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Brommethan Produkt Beschreibung

Methyl bromide  Struktur
74-83-9
CAS-Nr.
74-83-9
Bezeichnung:
Brommethan
Englisch Name:
Methyl bromide
Synonyma:
MBX;Edco;Mebr;CH3Br;F40B1;Zytox;r40b1;Rotox;Haltox;R 40B1
CBNumber:
CB9197705
Summenformel:
CH3Br
Molgewicht:
94.94
MOL-Datei:
74-83-9.mol

Brommethan Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
−94 °C(lit.)
Siedepunkt:
4 °C(lit.)
Dichte
3.3 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Dampfdichte
3.3 (20 °C, vs air)
Dampfdruck
1420 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
Brechungsindex
1.4432
Flammpunkt:
-34 °C
storage temp. 
2-8°C
Löslichkeit
water: soluble
Explosionsgrenze
~16%
Wasserlöslichkeit
1.522 g/100 mL
Merck 
13,6056
Henry's Law Constant
0.72 at 21 °C (Gan and Yates, 1996)
Expositionsgrenzwerte
NIOSH REL: IDLH 250 ppm; OSHA PEL: C 20 ppm; ACGIH TLV: TWA 5 ppm.
Stabilität:
Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, strong acids. This is an ozone-depleting chemical, and its use is restricted in many countries.
CAS Datenbank
74-83-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
IARC
3 (Vol. 41, Sup 7, 71) 1999
NIST chemische Informationen
Methyl bromide(74-83-9)
EPA chemische Informationen
Methyl bromide (74-83-9)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher T,N,Xn,F,F+
R-Sätze: 23/25-36/37/38-48/20-50-59-68-38-20/22-11-67-66-19-12-39/23/24/25-23/24/25
S-Sätze: 15-27-36/39-38-45-59-61-36/37-26-24-16-7
RIDADR  UN 1062 2.3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS-Nr. PA4900000
HazardClass  2.3
HS Code  29033990
Giftige Stoffe Daten 74-83-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LC for rats in air (6 hrs): 514 ppm (Irish)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Achtung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H225 Flüssigkeit und Dampf leicht entzündbar. Entzündbare Flüssigkeiten Kategorie 2 Achtung P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H280 Enthält Gas unter Druck; kann bei Erwärmung explodieren. Gase unter Druck verflüssigtes Gas Warnung P410+P403
H315 Verursacht Hautreizungen. Hautreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
H336 Kann Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit) Warnung P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H341 Kann vermutlich genetische Defekte verursachen. Keimzellmutagenität Kategorie 2 Warnung P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 Schädigt die Organe. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 1 Achtung P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H373 Kann die Organe schädigen bei längerer oder wiederholter Exposition. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (wiederholte Exposition) Kategorie 2 Warnung P260, P314, P501
H400 Sehr giftig für Wasserorganismen. Kurzfristig (akut) gewässergefährdend Kategorie 1 Warnung P273, P391, P501
H420 Schädigt die öffentliche Gesundheit und die Umwelt durch Ozonabbau in der äußeren Atmosphäre. Die Ozonschicht schädigend Kategorie 1 Warnung P502
Sicherheit
P210 Von Hitze, heißen Oberflächen, Funken, offenen Flammen und anderen Zündquellenarten fernhalten. Nicht rauchen.
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P273 Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P281 Vorgeschriebene persönliche Schutzausrüstung verwenden.
P301+P310 BEI VERSCHLUCKEN: Sofort GIFTINFORMATIONSZENTRUM/Arzt/... (geeignete Stelle für medizinische Notfallversorgung vom Hersteller/Lieferanten anzugeben) anrufen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.
P370+P378 Bei Brand: zum Löschen verwenden.
P403+P235 An einem gut belüfteten Ort aufbewahren. Kühl halten.

Brommethan Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

GERUCHLOSES UND FARBLOSES, KOMPRIMIERTES FLüSSIGGAS.

PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN

Das Gas ist schwerer als Luft.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Zersetzung beim Erhitzen und Verbrennen unter Bildung giftiger und ätzender Rauche mit Bromwasserstoff, Brom und Acetylbromid. Reagiert mit starken Oxidationsmitteln. Greift viele Metalle in Gegenwart von Wasser an. Greift Aluminium, Zink und Magnesium an unter Bildung selbstentzündlicher Verbindungen. Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV: 1 ppm (als TWA); Hautresorption; Krebskategorie A4 (nicht klassifizierbar als krebserzeugend für den Menschen); (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: Hautresorption; Krebserzeugend Kategorie 3B; (DFG 2005).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation und über die Haut, auch als Dampf!

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Eine gesundheitsschädliche Konzentration des Gases in der Luft wird beim Entweichen aus dem Behälter sehr schnell erreicht.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Das Gas reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atmungsorgane. Inhalation des Gases kann zu Lungenödem führen (s. Anm.). Schnelle Verdampfung der Flüssigkeit kann zu Erfrierungen führen. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Zentralnervensystem, Nieren und Lunge. Exposition gegenüber hohen Konzentrationen kann zum Tod führen. Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein.

WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION

Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Nervensystem, Nieren, Herz, Leber und Lunge.

LECKAGE

Gefahrenbereich verlassen! Fachmann zu Rate ziehen! Belüftung. Wasserstrahl NIEMALS auf die Flüssigkeit richten. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Vollschutzanzug mit umgebungsluftunabhängigem Atemschutzgerät.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R23/25:Giftig beim Einatmen und Verschlucken.
R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R48/20:Gesundheitsschädlich: Gefahr ernster Gesundheitsschäden bei längerer Exposition durch Einatmen.
R50:Sehr giftig für Wasserorganismen.
R59:Gefährlich für die Ozonschicht.
R68:Irreversibler Schaden möglich.
R38:Reizt die Haut.
R20/22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen und Verschlucken.
R11:Leichtentzündlich.
R67:Dämpfe können Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen.
R66:Wiederholter Kontakt kann zu spröder oder rissiger Haut führen.
R19:Kann explosionsfähige Peroxide bilden.
R12:Hochentzündlich.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S15:Vor Hitze schützen.
S27:Beschmutzte, getränkte Kleidung sofort ausziehen.
S36/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S38:Bei unzureichender Belüftung Atemschutzgerät anlegen.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S59:Informationen zur Wiederverwendung/Wiederverwertung beim Hersteller/Lieferanten erfragen.
S61:Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden. Besondere Anweisungen einholen/Sicherheitsdatenblatt zu Rate ziehen.
S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S24:Berührung mit der Haut vermeiden.
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.
S7:Behälter dicht geschlossen halten.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

CH3Br; Methylbromid, Brommethyl; farbloses, süßlich, chloroformartig riechendes Gas (in niedrigen Konzentrationen praktisch geruchlos).

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Mit Alkali- und Erdalkalimetallen, Leichtmetallen und Zink sind starke exotherme Reaktionen mit Entzündungsgefahr zu erwarten.
Methylbromid ist einer der toxischsten und heimtückischsten Halogenkohlenwasserstoffe. Die Inhalation hoher Konzentrationen, die nicht sofort zu Narkose und Atemstillstand führt, erzeugt nach mehrstündiger Latenz ein Lungenödem, oft mit nach Tagen folgender schwerer Lungenentzündung. Eine weitere Folge akuter wie auch lang anhaltender wiederholter Einwirkungen geringer Dosen sind Veränderungen im Nervensystem. Sie bewirken anfangs Kopfschmerzen und Übelkeit, später EErregung und Tremor, Tobsucht und epileptiforme Krämpfe. Die Flüssigkeit erzeugt auf der Haut schwere Entzündungen. Die systemischen Schäden sind auch als Folge einer Hautresorption möglich.
Stark wassergefährdender Stoff.

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Unbedingt im Abzug arbeiten und für geschlossene Apparaturen sorgen. Behälter kühl und geschlossen lagern. In geringen Konzentrationen keine Geruchswarnwirkung! Berührung mit Augen, Haut und Kleidung unbedingt vermeiden.
Schutzhandschuhe aus Gummi (nur kurzzeitig als Spritzschutz).

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Nach Gasaustritt betroffene Räume sofort räumen. Umluftunabhängiges Atemschutzgerät anlegen.
Im Brandfall Behälter mit Wasser kühlen!

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Mit viel Wasser abspülen. Abtupfen mit Polyethylenglykol 400. Arzt aufsuchen.
Nach Augenkontakt: Nach Augenkontakt bei geöffnentem Lidspalt mindestens 10 Minuten mit Wasser spülen. Sofort Augenarzt konsultieren.
Nach Einatmen: Frischluft. Gegebenenfalls Atemspende. Rasche Gabe von Auxiloson-Spray. Arzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Verschlucken: Gabe von Paraffin liq., Erbrechen vermeiden. Sofort Arzt konsultieren.
Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung sofort ausziehen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

Kleinere Mengen Brommethan werden im Abzug vorsichtig in 10% Ammoniaklösung eingeleitet. Benutzte Gerätschaften im Abzug mit Ammoniaklösung reinigen.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) is an odorless, sweetish, colorless gas that has been used as a soil fumigant and structural fumigant to control pests across a wide range of agricultural sectors. Methyl bromide is soluble in ethanol, benzene, carbon disulfi de, and sparingly in water. During the 1920s, methyl bromide was used as an industrial fi re extinguishing agent. The current uses of methyl bromide include the fumigation of homes and other structures for the control of termites and other pests. Because methyl bromide depletes the stratospheric ozone layer, the amount produced and imported in the United States was reduced incrementally until it was phased out on January 1, 2005, pursuant to our obligations under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Protocol) and the Clean Air Act (CAA).

Chemische Eigenschaften

Methyl bromide is a colorless gas with a chloroform-like odor at high concentrations. A liquid below 3.3C. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.

Physikalische Eigenschaften

Colorless liquid or gas with an odor similar to chloroform at high concentrations. Ruth (1986) reported odor threshold concentrations ranging from 80 to 4,000 mg/m3.

Occurrence

An organic compound, present in the atmosphere as the result of both natural (oceanic production) and anthropogenic (use as a soil fumigant) sources; this compound is the largest single source of bromine to the stratosphere, with a tropospheric mixing ratio of about 10 parts per trillion (by volume).

Verwenden

Methyl bromide is used as a fumigant forpest control, for degreasing wool, and as a methylating agent. Its use as a refrigerant andin fire extinguishers is restrained because ofits health hazards.

Verwenden

Methyl bromide is used as a pesticide, which is very effective against parasitic nematodes.

Verwenden

The primary pre-harvest uses of methyl bromide are as fumigant to control a broad spectrum of insects, nematodes, bacteria, fungi and weeds in grapes, vegetables and strawberries cultivation. Major postharvest use is in the quarantine control of agricultural commodities such as the disinfestation of potatoes and tomatoes.

Verwenden

Soil, space and food fumigant; disinfestation of potatoes, tomatoes and other crops.

Verwenden

In ionization chambers. For degreasing wool. Extracting oils from nuts, seeds, flowers. Soil or space fumigant for insects, fungi, rodents. Methylating agent. Has been used as fire extinguishing agent.

Definition

ChEBI: A one-carbon compound in which the carbon is attached by single bonds to three bromine atoms and one hydrogen atom. It is produced naturally by marine algae.

Vorbereitung Methode

A number of reports of injury from use as a fire extinguisher can be found in the European literature.
Methyl bromide (MeBr) is an odorless, colorless gas that has been used as a soil fumigant and structural fumigant to control pests across a wide range of agricultural sectors. Because MeBr depletes the stratospheric ozone layer, the amount of MeBr produced and imported in the United States was reduced incrementally until it was 100% phased out in January 1, 2005, pursuant to our obligations under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Protocol) and the Clean Air Act (CAA) with exception for allowable exemptions such as critical use exemptions agreed to by the Montreal Protocol Parties. Allowable exemptions to the phaseout include the Quarantine and Preshipment (QPS) exemption, to eliminate quarantine pests, and the critical use exemption (CUE), designed for agricultural users with no technically or economically feasible alternatives.

Vorbereitung Methode

The commercial manufacture of methyl bromide is based on the reaction of hydrogen bromide with methanol. The hydrogen bromide used could be generated in situ from bromine and a reducing agent. The uses of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide as reducing agents are described, the latter process having the advantage. A new continuous process for the production of methyl bromide from methanol and aqueous HBr in the presence of a silica supported heteropolyacid catalyst has recently been described. Methyl bromide can also be coproduced with other organic bromine compounds by the reaction of the methanol solvent with hydrogen bromide formed as a by-product. The processes include coproduction of methyl bromide with bromostyrenes, tribromophenol, potassium and sodium bromide, and especially tetrabromo bisphenol A.

Reaktionen

Methyl bromide is present in the atmosphere as the result of both natural (oceanic production) and anthropogenic (use as a soil fumigant) sources; this compound is the largest single source of bromine to the stratosphere, with a tropospheric mixing ratio of about 10 parts per trillion (by volume). Methyl bromide reacts with several nucleophiles and is a useful methylation agent for the preparation of ethers, sulfides, amines, etc. Tertiary amines are methylated by methyl bromide to form quaternary ammonium bromides. The reactivity of methyl bromide is summarized in Figure 1.图

Synthesis Reference(s)

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75, p. 1148, 1953. Applications of the Hunsdiecker Silver Salt Degradation. The Preparation of Dibromides and Tribromides. DOI: 10.1021/ja01101a041

Allgemeine Beschreibung

Colorless highly toxic volatile liquid or a gas. Boiling point 3.56°C (38.41°F). Usually odorless, but has a sweetish chloroform-like odor at high concentrations. Used as an insecticide, a rodenticide, a fumigant, a nematocide, a chemical intermediate and as a fire extinguishing agent.

Air & Water Reaktionen

Nonflammable over a wide range of concentrations in air. Slightly soluble in water (about 1.75 g/100 mL of solution at 20° C). Reacts slowly with water to give methyl alcohol and hydrobromic acid. [K-O Vol. 4].

Reaktivität anzeigen

Methyl bromide is incompatible with metals, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene oxide. [Lewis]. Can give flammable products if mixed with potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and other strong bases. Methyl bromide in a steel tank reacted with an aluminum tube (part of the level gauge) producing methyl aluminum bromide. When the latter was subsequently exposed to air, enough heat was produced to ignite the Methyl bromide -compressed air mixture above the liquid layer. The ensuing explosion shattered the tank (also incompatible with zinc, magnesium, and alloys)[Chem. Eng. Pro. 58(8). 1962]. A reaction between Methyl bromide and dimethyl sulfoxide resulted in an explosion that shattered the apparatus [NFPA 491M. 1991].

Hazard

Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption; strong irritant to skin and upper respiratory tract. Questionable carcinogen.

Health Hazard

Exposures to methyl bromide by inhalation cause injury to the brain, nerves, lungs, and throat. At high doses, breathing methyl bromide causes injury to the kidneys and liver. The symptoms of methyl bromide toxicity and poisoning include, but are not limited to, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, weakness, hallucinations, loss of speech, incoordination, labored breathing, and convulsions. Contact with the skin and eyes can lead to irritation and burns. After serious exposures to methyl bromide, occupational workers suffer with lung and/or nervous system-related problems and permanent brain/ nerve damage. Laboratory study with species of animals indicated that bromomethane does not cause birth defects and does not interfere with normal reproduction except at high exposure levels

Health Hazard

Methyl bromide is a dangerous cumulative poison with delayed symptoms of central nervous system intoxication that may appear as long as several months after exposure. High concentrations can produce fatal pulmonary edema. Chronic exposure can cause central nervous system depression and kidney injury. It may cause severe and permanent brain damage. Severe neurological signs may appear when there is a sudden exposure to high concentrations following continuous slight exposure. Methyl bromide has practically no odor or irritating effects and therefore no warning, even at hazardous concentrations.

Brandgefahr

When heated to decomposition, Methyl bromide emits toxic fumes of bromides. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.

Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung

Fumigant, Herbicide, Insecticide, Nematicide: The primary use of methyl bromide is as an insect fumigant to control insects, nematodes, weeds and pathogens in more than 100 crops and for soil, grain storage, warehouses, mills, ships, etc. Use of methyl bromide in the U.S. will be phased out under the requirements of the Montreal Protocol, with some exemptions. Methyl bromide is also used as a chemical intermediate and a methylating agent, a refrigerant, a herbicide, a fire-extinguishing agent, a low-boiling solvent in aniline dye manufacture, for degreasing wool, for extracting oils from nuts, seeds, and flowers, and in ionization chambers. It is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of many drugs. A U.S. EPA restricted Use Pesticide (RUP), NO INERT. Still actively registered for use in the U.S. (2013). As of March 18, 2005, the use of methyl bromide in the EU was banned for most purposes, including quarantine and pre-shipment fumigations.Registered for use in the U.S.

Handelsname

BROM-O-GAS®; BROM-OSOL ®; DAWSON® 100; DOWFUME®; EDCO®; EMBAFUME®; HALON 1001®; ISCOBROME®; KAYAFUME®; MATABROM®; METHO-GAS®; M-B-C FUMIGANT®; R 40B1®; ROTOX®; TERABOL®; TERR-O-GAS®; ZYTOX®

Sicherheitsprofil

Suspected carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic data. A human poison by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: anorexia, nausea or vomiting. Corrosive to skin; can produce severe burns. Human mutation data reported. A powerful fumigant gas that is one of the most toxic of the common organic hahdes. It is hemotoxic and narcotic with delayed action. The effects are cumulative and damaging to nervous system, hdneys, and lung. Central nervous system effects include blurred vision, mental confusion, numbness, tremors, and speech defects. Methyl bromide is reported to be eight times more toxic on inhalation than ethyl bromide. Moreover, because of its greater volatility, it is a much more frequent cause of poisoning. Death following acute poisoning is usually caused by its irritant effect on the lungs. In chronic poisoning, death is due to injury to the central nervous system. Fatal poisoning has always resulted from exposure to relatively high concentrations of methyl bromide vapors (from 8600 to 60,000 ppm). Nonfatal poisoning has resulted from exposure to concentrations as low as 100-500 ppm. In addtion to injury to the lung and central nervous system, the kidneys may be damaged, with development of albuminuria and, in fatal cases, cloudy swelhng and/or tubular degeneration. The liver may be enlarged. There are no characteristic blood changes. Mixtures of 10-1 5 percent with air may be ignited with difficulty. Moderately explosive when exposed to sparks or flame. Forms explosive mixtures with air within narrow limits at atmospheric pressure, with wider limits at higher pressure. The explosive sensitivity of mixtures with air may be increased by the presence of aluminum, magnesium, zinc, or their alloys. Incompatible with metals, dunethyl sulfoxide, ethylene oxide. To fight fire, use foam, water, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Br-. See also BROMIDES

mögliche Exposition

Methyl bromide is used in fire extinguishers; as a fumigant in pest control and as a methylation agent in industry as an insect fumigant for soil, grain, warehouses, mills, ships, etc. It is also used as a chemical intermediate and a methylating agent; a refrigerant; a herbicide; a low-boiling solvent in aniline dye manufacture; for degreasing wool; for extracting oils from nuts, seeds, and flowers; and in ionization chambers. It is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of many drugs.

Carcinogenicity

Data on the carcinogenicity of bromomethane for oral exposure are lacking, but oral exposure is unlikely due to the volatility of bromomethane. A 1-year study in dogs consuming bromomethane-exposed food found no evidence of carcinogenicity. Data on carcinogenicity in humans following inhalation exposure in humans are not available. Animal inhalation studies exist but do not demonstrate evidence of bromomethane-induced carcinogenic changes. They include studies in F344 and Wistar rats, and in B6C3F1 and Crj:BDF1. The EPA descriptor for cancer is “inadequate information to assess the carcinogenic potential of bromomethane in humans.” Specifically, IRIS states: “Inadequate human and animal data: a single mortality study from which direct exposure associations could not be deduced and studies in several animal species with too few animals, too brief exposure or observation time for adequate power.” Bromomethane has shown genotoxicity. NAS reported that although methyl bromide is genotoxic without metabolic activation and has been shown to alkylate DNA in different organs in in vivo studies, there is no clear evidence of oncogenicity under experimental conditions used in the chronic inhalation studies with rat and mice.

Source

Drinking water standard: No MCLGs or MCLs have been proposed, however, a DWEL of 50 μg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).

Environmental Fate

Photolytic. When methyl bromide and bromine gas (concentration = 3%) was irradiated at 1850 ?, methane was produced (Kobrinsky and Martin, 1968).
Chemical/Physical. Methyl bromide hydrolyzes in water forming methanol and hydrobromic acid. The estimated hydrolysis half-life in water at 25°C and pH 7 is 20 days (Mabey and Mill, 1978). Forms a voluminous crystalline hydrate at 0–5°C (Keith and Walters, 1992).
When methyl bromide was heated to 550°C in the absence of oxygen, methane, hydrogen, bromine, ethyl bromide, anthracene, pyrene and free radicals were produced (Chaigneau et al., 1966).
Emits toxic bromide fumes when heated to decomposition (Lewis, 1990).

Stoffwechselwegen

Methyl bromide degrades in aqueous and soil environments mainly via dehalogenation to yield bromide ions with the incorporation of the methyl carbon moiety into polar natural components.

Lager

Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) should be kept stored in sealed containers to keep it from evaporating.

Versand/Shipping

UN1062 Methyl bromide, Hazard Class: 2.3; Labels: 2.3-Poisonous gas, Inhalation Hazard Zone C. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner

läuterung methode

Purify it by bubbling through conc H2SO4, followed by passage through a tube containing glass beads coated with P2O5. Also purify it by distillation from AlBr3 at -80o, by passage through a tower of KOH pellets and by partial condensation. [Beilstein 1 IV 68.]

Degradation

Methyl bromide is hydrolysed at neutral pH to methanol and bromide ion. The DT50s of methyl bromide in water at 17 and 25 °C were 21 and 75 days, respectively (Jeffers and Wolfe, 1996a; Mabey and Mill, 1978; Moelwyn-Hughes, 1938). Aqueous photolysis is not a major environmental degradation process.
In the upper and mid stratosphere (>20 km), photodegradation of MeBr with hydroxy radicals is reported to yield various products such as Br, BrO and HBr (Honaganahalli and Seiber, 1996).

Inkompatibilitäten

Attacks aluminum to form spontaneously flammable aluminum trimethyl. Incompatible with strong oxidizers, aluminum, dimethylsulfoxide, ethylene oxide; water. Attacks zinc, magnesium, alkali metals and their alloys. Attacks some rubbers and coatings. Methyl bromide reacts with water to generate hydrobromic acid and methanol but the reaction is so slow that it can be disregarded for most practical purposes.

Waste disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. A poisonous gas. Must be handled by experts: the recommended disposal procedure is to spray the gas into the fire box of an incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber (alkali).

Vorsichtsmaßnahmen

Occupational workers should use appropriate ventilation during production and formulation of bromomethane at the workplace. The ventilation must be suffi cient to maintain the levels of bromomethane below the prescribed OEL. Local exhaust ventilation at source or vapor extraction may also be used. Gloves or rubber boots should not be used as the liquid or concentrated vapor may be trapped inside them

Brommethan Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Brommethan Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

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74-83-9(Brommethan)Verwandte Suche:


  • METHYLBROMID AMPULLE 20 G
  • Bromomethane (in cylinder without valve)
  • THIOGLYCOLIC ACID SODIUM SALT REAGENT GR
  • (mono)bromomethane
  • 1-Bromomethane
  • bromuredemethyle
  • bromuredemethyle(french)
  • Bromuro di metile
  • bromurodimetile
  • Broommethaan
  • caswellno555
  • Celfume
  • CH3Br
  • Curafume
  • Dawson 100
  • dawson100
  • Detia gas ex-M
  • detiagasex-m
  • Dowfume
  • Dowfume mc-2
  • Dowfume mc-2 soil fumigant
  • Dowfume mc-33
  • dowfumemc-2
  • dowfumemc-2fumigant
  • dowfumemc-2r
  • dowfumemc-2soilfumigant
  • dowfumemc-33
  • drexelplantbedgas
  • Edco
  • epapesticidechemicalcode053201
  • F40B1
  • Fumigant-1
  • fumigant-1(obs.)
  • Halon 1001
  • halon1001
  • halon-1001
  • Haltox
  • Iscobrome
  • Kayafume
  • mbc-33soilfumigant
  • m-b-cfumigant
  • mbcsoilfumigant
  • m-b-r98
  • MBX
  • Mebr
  • Merth-O-gas
  • Metafume
  • Methane, bromo-
  • methane,bromo
  • Methane,bromo-
  • Methogas
  • meth-o-gas
  • Methybrom
  • Methylbromid
  • methylbromide(bromomethane)
  • methylbromideandnonflammable,nonliquefiedcompressedgasmixture
  • methylbromiderodentfumigant(withchloropicrin)
  • methylfume
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