treatment. Severe hepatotoxicity is uncommon with standard dosage, except in patients with pre-existing liver disease.
Its principal metabolite, pyrazinoic acid, inhibits renal excretion of uric acid, but gout is extremely rare. An unrelated arthralgia, notably of the shoulders and responsive to analgesics, also occurs.
Other side effects include anorexia, nausea, mild flushing of the skin and photosensitization.

Nebenwirkungen

Hepatotoxicity is the major concern in 15% of pyrazinamide recipients. It also can inhibit excretion of urates, resulting in hyperuricemia. Nearly all patients taking pyrazinamide develop hyperuricemia and possibly acute gouty arthritis. Other adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, anorexia, drug fever, and malaise. Pyrazinamide is not recommended for use during pregnancy.

läuterung methode

The amide crystallises from water, EtOH or 1:1 hexane/EtOH in four modifications viz -form, -form, -form and form. [R. & S.rum Acta Cryst 28B 1677 1972, Beilstein 25 III/IV 772.]

Pyrazinamid Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Pyrazinamid Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 262)Lieferanten
Firmenname Telefon Fax E-Mail Land Produktkatalog Edge Rate
Shenzhen Sendi Biotechnology Co.Ltd.
0755-23311925 18102838259
0755-23311925 Abel@chembj.com CHINA 3194 55
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-55531817
info@dakenchem.com CHINA 21726 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 20672 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32447 55
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258
sales@coreychem.com CHINA 30002 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 sales@jushengtech.com CHINA 28236 58
Accela ChemBio Inc.
(+1)-858-699-3322
(+1)-858-876-1948 info@accelachem.com United States 12231 58
Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd
86-531-88032799
+86 531 8582 1093 export@haihangchem.com CHINA 8921 58
HubeiwidelychemicaltechnologyCo.,Ltd
18627774460
faith@widelychemical.com CHINA 547 58
BOC Sciences
1-631-619-7922
1-631-614-7828 inquiry@bocsci.com United States 20115 58

98-96-4(Pyrazinamid)Verwandte Suche:


  • AtT-20 Cell
  • LABOTEST-BB LT00233122
  • 2-PYRAZINECARBOXAMIDE
  • AKOS NCG1-0042
  • PYRAZINECARBOXAMIDE
  • PYRAZINOIC ACID AMIDE
  • PYRAZINE-2-CARBOXAMIDE
  • PYRAZINE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID AMIDE
  • PYRAZINAMIDE
  • PZAD
  • TIMTEC-BB SBB004276
  • Pyrazinamide BP98,USP24,CP2000
  • Pyrazoinamide
  • PyrazinamideBp
  • Pyrazinamide>99%
  • PyrazinamidePyrazinamideBp/Usp/Ep
  • Pezetamid
  • Piraldina
  • Pirazinecarboxamide
  • PYRAZINAMIDE,USP
  • Pyrazine-2-carboxamide 97%
  • 2-(AMINOCARBONYL)-PYRAZINE(Pyrazinamide)
  • PYRAZINAMIDE PYRAZINE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID AMIDE
  • 2-Carbamylpyrazine
  • Aldinamid
  • Aldinamide
  • Eprazin
  • Farmizina
  • MK 56
  • mk56
  • NCI-C01785
  • Novamid
  • Pirazimida
  • Pirazinamid
  • Pyrafat
  • Pyrazinamid
  • Pyrazine Carboxylamide
  • Pyrazine-2-carboxamide(δ-modification)
  • Pyrazineamide
  • pyrazinecarboxylamide
  • Pyrazinecarboxylic acid amide
  • PZA
  • T 165
  • Tebrazid
  • Unipyranamide
  • Zinamide
  • Pyrazinamide, Pyrazinoic acid amide
  • Tisamid
  • Pyrazinamide (200 mg)
  • 2-Carbamoylpyrazine
  • PyrazinaMide, 99% 25GR
  • PyrazinecarboxaMide, 97+%
  • PyrazinaMide 0
  • Methyl 3-(1-Benzyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridyl)propanoate
  • 2-Pyrazinecarboxamide for synthesis
  • 98-96-4
  • C5H5N3O
  • Chloropyrazines, etc.
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