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Dichlormethan Produkt Beschreibung

Dichloromethane Struktur
75-09-2
CAS-Nr.
75-09-2
Bezeichnung:
Dichlormethan
Englisch Name:
Dichloromethane
Synonyma:
F30;r30;DCM;R 30;HCC30;DichL;CH2Cl2;Freon30;Nevolin;Freon 30
CBNumber:
CB7740372
Summenformel:
CH2Cl2
Molgewicht:
84.93
MOL-Datei:
75-09-2.mol

Dichlormethan Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
-97 °C
Siedepunkt:
39.8-40 °C mm Hg(lit.)
Dichte
1.325 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Dampfdichte
2.9 (vs air)
Dampfdruck
24.45 psi ( 55 °C)
Brechungsindex
n20/D 1.424(lit.)
Flammpunkt:
39-40°C
storage temp. 
room temp
Löslichkeit
Miscible in ethyl acetate, alcohol, hexanes, methanol, diethyl ether, n-octanol, acetone benzene, carbon tetrachloride, diethyl ether and chloroform.
Aggregatzustand
Liquid
Wichte
1.329 (20/20℃)
Farbe
APHA: ≤10
Geruch (Odor)
Odor threshold 160 to 230 ppm
Explosionsgrenze
13-22%(V)
Odor Threshold
160ppm
Wasserlöslichkeit
20 g/L (20 ºC)
maximale Wellenlänge (λmax)
λ: 235 nm Amax: 1.00
λ: 240 nm Amax: 0.20
λ: 250 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.02
λ: 340-400 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 
14,6063
BRN 
1730800
Henry's Law Constant
2.49 at 30 °C (headspace-GC, Sanz et al., 1997)
Expositionsgrenzwerte
TLV-TWA 50 ppm (~175 mg/m3) (ACGIH); carcinogenicity: Suspected Human Carcinogen (ACGIH), Animal Sufficient Evidence, Human Inadequate Evidence (IARC).
CAS Datenbank
75-09-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
Methylene chloride(75-09-2)
IARC
2A (Vol. Sup 7, 71, 110) 2017
EPA chemische Informationen
Methylene chloride (75-09-2)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher Xn,T,F,N,C
R-Sätze: 40-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-67-36/37/38-68/20/21/22-20/21/22-50-37-34
S-Sätze: 23-24/25-36/37-45-16-7-26-61-36/37/39
RIDADR  UN 1593 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS-Nr. PA8050000
3-10
Selbstentzündungstemperatur 556 °C
Hazard Note  Harmful
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2903 12 00
HazardClass  6.1
PackingGroup  III
Giftige Stoffe Daten 75-09-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 orally in young adult rats: 1.6 ml/kg (Kimura)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H225 Flüssigkeit und Dampf leicht entzündbar. Entzündbare Flüssigkeiten Kategorie 2 Achtung P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 Gesundheitsschädlich bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 4 Warnung P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H314 Verursacht schwere Verätzungen der Haut und schwere Augenschäden. Ätzwirkung auf die Haut Kategorie 1B Achtung P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 Verursacht Hautreizungen. Hautreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
H336 Kann Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit) Warnung P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Kann vermutlich Krebs verursachen. Karzinogenität Kategorie 2 Warnung P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 Schädigt die Organe. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 1 Achtung P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H371 Kann die Organe schädigen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität Kategorie 2 Warnung P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
H373 Kann die Organe schädigen bei längerer oder wiederholter Exposition. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (wiederholte Exposition) Kategorie 2 Warnung P260, P314, P501
H412 Schädlich für Wasserorganismen, mit langfristiger Wirkung. Langfristig (chronisch) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 3 P273, P501
Sicherheit
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P260 Dampf/Aerosol/Nebel nicht einatmen.
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P281 Vorgeschriebene persönliche Schutzausrüstung verwenden.
P311 GIFTINFORMATIONSZENTRUM/Arzt anrufen.
P301+P310 BEI VERSCHLUCKEN: Sofort GIFTINFORMATIONSZENTRUM/Arzt/... (geeignete Stelle für medizinische Notfallversorgung vom Hersteller/Lieferanten anzugeben) anrufen.
P303+P361+P353 BEI BERÜHRUNG MIT DER HAUT (oder dem Haar): Alle kontaminierten Kleidungsstücke sofort ausziehen. Haut mit Wasser abwaschen oder duschen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.

Dichlormethan Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

FARBLOSE FLüSSIGKEIT MIT CHARAKTERISTISCHEM GERUCH.

PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN

Die Dämpfe sind schwerer als Luft. Fließen, Schütten o.ä. kann zu elektrostatischer Aufladung führen.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Bei Kontakt mit heißen Gegenständen oder Flammen Zersetzung unter Bildung giftiger und ätzender Rauche. Reagiert heftig mit Metallen wie Aluminium- und Magnesiumpulver, starken Basenund starken Oxidationsmitteln. Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr. Greift einige Kunststoff-, Gummi- und Beschichtungsarten an.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV: 50 ppm (als TWA) Krebskategorie A3 (bestätigte krebserzeugende Wirkung beim Tier mit unbekannter Bedeutung für den Menschen); BEI vorhanden (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: Krebserzeugend Kategorie 3A; (DFG 2005).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation und durch Verschlucken.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Beim Verdampfen bei 20 °C kann sehr schnell eine gesundheitsschädliche Kontamination der Luft eintreten.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atmungsorgane. Exposition kann Bewusstseinstrübung verursachen. Exposition kann zur Bildung von Carboxyhämoglobin führen.

WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION

Wiederholter oder andauernder Hautkontakt kann Dermatitis hervorrufen. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Zentralnervensystemund Leber. Möglicherweise krebserzeugend für den Menschen.

LECKAGE

Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzfilter für organische Gase und Dämpfe. NICHT in die Umwelt gelangen lassen. Belüftung. Ausgelaufene Flüssigkeit möglichst in abdichtbaren Behältern sammeln. Reste mit Sand oder inertem Absorptionsmittel aufnehmen und an einen sicheren Ort bringen.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.
R39/23/24/25:Giftig: ernste Gefahr irreversiblen Schadens durch Einatmen, Berührung mit der Haut und durch Verschlucken.
R23/24/25:Giftig beim Einatmen, Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
R11:Leichtentzündlich.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S23:Gas/Rauch/Dampf/Aerosol nicht einatmen(geeignete Bezeichnung(en) vom Hersteller anzugeben).
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.
S7:Behälter dicht geschlossen halten.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

CH2Cl2.
Farblose, süßlich riechende Flüssigkeit

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Gefährliche Reaktion z.B. mit Alkali- und Erdalkalimetallen sowie mit starken Basen.
Verschlucken verursacht Übelkeit und Erbrechen. Nach Resorption großer Mengen treten zentralnervöse Störungen, Störung der Atem- und Herztätigkeit sowie Leber- und Nierenschäden auf.
Kann möglicherweise Krebs erzeugen.
Wassergefährdender Stoff (WGK 2).

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Im Abzug arbeiten! Dampf nicht einatmen. Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
Latex- und Neoprenhandschuhe sind nicht beständig! Höchstens als sehr kurzzeitigen Spritzschutz verwenden.

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Kleine Mengen im Abzug verdampfen lassen. Verschüttete größere Mengen mit Absorptionsmaterial (z. B. Rench Rapid) aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen.
Brände mit CO2-Löscher bekämpfen. Atemschutz: Kombinationsfilter ABEK.

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser und Seife abwaschen.
Nach Augenkontakt: Mit viel Wasser mindestens 15 Minuten bei geöffnetem Lidspalt spülen. Augenarzt!
Nach Einatmen: Frischluft. Arzt.
Nach Verschlucken: Wasser trinken; kein Erbrechen. Arzt!
Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung ausziehen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

Als Sondermüll (halogenhaltige Lösungsmittel) entsorgen.

Beschreibung

A colorless liquid with an ethereal, but penetrating odor. Its miscibility in alcohol and ether and slight solubility in water has made it an ideal solvent and otherwise extremely versatile chemical. It has been used industrially (solvent and paint remover), as a drug (inhalation anesthetic) and as an agricultural chemical (growth regulator and fertilizer). It is narcotic in high concentrations and carcinogenic.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Dichloromethane is a colorless liquid with a mild, sweet odor. It does not occur naturally in the environment. It is made from methane gas or wood alcohol. Industrial uses of dichloromethane are extensive, as a solvent in paint strippers, as a propellant in aerosols, and as a process solvent in the manufacturing of drugs. dichloromethane is also used as a metal cleaning and fi nishing solvent, and it is approved as an extraction solvent for spices and hops. Exposure to dichloromethane occurs in workplaces by breathing fumes from paint strippers that contain it (check the label), breathing fumes from aerosol cans that use it (check the label), and breathing contaminated air near waste sites.

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Clear, colorless liquid with a sweet, penetrating, ethereal odor. Leonardos et al. (1969) determined an odor threshold concentration of 214.0 ppmv. The average least detectable odor threshold concentrations of technical grade methylene chloride in water at 60 °C and in air at 40 °C were 5.6 and 24 mg/L, respectively (Alexander et al., 1982).

Verwenden

Methylene chloride is widely used as asolvent, as a degreasing and cleaning reagent,in paint removers, and in extractions oforganic compounds from water for analyses.

Verwenden

Methylene chloride is used principally as a solvent in paint removers. It is also used as an aerosol propellant, processing solvent in the manufacture of steroids, antibiotics, vitamins, and tablet coatings; as a degreasing agent; in electronics manufacturing; and as a urethane foamblowing agent.Methylene chloride is also used in metal cleaning, as a solvent in the production of polycarbonate resins and triacetate fibers, in film processing, ininkformulations, and as anextraction solvent for spice oleoresins, caffeine, and hops. It was once registered for use in the United States as an insecticide for commodity fumigation of strawberries, citrus fruits, and a variety of grains.
Methylene chloride has been used as a blowing agent for foams and as a solvent for many applications, including coating photographic films, pharmaceuticals, aerosol formulations, and to a large extent in paint stripping formulations. It is used as a solvent in a number of extraction processes, where its high volatility is desirable. It has high solvent power for cellulose esters, fats, oils, resins, and rubber, and is more water soluble than most other chlorinated solvents. Formulations for paint stripping may contain other solvents as well as methylene chloride and are frequently found outside the workplace. These formulations often contain other ingredients that retard evaporation and in the process increase the likelihood of skin irritation.
Dichloromethane was used as an anesthetic gas but is no longer used because of the narrow therapeutic index.

Verwenden

Methylene chloride is used in refrigeration, aerosol propellants, paint stripping, urethane foam-blowing agents, adhesive, and food extractants.

Verwenden

Dichloromethane (DCM; mol. wt. 93.328) was first prepared in 1840 by mixing chloromethane and chlorine and exposed to sunshine. It has been used as a versatile solvent to dissolve various organic compounds in many chemical processes since World War II. Currently, dichloromethane is manufactured by two sets of processes, hydrochlorination of methanol and direct chlorination of methane. Dichloromethane is considered a carcinogenic material.
DCM is primarily metabolized in the liver forming carbon monoxide (CO) and ultimately elevating blood carboxyhemoglobin levels. Carboxyhemoglobin levels may continue to rise for several hours after exposure has ceased. CO is extremely fetotoxic. Children are more vulnerable to toxic effects and their metabolites of DCM. Electrocardiographic changes resembling those of carbon monoxide poisoning are common after DCM exposure. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels may cause insufficient oxygen supply to the heart in persons who have preexisting coronary disease. Angina, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest associated with methylene chloride inhalation were reported in one patient, but no adverse cardiovascular effects from methylene chloride have been reported for occupationally exposed workers. Nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal ulceration, and bleeding have been reported after ingestion. Liver dysfunction may result from acute, high-level exposure to methylene chloride. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that methylene chloride be regulated as an occupational carcinogen.

Vorbereitung Methode

Methylene chloride can be produced by direct chlorination of methane. The usual procedure involves a modification of the simple methane process. The product from the first chlorination passes through aqueous zinc chloride, contacting methanol at about 100 °C.

Vorbereitung Methode

Dichloromethane was first prepared by Regnault in 1840 by the chlorination of methyl chloride in sunlight. It became an industrial chemical of importance during the Second World War. Two commercial processes are currently used for the production of dichloromethane—hydrochlorination of methanol and direct chlorination of methane (Rossberg et al., 1986; Holbrook, 1993).
The predominant method of manufacturing dichloromethane uses as a first step the reaction of hydrogen chloride and methanol to give methyl chloride. Excess methyl chloride is then mixed with chlorine and reacts to give dichloromethane, with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride as co-products. This reaction is usually carried out in the gas phase thermally but can also be performed catalytically or photolytically. At low temperature and high pressure, the liquid-phase process is capable of giving high selectivity for dichloromethane (Rossberg et al., 1986; Holbrook, 1993).
The older and currently less used production method for dichloromethane involves direct reaction of excess methane with chlorine at high temperatures (400–500°C), or at somewhat lower temperatures either catalytically or photolytically. Methyl chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride are also produced as co-products (Rossberg et al., 1986; Holbrook, 1993).
Global production of dichloromethane increased from 93 000 tonnes in 1960 to an estimated 570 000 tonnes in 1980 (IARC, 1986), and is estimated to range from 764 000 to 814 000 tonnes per year from 2005 to 2010 (OECD/SIDS, 2011). In 2009, dichloromethane was produced by 26 manufacturers worldwide and was available from 133 suppliers (NTP, 2011). Production and imports of dichloromethane in the USA totalled 45 000–227 000 tonnes between 1996 and 2006 (NTP, 2011). In the European Union, the total tonnage band for dichloromethane was reported to be 100 000 to 1 000 000 tonnes per year (ECHA, 2016). The production and import of dichloromethane reported in Japan was 58 000 tonnes in 2011 (METI, 2013).

Reaktionen

Methylene chloride reacts violently in the presence of alkali or alkaline earth metals and will hydrolyze to formaldehyde in the presence of an aqueous base. Alkylation reactions occur at both functions, thus di-substitutions result.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

Dichloromethane has been tested as a solvent medium for the dipyridine-chromium(VI) oxide. Solubility was reported to be 12.5g/100ml. Role of quantity of TiO2 loading on activated carbon support employed in the photodecomposition of dichloromethane has been investigated.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Methylene chloride is a colourless liquid with a mild, sweet odour. Somewhat water soluble. Subject to slow hydrolysis which is accelerated by light.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Dichloromethane reacts vigorously with active metals such as lithium, sodium and potassium, and with strong bases such as potassium tert-butoxide. Dichloromethane is incompatible with strong oxidizers, strong caustics and chemically active metals such as aluminum or magnesium powders. The liquid will attack some forms of plastic, rubber and coatings. Dichloromethane reacts with sodium-potassium alloy, (potassium hydrogen + N-methyl-N-nitrosurea), nitrogen tetraoxide and liquid oxygen. Dichloromethane also reacts with titanium. On contact with water Dichloromethane corrodes iron, some stainless steels, copper and nickel. Dichloromethane is incompatible with alkali metals. Dichloromethane is incompatible with amines, zinc and alloys of aluminum, magnesium and zinc. Dichloromethane is liable to explode when mixed with dinitrogen pentaoxide or nitric acid. Mixtures of Dichloromethane in air with methanol vapor are flammable.

Hazard

Toxic. A narcotic. Central nervous systemimpairment and carboxyhemoglobinemia. Possiblecarcinogen.

Health Hazard

Dichloromethane is classified as only slightly toxic by the oral and inhalation routes. Exposure to high concentrations of dichloromethane vapor (>500 ppm for 8 h) can lead to lightheadedness, fatigue, weakness, and nausea. Contact of the compound with the eyes causes painful irritation and can lead to conjunctivitis and corneal injury if not promptly removed by washing. Dichloromethane is a mild skin irritant, and upon prolonged contact (e.g., under the cover of clothing or shoes) can cause burns after 30 to 60 min exposure. Dichloromethane is not teratogenic at levels up to 4500 ppm or embryotoxic in rats and mice at levels up to 1250 ppm.

Health Hazard

Methylene chloride is a low to moderatelytoxic compound, the toxicity varying withthe animal species. It is less toxic in smallanimals than in humans. The toxic routesof exposure are inhalation of its vapors,ingestion, and absorption through the skin.It may be detected from its odor at a con centration of 300 ppm. Acute toxic symp toms include fatigue, weakness, headache,lightheadedness, euphoria, nausea, and sleep.High concentrations may produce narcosis.Rabbits exposed to 10,000 ppm for 7 hoursdied from exposure. The LC50 value inmice is 14,400 ppm/7 h (NIOSH 1986). Mildeffects may be felt in humans from an 8-hourexposure to 500 ppm of methylene chloride vapors. Oral intake of 15–20 mL ofthe liquid may be lethal to humans. Chronicexposure to this compound can lead to liverinjury. Contact of the liquid with skin or eyescan cause irritation.
Methylene chloride metabolizes in bodyto carbon monoxide, which forms carboxy hemoglobin in blood. The concentration ofthe latter is related to the vapor concentrationand the duration of exposure.
Methylene chloride is carcinogenic to ani mals. Rats inhaling its vapors at concentra tions of 2000–3500 ppm, 5–6 hours per dayfor 2 years developed lung and endocrinetumors. It is a suspected human carcinogen.The evidence of carcinogenicity in humansis inadequate, however.

Brandgefahr

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Dissociation products generated in a fire may be irritating or toxic.

Flammability and Explosibility

Noncombustible. Dichloromethane vapor concentrated in a confined or poorly ventilated area can be ignited with a high-energy spark, flame, or high-intensity heat source.

Chemische Reaktivität

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Sicherheitsprofil

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data. Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects by ingestion and inhalation: paresthesia, somnolence, altered sleep time, convulsions, euphoria, and change in cardlac rate. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. An eye and severe skin irritant. Human mutation data reported. It is flammable in the range of 12-19% in air but ignition is difficult. It will not form explosive mixtures with air at ordinary temperatures. Mixtures in air with methanol vapor are flammable. It will form explosive mixtures with an atmosphere having a high oxygen content, in liquid O2, N2O4, K, Na, NaK. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Reacts violently with Li, NaK, potassiumtert- butoxide, (KOH + N-methyl-Nnitrosourea). It can be decomposed by contact with hot surfaces and open flame, and then yield toxic fumes that are irritating and give warning of their presence. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of phosgene and Cl-.

mögliche Exposition

Methylene chloride is used mainly as a low-temperature extractant of substances which are adversely affected by high temperature. It can be used as a solvent for oil, fats, waxes, bitumen, cellulose acetate; and esters. It is also used as a paint remover; as a degreaser; and in aerosol propellants

Carcinogenicity

Dichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.

Environmental Fate

Biological. Complete microbial degradation to carbon dioxide was reported under anaerobic conditions by mixed or pure cultures. Under enzymatic conditions formaldehyde was the only product reported (Vogel et al., 1987). In a static-culture-flask screening test, methylene chloride (5 and 10 mg/L) was statically incubated in the dark at 25 °C with yeast extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum. After 7 d, 100% biodegradation with rapid adaptation was observed (Tabak et al., 1981).
Under aerobic conditions with sewage seed or activated sludge, complete biodegradation was observed between 6 h to 1 wk (Rittman and McCarty, 1980).
Soil. Methylene chloride undergoes biodegradation in soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, the following half-lives were reported: 54.8 d in sand (500 ppb); 1.3, 9.4, and 191.4 d at concentrations of 160, 500, and 5,000 ppb, respectively, in sandy loam soil; 12.7 d (500 ppb) in sandy clay loam soil; 7.2 d (500 ppb) following a 50-d lag time. Under anaerobic conditions, the half-life of methylene chloride in clay following a 70-d lag time is 21.5 d (Davis and Madsen, 1991). The estimated volatilization half-life of methylene chloride in soil is 100 d (Jury et al., 1990).
Photolytic. Reported photooxidation products via OH radicals include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formyl chloride, and phosgene (Spence et al., 1976). In the presence of water, phosgene hydrolyzes to HCl and carbon dioxide, whereas formyl chloride hydrolyzes to hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide (Morrison and Boyd, 1971).
Chemical/Physical. Under laboratory conditions, methylene chloride hydrolyzed with subsequent oxidation and reduction to produce methyl chloride, methanol, formic acid, and formaldehyde (Smith and Dragun, 1984). The experimental half-life for hydrolysis in water at 25 °C is approximately 18 months (Dilling et al., 1975).

Versand/Shipping

UN1593Dichloromethane, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials

läuterung methode

Shake it with portions of conc H2SO4 until the acid layer remains colourless, then wash with water, aqueous 5% Na2CO3, NaHCO3 or NaOH, then water again. Pre-dry with CaCl2, and distil it from CaSO4, CaH2 or P2O5. Store it away from bright light in a brown bottle with Linde type 4A molecular sieves, in an atmosphere of dry N2. Other purification steps include washing with aqueous Na2S2O3, passage through a column of silica gel, and removal of carbonyl-containing impurities as described under Chloroform. It has also been purified by treatment with basic alumina, distillation, and stored over molecular sieves under nitrogen [Puchot et al. J Am Chem Soc 108 2353 1986]. Dichloromethane from Japanese sources contained MeOH as stabiliser which is not removed by distillation. It can, however, be removed by standing over activated 3A Molecular Sieves (note that 4A Sieves cause the development of pressure in bottles), passed through activated Al2O3 and distilled [Gao et al. J Am Chem Soc 109 5771 1987]. It has been fractionated through a platinum spinning band column, degassed, and distilled onto degassed molecular sieves Linde 4A (heated under high vacuum at over 450o until the pressure readings reached the low values of 10-6 mm, ~1-2hours ). Stabilise it with 0.02% of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol [Mohammad & Kosower J Am Chem Soc 93 2713 1971]. [Beilstein 1 IV 35.] Rapid purification: Reflux over CaH2 (5% w/v) and distil it. Store it over 4A molecular sieves.

Toxicity evaluation

Dichloromethane is usually released to the atmosphere. It can react withhydroxyl radicals with a half-life of about a fewmonths. Dichloromethane released to water can be evaporated to atmosphere with a half-life of 35.6 h at moderate mixing conditions. Some of dichloromethane in water can be biodegraded completely within several hours and a few days. Small part of dichloromethane released to water can be degraded by hydrolysis. However, hydrolysis is not an important process under natural condition and may take 18 months or more to degrade completely. Dichloromethane released to soil will go to the soil surface and then the atmosphere. Some part of dichloromethane in soil will leak to the groundwater and water cycle.
DCM’s production and use as solvent, chemical intermediate, grain fumigant, paint stripper and remover,metal degreaser, and refrigerant may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Vapor-phase DCM is expected to be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be approximately 119 days (in the absence of direct photolysis). If released to soil,DCMis expected to have very high mobility based on an estimated Koc of 24. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based on an estimated Henry’s law constant of 3.25×10-3 atm-m3 mol-1. DCM may volatilize from dry soil surfaces based on its vapor pressure. Biodegradation in soil may occur. DCM, when released into water, is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment in water based on the estimated Koc. Biodegradation is possible in natural waters but will probably be very slow compared with evaporation.

Inkompatibilitäten

Incompatible with strong oxidizers, caustics; chemically active metals, such as aluminum, magnesium powders; potassium, lithium, and sodium; concentrated nitric acid causing fire and explosion hazard. Contact with hot surfaces or flames causes decomposition producing fumes of hydrogen chloride and phosgene gas. Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. Attacks metals in the presence of moisture.

Waste disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel; care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene; an acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.

Verordnung (Regulations)

Several jurisdictions have acted to reduce the use and release of various volatile organic compounds, including dichloromethane. The California Air Resources Board was one of the first jurisdictions to regulate dichloromethane; in 1995, it limited the levels of total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in aerosol coating products. Subsequent regulations prevented manufacture, sale, supply, or application of any aerosol coating product containing dichloromethane (Air Resources Board, 2001). California has also prohibited the manufacture, sale, or use of automotive cleaning and degreasing products containing dichloromethane.
In Japan, the environmental quality standards for dichloromethane state that outdoor air levels shall not exceed 0.15 mg/m3 (Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan, 2014).
A guideline value of 3 mg/m3 for 24-hour exposure is recommended by WHO. In addition, the weekly average concentration should not exceed one seventh (0.45 mg/m3) of this 24-hour guideline (WHO, 2000).
In the European Union, the VOC Solvent Emissions Directive (Directive 1999/13/EC) was implemented for new and existing installations on 31 October 2007 (European Commission,1999). The Directive aims to reduce industrial emissions of VOCs from solvent-using activities, such as printing, surface cleaning, vehicle coating, dry cleaning, and manufacture of footwear and pharmaceutical products. Installations conducting such activities are required to comply either with emission limit values or with a reduction scheme. Reduction schemes allow the operator to reduce emissions by alternative means, such as by substituting products with a lower solvent content or changing to solvent-free production processes. The Solvents Directive was implemented in 2010 into the Industrial Emission Directive 2010/75/EU (IED).

Dichlormethan Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Dichlormethan Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 561)Lieferanten
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+8619930503282
sales3@crovellbio.com China 5941 58

75-09-2(Dichlormethan)Verwandte Suche:


  • F30
  • F30(chlorocarbon)
  • Freon 30
  • Freon30
  • HCC30
  • Khladon30
  • M-clean D
  • Metaclen
  • Methane dichloride
  • Methane, dichloro-
  • methane,dichloro
  • Methane,dichloro-
  • methanedichloride
  • Methylenchlorid
  • Methylene bichloride
  • methylenebichloride
  • methylenechloride(dichloromethane)
  • methylenumchloratum
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  • Salesthin
  • Solaesthin
  • SoleanaVDA
  • NONPOLAR COLUMN TEST MIX, 1X2ML, CH2CL2, 500UG/ML
  • DICHLOROMETHANE PURIFICATION GRADE
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, ACS REAGENT, >=99.5%, &
  • DICHLOROMETHANE CHROMASOLV FOR HPLC &
  • DICHLOROMETHANE FOR UV-SPECTROSCOPY &
  • Dichloromethane, Biotech. grade, 99.9%, contains 50-150ppm amylene as stabilizer
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, >=99.5%, A.C.S. REAGENT
  • Dichloromethane, CHROMASOLV(R) Plus, for HPLC, 99.9%
  • DICHLOROMETHANE FOR RESIDUE ANALYSIS &
  • DICHLOROMETHANE DIST. 5 L
  • METHYLENE CHLORIDE, 1X1ML, MEOH, 5000UG/ ML
  • DICHLOROMETHANE 99.6% A R GRADE (POLY CO
  • DICHLOROMETHANE PESTANAL STABILIZED
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, 5000MG, NEAT
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, CHROMASOLV, FOR HPLC, >=99.8%, CONTAINS AMYLENE AS STABILIZER
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, >=99.5%, A.C.S. REAGENT (POLY-COATED BOTTLES)
  • DICHLOROMETHANE SPECTRANAL, STABILIZED
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, ANHYDROUS, >=99.8%, CO&
  • DICHLOROMETHANE AMD CHROMASOLV, STABILIZ ED
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, 99.6%, A.C.S. REAGENT (MINI-BULK)
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, FOR IR-SPECTROSCOPY, ST AB.
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, STAB.
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, ACS, STAB.
  • DICHLOROMETHANE D FOR ANALYSIS OF DIOXIN ES, FURANES AND PCB, STABILIZED
  • DICHLOROMETHANE EXTRA PURE, DAB, STABILI ZED
  • DICHLOROMETHANE, STANDARD FOR GC, STAB.
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