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Zitronensure Produkt Beschreibung

Citric acid Struktur
77-92-9
CAS-Nr.
77-92-9
Bezeichnung:
Zitronensure
Englisch Name:
Citric acid
Synonyma:
Citro;E 330;F 4020;Suby G;INS 330;nsc30279;CheMfill;BETZ 0623;BETZ 6251;Citretten
CBNumber:
CB9854361
Summenformel:
C6H8O7
Molgewicht:
192.12
MOL-Datei:
77-92-9.mol

Zitronensure Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
153-159 °C(lit.)
Siedepunkt:
248.08°C (rough estimate)
Dichte
1.542
Dampfdichte
7.26 (vs air)
Dampfdruck
<0.1 hPa (20 °C)
Brechungsindex
1.493~1.509
FEMA 
2306 | CITRIC ACID
Flammpunkt:
100 °C
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
Löslichkeit
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
pka
3.14(at 20℃)
Aggregatzustand
grit
Farbe
White
Geruch (Odor)
Odorless
PH
1.0-2.0 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
Explosionsgrenze
8%, 65°F
Wasserlöslichkeit
750 g/L (20 ºC)
maximale Wellenlänge (λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.20
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.10
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
JECFA Number
218
Merck 
14,2326
BRN 
782061
Stabilität:
Stable. Incompatible with bases, strong oxidizing agents, reducing agents, metal nitrates.
InChIKey
KRKNYBCHXYNGOX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS Datenbank
77-92-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-(77-92-9)
EPA chemische Informationen
Citric acid (77-92-9)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher Xi,C,T
R-Sätze: 41-36/37/38-36/38-37/38-34-36-35-61-60
S-Sätze: 26-39-37/39-24/25-36/37/39-45-36-53
RIDADR  UN 1789 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS-Nr. GE7350000
9
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2918 14 00
Giftige Stoffe Daten 77-92-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 in mice, rats (mmol/kg): 5.0, 4.6 i.p. (Gruber, Halbeisen)
Bildanzeige (GHS)
Alarmwort Warnung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H303 May be harmfulif swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 5 P312
H315 Verursacht Hautreizungen. Hautreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 Verursacht schwere Augenschäden. Schwere Augenschädigung Kategorie 1 Achtung P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 Kann die Atemwege reizen. Spezifische Zielorgan-Toxizität (einmalige Exposition) Kategorie 3 (Atemwegsreizung) Warnung
Sicherheit
P261 Einatmen von Staub vermeiden.
P264 Nach Gebrauch gründlich waschen.
P264 Nach Gebrauch gründlich waschen.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P304+P340 BEI EINATMEN: Die Person an die frische Luft bringen und für ungehinderte Atmung sorgen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.
P337+P313 Bei anhaltender Augenreizung: Ärztlichen Rat einholen/ärztliche Hilfe hinzuziehen.
P405 Unter Verschluss aufbewahren.

Zitronensure Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

FARBLOSE KRISTALLE.

PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN

Staubexplosion der pulverisierten oder granulierten Substanz in Gemischen mit Luft möglich.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Zersetzung beim Erhitzen über 175°C. Mittelstarke Säure in wässriger Lösung. Reagiert mit Oxidationsmitteln. Greift Metall an.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: IIb (nicht festgelegt, aber Informationen vorhanden) (DFG 2006).

AUFNAHMEWEGE

Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation und durch Verschlucken.

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Verdampfen bei 20°C vernachlässigbar; eine belästigende Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann jedoch beim Dispergieren schnell erreicht werden.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege.

WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION

Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf die Zähne mit nachfolgender Erosion.

LECKAGE

Verschüttetes Material in Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzgerät, P2-Filter für schädliche Partikel.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R41:Gefahr ernster Augenschäden.
R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R36/38:Reizt die Augen und die Haut.
R37/38:Reizt die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R34:Verursacht Verätzungen.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S39:Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

C6H8O7; farblose, geruchlose Kristalle, sehr gut in Wasser löslich.

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Reizt die Augen.

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Staubschutz

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Mechanisch aufnehmen, der Entsorgung zuführen.
Kohlendioxid, Wasser, Löschpulver.

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Bei Berührung mit der Haut sofort mit viel Wasser abwaschen.
Nach Augenkontakt: Gründlich mit viel Wasser und geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 10 Minuten ausspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
Nach Einatmen: Für Frischluft sorgen. Ärztlicher Behandlung zuführen.
Nach Verschlucken: Mund ausspülen und reichlich Wasser nachtrinken. Ärztlicher Behandlung zuführen.
Nach Kleidungskontakt: Beschmutzte Kleidung sofort ausziehen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

Als Feststoffabfälle.

Beschreibung

Citric acid is a white, crystalline, weak organic acid present in most plants and many animals as an intermediate in cellular respiration. Citric acid contains three carboxyl groups making it a carboxylic, more specifically a tricarboxylic, acid.the name citrus originates from the Greek kedromelon meaning apple of melon for the fruit citron. Greek works mention kitron, kitrion, or kitreos for citron fruit, which is an oblong fruit several inches long from the scrublike tree Citrus medica. Lemons and limes have high citric acid content, which may account for up to 8% of the fruit’s dry weight.
Citric acid is a weak acid and loses hydrogen ions from its three carboxyl groups (COOH) in solution.the loss of a hydrogen ion from each group in the molecule results in the citrate ion,C3H5O(COO)3 3?. A citric acid molecule also forms intermediate ions when one or two hydrogen atoms in the carboxyl groups ionize.the citrate ion combines with metals to form salts, the most common of which is calcium citrate. Citric acid forms esters to produce various citrates, for example trimethyl citrate and triethyl citrate.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Citric acid is a weak organic acid with the formula C6H8O7. It is a natural preservative / conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, the conjugate base of citric acid, citrate, is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.
Citric acid is a commodity chemical, and more than a million tonnes are produced every year by fermentation. It is used mainly as an acidifier, as a flavoring, and as a chelating agent.

Occurrence

Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have particularly high concentrations of the acid; it can constitute as much as 8 % of the dry weight of these fruits (about 47 g/L in the juices ) . The concentrations of citric acid in citrus fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes. Within species, these values vary depending on the cultivar and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown.

History

The discovery of citric acid is credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan (Latin name Geber, 721–815). Citric acid wasfirst isolated in 1784 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786), who crystallized it from lemon juice.

Verwenden

Citric Acid is an acidulant and antioxidant produced by mold fer- mentation of sugar solutions and by extraction from lemon juice, lime juice, and pineapple canning residue. it is the predominant acid in oranges, lemons, and limes. it exists in anhydrous and mono- hydrate forms. the anhydrous form is crystallized in hot solutions and the monohydrate form is crystallized from cold (below 36.5°c) solutions. anhydrous citric acid has a solubility of 146 g and mono- hydrate citric acid has a solubility of 175 g/100 ml of distilled water at 20°c. a 1% solution has a ph of 2.3 at 25°c. it is a hygroscopic, strong acid of tart flavor. it is used as an acidulant in fruit drinks and carbonated beverages at 0.25–0.40%, in cheese at 3–4%, and in jellies. it is used as an antioxidant in instant potatoes, wheat chips, and potato sticks, where it prevents spoilage by trapping the metal ions. it is used in combination with antioxidants in the processing of fresh frozen fruits to prevent discoloration.

Verwenden

An organic acid obtained from lemon or lime. The colorless crystals of this acid are soluble in water and alcohol but less so in ether. It was used as a chemical restrainer particularly in developers for the collodion process and in silver nitrate solutions used for sensitizing salted and albumen papers.

Verwenden

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is known as a commodity chemical, as more than a million tonnes are produced every year by mycological fermentation on an industrial scale using crude sugar sol utions, such as molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is widely distributed in plants and in animal tissues and fluids and exist in greater than grace amounts in variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably in citrus fruits such as lemon and limes. Citric acid is mainly used as an acidifier, flavoring agent and chelating agent.

Verwenden

citric acid has astringent and anti-oxidant properties. It can also be used as a product stabilizer, pH adjuster, and preservative with a low sensitizing potential. It is not usually irritating to normal skin, but it can cause burning and redness when applied to chapped, cracked, or otherwise inflamed skin. It is derived from citrus fruits.

Definition

ChEBI: A tricarboxylic acid that is propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid bearing a hydroxy substituent at position 2. It is an important metabolite in the pathway of all aerobic organisms.

synthetische

By mycological fermentation using molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger; from citrus juices and pineapple wastes

Biotechnologische Produktion

Fermentation is the technology of choice for citric acid synthesis. Different bacteria (e.g. Arthrobacter paraffinens and Bacillus licheniformis), filamentous fungi (e.g. Aspergilus niger and Penicillium citrinum) and yeasts (e.g. Candida tropicalis and Yarrowia lipolytica) are able to produce citric acid. Due to high productivity and easy handling, citric acid is usually produced by fermentation with A. niger. For example, a product concentration of 114 g.L-1 within 168 h has been reached by cultivation of A. niger GCMC 7 on cane molasses . On the industrial scale, submerged cultivation, surface fermentation and solid-state fermentation are used.
In general, molasses, starch hydrolyzate and starch are used as substrates. However, there are various studies for alternative raw materials. Solid-state fermentation of inexpensive agricultural wastes is one possibility. For example, high yields up to 88 % have been achieved using grape pomace as substrate. Lowering the cost of product recovery is crucial. Different methods using precipitation, solvent extraction, adsorption, or in situ product recovery have been described. One interesting process could be the in situ crystallization of citric acid during fermentation to improve the economics.

Aroma threshold values

By mycological fermentation using molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger; from citrus juices and pineapple wastes

Allgemeine Beschreibung

Colorless, odorless crystals with an acid taste. Denser than water.

Air & Water Reaktionen

The pure material is moisture sensitive (undergoes slow hydrolysis) Water soluble.

Reaktivität anzeigen

Citric acid reacts with oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents and metal nitrates . Reactions with metal nitrates are potentially explosive. Heating to the point of decomposition causes emission of acrid smoke and fumes [Lewis].

Health Hazard

Inhalation of dust irritates nose and throat. Contact with eyes causes irritation.

Brandgefahr

Behavior in Fire: Melts and decomposes. The reaction is not hazardous.

Biologische Aktivität

Commonly used laboratory reagent

Biotechnological Applications

Citric acid cycle
Citrate, the conjugate base of citric acid is one of a series of compounds involved in the physiological oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water.
This series of chemical reactions is central to nearly all metabolic reactions, and is the source of two-thirds of the foodderived energy in higher organisms. Hans Adolf Krebs received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery. The series of reactions is known by various names, including the "citric acid cycle", the "Krebs cycle" or "Szent-Gy?rgyi — Krebs cycle", and the "tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle".
Other biological roles
Citrate is a critical component of bone, helping to regulate the size of calcium crystals.

Sicherheitsprofil

Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic byingestion. A severe eye and moderate skin irritant. An irritating organic acid, some allergenic properties. Combustible liquid. Potentially explosive reaction with metal nitrates. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.

Zitronensure Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


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77-92-9(Zitronensure)Verwandte Suche:


  • Citric Acid Anhydrous,citric acid anhydrous bp,citric acid anhydrous
  • Citric acid, AR,≥99.5%(T)
  • Citric acid anhydrou
  • anhydrouscitricacid
  • beta-Hydroxytricarballylic acid
  • beta-hydroxytricarballylicacid
  • beta-hydroxy-tricarboxylicacid
  • AMMONIACAL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE BUFFER
  • BETZ 6251
  • BETZ 0623
  • BORIC ACID-POTASSIUM CHLORIDE-SODIUM HYDROXIDE BUFFER
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 7.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 8.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 9.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PHOSPHATE/SODIUM HYDROXIDE
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, POTASSIUM CHLORIDE/SODIUM HYDROXIDE
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, BORATE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, BORIC ACID/POTASSIUM CHLORIDE/SODIUM HYDROXIDE
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, CITRATE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, CITRATE/SODIUM HYDROXIDE
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, GLYCINE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 4.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 5.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 1.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 10.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 11.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 12.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 13.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 2.00
  • BUFFER CONCENTRATE, PH 3.00
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, AMMONIUM CHLORIDE/AMMONIA
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, BORIC ACID/POTASSIUM CHLORIDE-SODIUM CHLORIDE
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, BORIC ACID/POTASSIUM CHLORIDE-SODIUM HYDROXIDE
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, CITRATE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, CITRATE/SODIUM HYDROXIDE
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, GLYCINE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, BORATE/HYDROCHLORIC ACID
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 1, +/- 0.02
  • BUFFER SOLUTION, PH 11.00
  • CITRIC ACID FREE ACID, ANHYDROUS PLANTCE LL CULTURE
  • CITRIC ACID 99.5+% FCC
  • CITRIC ACID, 500MG, NEAT
  • CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS, FOR LUMINESCENCE
  • Citrate Ion Chromatography Standard Solution Fluka
  • CITRIC ACID, 99+%
  • CITRIC ACID SOLUTION 30 L
  • CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS, ACS
  • CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS, PH EUR, GRIT
  • Citric Acid Anhydrous USP/FCC, Fine Granular
  • Citric Acid Anhydrous USP/FCC, Granular
  • CitricAcidAnhydrousIp
  • CitricAcidLiquid
  • CitricAcidAnhydrousFcc
  • CitricAcid,FreeAcid
  • CitricAcidAnhydrousAr
  • CitricAcidAnhydrousGr
  • L-CitrullineForBiochemistry99+%
  • CitricAcid(Monohydrate&Anhydrate)
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