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Methanol Produkt Beschreibung

Methanol Struktur
67-56-1
CAS-Nr.
67-56-1
Bezeichnung:
Methanol
Englisch Name:
Methanol
Synonyma:
CH3OH;metanol;S NO 250;Metanolo;Carbinol;Methanol;ACID RED;Methylol;ai3-00409;coat-b1400
CBNumber:
CB7854099
Summenformel:
CH4O
Molgewicht:
32.04
MOL-Datei:
67-56-1.mol

Methanol Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
-98 °C(lit.)
Siedepunkt:
65.4 °C(lit.)
Dichte
0.791 g/mL at 25 °C
Dampfdichte
1.11 (vs air)
Dampfdruck
410 mm Hg ( 50 °C)
Brechungsindex
n20/D 1.329(lit.)
Flammpunkt:
52 °F
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
Löslichkeit
benzene: miscible(lit.)
pka
15.2(at 25℃)
Aggregatzustand
Liquid Free From Particulates
Farbe
<10(APHA)
Wichte
0.793 (20/20℃)
Relative polarity
0.762
Geruch (Odor)
Faint alcohol odor detectable at 4 to 6000 ppm (mean = 160 ppm)
Explosionsgrenze
5.5-44%(V)
Wasserlöslichkeit
miscible
maximale Wellenlänge (λmax)
λ: 210 nm Amax: 0.50
λ: 220 nm Amax: 0.30
λ: 230 nm Amax: 0.15
λ: 235 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 240 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 400 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 
14,5957
BRN 
1098229
Henry's Law Constant
4.99 at 25 °C (headspace-GC, Gupta et al., 2000)
Expositionsgrenzwerte
TLV-TWA (200 ppm) (ACGIH), 260mg/m3, 1040mg/m3 (800 ppm) 15minutes (NIOSH); STEL 310mg/m3 (250 ppm); IDLH 25,000 ppm (NIOSH).
CAS Datenbank
67-56-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
Methyl alcohol(67-56-1)
EPA chemische Informationen
Methanol(67-56-1)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher Xn,T,F
R-Sätze: 10-20/21/22-68/20/21/22-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-40-36-36/38-23/25
S-Sätze: 36/37-7-45-16-24/25-23-24-26
RIDADR  UN 1170 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS-Nr. PC1400000
3-10
Selbstentzündungstemperatur 385 °C
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2905 11 00
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  II
Giftige Stoffe Daten 67-56-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 oral (rat)
5628 mg/kg
LD50 skin (rabbit)
15,840 mg/kg
LC50 inhal (rat)
>145,000 ppm (1 h)
PEL (OSHA)
200 ppm (260 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH)
200 ppm (260 mg/m3)—skin
STEL (ACGIH)
250 ppm (328 mg/m3)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H225 Flüssigkeit und Dampf leicht entzündbar. Entzündbare Flüssigkeiten Kategorie 2 Achtung P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H301 Giftig bei Verschlucken. Akute Toxizität oral Kategorie 3 Achtung P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H311 Giftig bei Hautkontakt. Akute Toxizität dermal Kategorie 3 Achtung P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 Giftig bei Einatmen. Akute Toxizität inhalativ Kategorie 3 Achtung P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
H336 Kann Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit) Warnung P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H360 Kann die Fruchtbarkeit beeinträchtigen oder das Kind im Mutterleib schädigen. Fertility (Fruchtbarkeit) Kategorie 1 Achtung
H370 Schädigt die Organe. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 1 Achtung P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 Schädigt bei Hautkontakt und Verschlucken die Organe bei längerer oder wiederholter Exposition. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (wiederholte Exposition) Kategorie 1 Achtung P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
Sicherheit
P201 Vor Gebrauch besondere Anweisungen einholen.
P202 Vor Gebrauch alle Sicherheitshinweise lesen und verstehen.
P233 Behälter dicht verschlossen halten.
P240 Behälter und zu befüllende Anlage erden.
P264 Nach Gebrauch gründlich waschen.
P264 Nach Gebrauch gründlich waschen.
P270 Bei Gebrauch nicht essen, trinken oder rauchen.
P271 Nur im Freien oder in gut belüfteten Räumen verwenden.
P303+P361+P353 BEI BERÜHRUNG MIT DER HAUT (oder dem Haar): Alle kontaminierten Kleidungsstücke sofort ausziehen. Haut mit Wasser abwaschen oder duschen.

Methanol Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

FARBLOSE FLüSSIGKEIT MIT CHARAKTERISTISCHEM GERUCH.

PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN

Die Dämpfe mischen sich leicht mit Luft. Bildung explosionsfähiger Gemische.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Reagiert heftig mit Oxidationsmitteln. Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV: 200 ppm (als TWA) 250 ppm (als STEL); Hautresorption; BEI vorhanden; (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: 200 ppm 270 mg/m?Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor II(4); Hautresorption; Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; (DFG 2005).
EG Arbeitsplatz-Richtgrenzwerte: 260 mg/m? 200 ppm (als TWA); Hautresorption; (EG 2006).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation, über die Haut und durch Verschlucken.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Beim Verdampfen bei 20 °C kann schnell eine gesundheitsschädliche Kontamination der Luft eintreten.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atmungsorgane. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf das Zentralnervensystem mit nachfolgendem Bewusstseinsverlust.

WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION

Wiederholter oder andauernder Hautkontakt kann Dermatitis hervorrufen. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf das Zentralnervensystem. Führt zu anhaltenden oder wiederholten Kopfschmerzen und Sehstörungen.

LECKAGE

Gefahrenbereich verlassen! Belüftung. Ausgelaufene Flüssigkeit in abdichtbaren Behältern sammeln. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen. Dämpfe mit feinem Wassersprühstrahl niederschlagen. Chemikalienschutzanzug mit umgebungsluftunabhängigem Atemschutzgerät.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R10:Entzündlich.
R20/21/22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen,Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
R68/20/21/22:Gesundheitsschädlich: Möglichkeit irreversiblen Schadens durch Einatmen,Berührung mit der Haut und durch Verschlucken.
R39/23/24/25:Giftig: ernste Gefahr irreversiblen Schadens durch Einatmen, Berührung mit der Haut und durch Verschlucken.
R23/24/25:Giftig beim Einatmen, Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
R11:Leichtentzündlich.
R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.
R36:Reizt die Augen.
R36/38:Reizt die Augen und die Haut.
R23/25:Giftig beim Einatmen und Verschlucken.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
S7:Behälter dicht geschlossen halten.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
S23:Gas/Rauch/Dampf/Aerosol nicht einatmen(geeignete Bezeichnung(en) vom Hersteller anzugeben).
S24:Berührung mit der Haut vermeiden.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

CH3OH; Farblose Flüssigkeit mit angenehmem bis stechendem Geruch.

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Leichtentzündlich. Mit starken Oxidationsmitteln kann es zu heftigen, z.T. explosionsartigen Reaktionen mit Entzündung kommen; ebenso mit Alkalimetallen und mit Chloroform in Gegenwart starker Basen.
Giftig beim Einatmen und Verschlucken. Kann über die Haut aufgenommen werden und wirkt als Zellgift. Mögliche Vergiftungserscheinungen sind Schwindel, Kopfschmerz, Schwächegefühl, Übelkeit, Leibschmerzen und beginnende Sehstörungen mit deutlicher Übersäuerung des Blutes. In schweren Fällen kommt eszu schweren Sehstörungen, zentralnervösen Anfällen, sowie Atemlähmung und Herzstillstand. Methanol wird im Körper schrittweise über Formaaldehyd und Ameisensäure zu CO2 abgebaut. Beide Zwischenprodukte sind verantwortlich für die Giftigkeit von Methanol.

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Von Zündquellen fernhalten.
Latex- oder Neopren-Schutzhandschuhe (nur kurzzeitiger Spritzschutz).

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Kleine Spritzer im Abzug verdampfen lassen oder mit Wasser wegspülen. Größere Mengen mit Absorptionsmaterial (Rench-Rapid) aufnehmen und als Sondermüll entsorgen. Atemschutz: Kombinationsfilter ABEK.
Enstehungsbrände mit CO2-Löscher bekämpfen.

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Sofort mit Wasser abwaschen.
Nach Augenkontakt: Sofort mit viel Wasser mindestens 15 Minuten bei geöffnetem Augenlid spülen. Augenarzt!
Nach Einatmen: Frischluft. Bei länger anhaltenden Beschwerden Arzt konsultieren!
Nach Verschlucken: Reichlich Wasser, möglichst mit Aktivkohle versetzt trinken lassen. Arzt konsultieren!
Nach Kleidungskontakt: Benetzte Kleidung ausziehen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

Methanol und methanolhaltigen Abfall als Sondermüll (je nach Begleitstoffen halogenhaltige oder halogenfreie Lösemittel) entsorgen.

Beschreibung

Methyl alcohol, also known as methanol or wood alcohol, is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid that is the simplest alcohol.
World production of methanol is approximately 8.5 billion gallons annually. Methanol is produced industrially, starting with the production of synthesis gas or syngas. Syngas used in the production of methyl alcohol is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formed when natural gas reacts with steam or oxygen. Methyl alcohol is then synthesized from carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Methyl alcohol is poisonous and is commonly used to denature ethyl alcohol. Methanol poisoning results from ingestion, inhalation of methanol vapors, or absorption through the skin. Methanol is transformed in the body to formaldehyde (H2CO) by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase.The formaldehyde is then metabolized to formic acid (HCOOH)by aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Clear, colourless, volatile, hygroscopic liquid.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Methyl alcohol is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild odor.

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic alcoholic odor. Odor threshold concentrations ranged from 8.5 ppbv (Nagata and Takeuchi, 1990) to 100.0 ppmv (Leonardos et al., 1969). Experimentally determined detection and recognition odor threshold concentrations were 5.5 mg/m3 (4.2 ppmv) and 69 mg/m3 (53 ppmv), respectively (Hellman and Small, 1974).

History

It was first isolated in 1661 by the Irish chemist Robert Boyle (1627–1691) who prepared it by the destructive distillation of boxwood, giving it the name spirit of box, and the name wood alcohol is still used for methyl alcohol. Methyl alcohol is also called pyroxylic spirit; pyroxylic is a general term meaning distilled from wood and indicates that methyl alcohol is formed during pyrolysis of wood. The common name was derived in the mid-1800s. The name methyl denotes the single carbon alkane methane in which a hydrogen atom has been removed to give the methyl radical. The word alcohol is derived from Arabic al kuhul.

Verwenden

Methanol has numerous uses. Its main use is in the production of formaldehyde, whichconsumes approximately 40% of methanol supplies. Methanolis a common organic solvent found in many products including deicers (windshield wiperfl uid), antifreezes, correction fl uid, fuel additives, paints, and other coatings. A number ofindustrial chemicals use methanol in their production. Among these are methyl methacrylateand dimethyl terephthalate. Methanol is used to convert methylacrylamide sulfate to methylmethacrylate and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4):
Methanol is used in making the ester dimethyl terephthalate from mixtures ofxylene of toluene. Dimethyl terephthalate is used in the manufacture of polyesters and plastics.
Methanol is used as a fuel additive. The common gasoline additive HEET is pure methanoland is used as a gas-line antifreeze and water remover. Methanol is used as a fuel in camp stoves and small heating devices. It is used to fuel the small engines used in models (airplanes,boats). In the early history of automobiles,methanol was a common fuel. The availability of cheap gasoline replaced methanol in the1920s, but it is receiving renewed interest as an alternative fuel as the demand and cost of oilincrease and oil supplies become uncertain. Methanol can be produced from coal and biomass.Methanol has a higher octane rating and generally lower pollutant emissions compared togasoline. The relatively low flame temperature means that fewer nitrogen oxides are producedby methanol than by ethanol. One large disadvantage of methanol is that it has a lower energydensity than gasoline. Using equivalent volumes of gasoline and methanol, methanol givesabout half the mileage of gasoline. Another problem with methanol is its low vapor pressure,resulting in starting problems on cold days. This problem can be mitigated by using a blendof 85% methanol and 15% gasoline. This mixture is called M85 and is similar to E85 ethanol(see Ethyl Alcohol).

Verwenden

Methanol is used in the production offormaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl tert-butylether, and many chemical intermediates; asan octane improver (in oxinol); and as apossible alternative to diesel fuel; being anexcellent polar solvent, it is widely used as acommon laboratory chemical and as a methylating reagent.

Verwenden

Industrial solvent. Raw material for making formaldehyde and methyl esters of organic and inorganic acids. Antifreeze for automotive radiators and air brakes; ingredient of gasoline and diesel oil antifreezes. Octane booster in gasoline. As fuel for picnic stoves and soldering torches. Extractant for animal and vegetable oils. To denature ethanol. Softening agent for pyroxylin plastics. Solvent and solvent adjuvant for polymers. Solvent in the manufacture of cholesterol, streptomycin, vitamins, hormones, and other pharmaceuticals.

Verwenden

Meets ACS specifications

Verwenden

Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, and some LC-MS applications

Verwenden

high purity grade for ICP-MS detection

Verwenden

Methylalcohol, CH30H, also known as methanol or wood alcohol, is a colorless, toxic, flammable liquid with a boiling point of 64.6 °C(147 °F). The principal toxic effect is on the nervous system,particularly the retinae. Methyl alcoholis miscible in all proportions with water,ethyl alcohol, and ether. It burns with a light blue flame producing water and carbon dioxide. This vapor forms an explosive mixture(6.0 to 36.5% by volume) with air. Methyl alcohol is an important inexpensive raw material that is synthetically produced for the organic chemical industry. Nearly half of the methyl alcohol manufactured is used in the production of formaldehyde. Other uses of methyl alcohol are as an antifreeze and fuel for automobiles and as an intermediate in the production of synthetic protein.

Definition

ChEBI: The primary alcohol that is the simplest aliphatic alcohol, comprising a methyl and an alcohol group.

Definition

A colorless liquid alcohol, which is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of methanal (formaldehyde) for the plastics and drugs industries. Methanol was originally produced from the distillation of wood. Now it is manufactured by the catalytic oxidation of methane from natural gas.

Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO)

Methanol has been subjected to abuse by consumption as a substitute for ethanol. Its toxic metabolites cause irreversible blindness and severe metabolic acidosis, and are ultimately fatal. Methanol continues to be used as an industrial solvent.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

A colorless fairly volatile liquid with a faintly sweet pungent odor like that of ethyl alcohol. Completely mixes with water. The vapors are slightly heavier than air and may travel some distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Any accumulation of vapors in confined spaces, such as buildings or sewers, may explode if ignited. Used to make chemicals, to remove water from automotive and aviation fuels, as a solvent for paints and plastics, and as an ingredient in a wide variety of products.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Methanol reacts violently with acetyl bromide [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Mixtures with concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated hydrogen peroxide can cause explosions. Reacts with hypochlorous acid either in water solution or mixed water/carbon tetrachloride solution to give methyl hypochlorite, which decomposes in the cold and may explode on exposure to sunlight or heat. Gives the same product with chlorine. Can react explosively with isocyanates under basic conditions. The presence of an inert solvent mitigates this reaction [Wischmeyer 1969]. A violent exothermic reaction occurred between methyl alcohol and bromine in a mixing cylinder [MCA Case History 1863. 1972]. A flask of anhydrous lead perchlorate dissolved in Methanol exploded when Methanol was disturbed [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 52:2391. 1930]. P4O6 reacts violently with Methanol. (Thorpe, T. E. et al., J. Chem. Soc., 1890, 57, 569-573). Ethanol or Methanol can ignite on contact with a platinum-black catalyst. (Urben 1794).

Hazard

Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Explosive limits in air 6–36.5% by volume. Toxic by ingestion (causes blindness). Headache, eye damage, dizziness, and nausea.

Health Hazard

The acute toxicity of methanol by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact is low. Ingestion of methanol or inhalation of high concentrations can produce headache, drowsiness, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, blindness, and death. In humans, 60 to 250 mL is reported to be a lethal dose. Prolonged or repeated skin contact can cause irritation and inflammation; methanol can be absorbed through the skin in toxic amounts. Contact of methanol with the eyes can cause irritation and burns. Methanol is not considered to have adequate warning properties.
Methanol has not been found to be carcinogenic in humans. Information available is insufficient to characterize the reproductive hazard presented by methanol. In animal tests, the compound produced developmental effects only at levels that were maternally toxic; hence, it is not considered to be a highly significant hazard to the fetus. Tests in bacterial or mammalian cell cultures demonstrate no mutagenic activity

Health Hazard

Exposure to excessive vapor causes eye irritation, head- ache, fatigue and drowsiness. High concentrations can produce central nervous system depression and optic nerve damage. 50,000 ppm will probably cause death in 1 to 2 hrs. Can be absorbed through skin. Swallowing may cause death or eye damage.

Health Hazard

Ingestion of adulterated alcoholic beveragescontaining methanol has resulted in innumerable loss of human lives throughout theworld. It is highly toxic, causing acidosis andblindness. The symptoms of poisoning arenausea, abdominal pain, headache, blurredvision, shortness of breath, and dizziness.In the body, methanol oxidizes to formaldehyde and formic acid — the latter could bedetected in the urine, the pH of which is lowered (when poisoning is severe).
The toxicity of methanol is attributed tothe metabolic products above. Ingestion inlarge amounts affects the brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and respiratory system and can cause coma, blindness, anddeath. The lethal dose is reported to be60–250 mL. The poisoning effect is prolonged and the recovery is slow, often causing permanent loss of sight.
Other exposure routes are inhalation andskin absorption. Exposure to methanol vaporto at 2000 ppm at regular intervals over aperiod of 4 weeks caused upper respiratorytract irritation and mucoid nasal discharge inrats. Such discharge was found to be a doserelated effect.
Inhalation in humans may produce headache, drowsiness, and eye irritation. Prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis andscaling. Eye contact can cause burns anddamage vision..

Brandgefahr

Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode.

Brandgefahr

Methanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) that burns with an invisible flame in daylight; its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Methanol-water mixtures will burn unless very dilute. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for methanol fires

Flammability and Explosibility

Methanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) that burns with an invisible flame in daylight; its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Methanol-water mixtures will burn unless very dilute. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for methanol fires.

Chemische Reaktivität

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization:Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Sicherheitsprofil

A human poison by ingestion. Poison experimentally by skin contact. Moderately toxic experimentally by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects: changes in circulation, cough, dyspnea, headache, lachrymation, nausea or vomiting, optic nerve neuropathy, respiratory effects, visual field changes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. An eye and skin irritant. Human mutation data reported. A narcotic. Its main toxic effect is exerted upon the nervous system, particularly the optic nerves and possibly the retinae. The condtion can progress to permanent blindness. Once absorbed, methanol is only very slowly eliminated. Coma resulting from massive exposures may last as long as 2-4 days. In the body, the products formed by its oxidation are formaldehyde and formic acid, both of which are toxic. Because of the slow elimination, methanol should be regarded as a cumulative poison. Though single exposures to fumes may cause no harmful effect, daily exposure may result in the accumulation of sufficient methanol in the body to cause illness. Death from ingestion of less than 30 mL has been reported. A common air contaminant. Flammable liquid. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidlzers. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Explosive reaction with chloroform + sodium methoxide, diethyl zinc. Violent reaction with alkyl aluminum salts, acetyl bromide, chloroform + sodlum hydroxide, CrO3, cyanuric chloride, (I + ethanol + HgO), Pb(ClO4)2, HClO4, P2O3, (KOH + CHCb), nitric acid. Incompatible with berylhum dihydride, metals (e.g., potassium, magnesium), oxidants (e.g., barium perchlorate, bromine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide), potassium tert-butoxide, carbon tetrachloride + metals (e.g., aluminum, magnesium, zinc), dlchloromethane. Dangerous; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Source

Methanol occurs naturally in small-flowered oregano (5 to 45 ppm) (Baser et al., 1991), Guveyoto shoots (700 ppb) (Baser et al., 1992), orange juice (0.8 to 80 ppm), onion bulbs, pineapples, black currant, spearmint, apples, jimsonweed leaves, soybean plants, wild parsnip, blackwood, soursop, cauliflower, caraway, petitgrain, bay leaves, tomatoes, parsley leaves, and geraniums (Duke, 1992).
Methanol may enter the environment from methanol spills because it is used in formaldehyde solutions to prevent polymerization (Worthing and Hance, 1991).

Environmental Fate

Biological. In a 5-d experiment, [14C]methanol applied to soil water suspensions under aerobic and anaerobic conditions gave 14CO2 yields of 53.4 and 46.3%, respectively (Scheunert et al., 1987). Heukelekian and Rand (1955) reported a 5-d BOD value of 0.85 g/g which is 56.7% of the ThOD value of 1.50 g/g. Using the BOD technique to measure biodegradation, the mean 5-d BOD value (mM BOD/mM methanol) and ThOD were 0.93 and 62.0%, respectively (Vaishnav et al., 1987).
Photolytic. Photooxidation of methanol in an oxygen-rich atmosphere (20%) in the presence of chlorine atoms yielded formaldehyde and hydroxyperoxyl radicals. The reaction is initiated via hydrogen abstraction by OH radicals or chlorine atoms yielding a hydroxymethyl radical. Chlorine, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and formic acid were detected (Whitbeck, 1983). Reported rate constants for the reaction of methanol and OH radicals in the atmosphere: 5.7 x 10-11 cm3/mol·sec at 300 K (Hendry and Kenley, 1979), 5.7 x 10-8 L/mol·sec (second-order) at 292 K (Campbell et al., 1976), 1.00 x 10-12 cm3/molecule·sec at 292 K (Meier et al., 1985), 7.6 x 10-13 cm3/molecule·sec at 298 K (Ravishankara and Davis, 1978), 6.61 x 10-13 cm3/molecule·sec at room temperature (Wallington et al., 1988a). Based on an atmospheric OH concentration of 1.0 x 106 molecule/cm3, the reported half-life of methanol is 8.6 d (Grosjean, 1997).
Chemical/Physical. In a smog chamber, methanol reacted with nitrogen dioxide to give methyl nitrite and nitric acid (Takagi et al., 1986). The formation of these products was facilitated when this experiment was accompanied by UV light (Akimoto and Takagi, 1986). Methanol will not hydrolyze because it does not have a hydrolyzable functional group (Kollig, 1993).
At an influent concentration of 1,000 mg/L, treatment with GAC resulted in an effluent concentration of 964 mg/L. The adsorbability of the carbon used was 7 mg/g carbon (Guisti et al., 1974).
Hydroxyl radicals react with methanol in aqueous solution at a reaction rate of 1.60 x 10-12 cm3/molecule?sec (Wallington et al., 1988).
Complete combustion in air produces carbon dioxide and water. The stoichiometric equation for this oxidation reaction is:
2CH4O + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 4H2O

Lager

Methanol should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

Versand/Shipping

UN1230 Methanol, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid, 6.1-Poisonous material. (International)

läuterung methode

Almost all methanol is now obtained synthetically. Likely impurities are water, acetone, formaldehyde, ethanol, methyl formate and traces of dimethyl ether, methylal, methyl acetate, acetaldehyde, carbon dioxide and ammonia. Most of the water (down to about 0.01%) can be removed by fractional distillation. Drying with CaO is unnecessary and wasteful. Anhydrous methanol can be obtained from "absolute" material by passage through Linde type 4A molecular sieves, or by drying with CaH2, CaSO4, or with just a little more sodium than required to react with the water present, in all cases the methanol is then distilled. Two treatments with sodium reduces the water content to about 5 x 10-5%. [Friedman et al. J Am Chem Soc 83 4050 1961.] Lund and Bjerrum [Chem Ber 64 210 1931] warmed clean dry magnesium turnings (5g) and iodine (0.5g) with 50-75mL of "absolute" methanol in a flask until the iodine disappeared and all the magnesium was converted to the methoxide. Up to 1L of methanol was added and, after refluxing for 2-3hours, it was distilled off, excluding moisture from the system. Redistillation from tribromobenzoic acid removes basic impurities and traces of magnesium oxides, and leaves conductivity-quality material. The method of Hartley and Raikes [J Chem Soc 127 524 1925] gives a slightly better product. This consists of an initial fractional distillation, followed by distillation from aluminium methoxide, and then ammonia and other volatile impurities are removed by refluxing for 6hours with freshly dehydrated CuSO4 (2g/L) while dry air is passed through: the methanol is finally distilled. (The aluminium methoxide is prepared by warming with aluminium amalgam (3g/L) until all the aluminium has reacted. The amalgam is obtained by warming pieces of sheet aluminium with a solution of HgCl2 in dry methanol.) This treatment also removes aldehydes. If acetone is present in the methanol, it is usually removed prior to drying. Bates, Mullaly and Hartley [J Chem Soc 401 1923] dissolved 25g of iodine in 1L of methanol and then poured the solution, with constant stirring, into 500mL of M NaOH. Addition of 150mL of water precipitated iodoform. The solution was allowed to stand overnight, filtered, then boiled under reflux until the odour of iodoform disappeared, and fractionally distilled. (This treatment also removes formaldehyde.) Morton and Mark [Ind Eng Chem (Anal Edn) 6 151 1934] refluxed methanol (1L) with furfural (50mL) and 10% NaOH solution (120mL) for 6-12hours, the refluxing resin carries down with it the acetone and other carbonyl-containing impurities. The alcohol was then fractionally distilled. Evers and Knox [J Am Chem Soc 73 1739 1951], after refluxing 4.5L of methanol for 24hours with 50g of magnesium, distilled off 4L of it, which they then refluxed with AgNO3 for 24hours in the absence of moisture or CO2. The methanol was again distilled, shaken for 24hours with activated alumina before being filtered through a glass sinter and distilled under nitrogen in an all-glass still. Material suitable for conductivity work was obtained. Variations of the above methods have also been used. For example, a sodium hydroxide solution containing iodine has been added to methanol and, after standing for 1day, the solution has been poured slowly into about a quarter of its volume of 10% AgNO3, shaken for several hours, then distilled. Sulfanilic acid has been used instead of tribromobenzoic acid in Lund and Bjerrum's method. A solution of 15g of magnesium in 500mL of methanol has been heated under reflux, under nitrogen, with hydroquinone (30g), before degassing and distilling the methanol, which was subsequently stored with magnesium (2g) and hydroquinone (4g per 100mL). Refluxing for about 12hours removes the bulk of the formaldehyde from methanol: further purification has been obtained by subsequent distillation, refluxing for 12hours with dinitrophenylhydrazine (5g) and H2SO4 (2g/L), and again fractionally distilling. [Beilstein 1

Inkompatibilitäten

Methanol reacts violently with strong oxidizers, causing a fire and explosion hazard.

Waste disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration

Methanol Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Methanol Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

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