|Melting point||234-236.5 °C(lit.)|
|FEMA||2224 | CAFFEINE|
|refractive index||1.6590 (estimate)|
|solubility||Sparingly soluble in water, freely soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in ethanol (96 per cent). It dissolves in concentrated solutions of alkali benzoates or salicylates.|
|pka||pKa 0.6 (Uncertain)|
|form||Crystals or Crystalline Powder|
|color||Silky white or white|
|PH||pH (10g/l, 25℃) : 5.5～6.5|
|Water Solubility||20 g/L (20 ºC)|
|Stability||Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, iodine, silver salts, tannins. Weakly light sensitive in solution.|
|Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)||CAFFEINE|
|SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)||Caffeine|
|CAS DataBase Reference||58-08-2(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|FDA 21 CFR||182.1180; 310.545|
|EWG's Food Scores||1|
|NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms||caffeine|
|NCI Drug Dictionary||caffeine|
|NIST Chemistry Reference||Caffeine(58-08-2)|
|IARC||3 (Vol. 51) 1991|
|EPA Substance Registry System||Caffeine (58-08-2)|
Risk and Safety Statements
|RIDADR||UN 1544 6.1/PG 3|
|Toxicity||LD50 orally in mice, hamsters, rats, rabbits (mg/kg): 127, 230, 355, 246 (males); 137, 249, 247, 224 (females) (Palm)|
Caffeine price More Price(54)
|Manufacturer||Product number||Product description||CAS number||Packaging||Price||Updated||Buy|
|Sigma-Aldrich||W222402||Caffeine anhydrous, 99%, FCC, FG||58-08-2||sample-k||$53.8||2022-05-15||Buy|
|Sigma-Aldrich||W222402||Caffeine anhydrous, 99%, FCC, FG||58-08-2||1 kg||$76.4||2022-05-15||Buy|
|Sigma-Aldrich||W222402||Caffeine anhydrous, 99%, FCC, FG||58-08-2||10 kg||$651||2022-05-15||Buy|
|Sigma-Aldrich||W222402||Caffeine anhydrous, 99%, FCC, FG||58-08-2||25 kg||$1200||2022-05-15||Buy|
Caffeine Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Caffeine is an alkaloid purine belonging to the group of organic compounds called methylxanthines. Pure caffeine is a white, crystalline, bitter-tasting compound. Caffeine is found in a number of plants, principally coffee and tea plants, as well as cola and cacao nuts. In plants, caffeine functions as a natural pesticide to deter insects.
Caffeine is a purine alkaloid commonly found in coffee and tea. Several in vivo studies have demonstrated that topical and oral administration of caffeine exerts a photoprotective effect through various mechanisms. Specifically, caffeine has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in DNA damaged epidermal cells and tumors while sparing normal tissue. Mouse models demonstrate that this apoptotic effect is secondary to increased expression of wild-type p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is commonly mutated in UV-related skin cancers. Moreover, caffeine also has a sunscreen-like effect and inhibits formation of UVB-induced thymine dimers and sunburn skin lesions.
white to light yellow crystal powder
Caffeine is the alkaloid 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine. It is one of the xanthine derivatives present up to 1.5% in seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and up to 5% in the leaves of tea (Camelia sinensis). It is a component of the beverages made from these plants. Caffeine is also a component of chocolate (Theobroma cacao) and the cola nut (Cola acuminata Schott and Endel. and related species), the extract of which is used in cola drinks. It is virtually odorless. Caffeine is added to cola-type beverages for its enhancement of flavor. Subtle and subliminal flavors are widely appreciated by consumers and caffeine has a modifying effect on other components of the beverage. The threshold for detecting the presence of caffeine in liquid foods varies depending on the nature of other substances present, but lies close to the level characteristic of currently produced cola-type beverages. The threshold for detection of caffeine in water has been shown to be 0.0095%; in liquid foods, 0.0184%. In one study, panelists could distinguish a solution containing 0.0058% caffeine from the control. The threshold for detecting taste difference between an aqueous solution of caffeine and a water control was also shown to be 0.005% caffeine and to distinguish bitterness, 0.011% caffeine. In aqueous solutions containing threshold and subthreshold concentrations of caffeine, sucrose, citric acid and salt, all compounds depressed the taste intensity of each other.*
Appearance: odorless silky needle-like crystal or crystal powder with the color of white or a little yellowish green. Solubility: weathering, easily dissolved in water or chloroform and slightly soluble in water, ethanol, or acetone, very slightly dissolved in ether. Melting point: 235–238?°C.
Reported found in coffee and guarana.
Runge isolated caff eine from coffee in 1819. Caffeine derives its name from the Kaffa region of Ethiopia. Caffeine comes from the German kaffeine, which in turn is derived from the German word for coffee, kaffee. In 1827, a compound isolated from tea was named theine, but this was eventually shown to be caffeine.
Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug and a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants. In humans, caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant, temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness. Caffeine is a cardiac and respiratory stimulant; diuretic. Caffeine is toxic at sufficiently high doses.
CNS stimulant respiratory stimulant;adenosine receptors antagonist
Caffeine has widespread therapeutic use. It is widely used in headache (migraine) remedies such as aspirin and other analgesics. Caffeine is a mild vasoconstrictor and its ability to constrict blood vessels serving the brain explains its use to relieve headache. Caffeine is a common substance in medications to treat apnea in premature infants. Apparently, the area of the brain controlling respiration in premature infants is not fully developed and caffeine helps to stimulate this portion of the brain. The combination of caffeine and ephedrine is used in dietary and athletic supplements, and their role as appetite suppressant and energy boosters has been extensively studied.
Caffeine is consumed in coffee, tea, cocoa,chocolate, and soft drinks. It occurs naturallyin the leaves of coffee, tea, and mate and in ′cola nuts. It is used in medicine and found inmany drugs. It is used as a cardiac stimulant.
caffeine has a lipolytic effect on fatty cells, able to break down lipids and release fatty acids. given this ability and its draining properties, caffeine is used for skin firming and tightening. It is often incorporated into body product formulations targeting cellulite and slimming, as well as in eye creams that claim to reduce puffiness. Among its constituents are tannin and the alkaloid methylxanthine. Caffeine is a bitter-tasting, odorless white powder that occurs naturally in coffee, cola, guana paste, kola nuts, and tea. It is obtained as a by-product of decaffeinated coffee.
Caffeine is a white powder or needles that are odorless and have a bitter taste. it occurs naturally in tea leaves, coffee, cocoa, and cola nuts. it is a food additive used in soft drinks for its mildly stimulat- ing effect and distinctive taste note. it is used in cola-type beverages and is optional in other soft drinks up to 0.02%.
This product is included in the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (2015), the British Pharmacopoeia (2017), the United States Pharmacopeia (40), the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (17th ed.), the European Pharmacopoeia (9.0th ed.), the Indian Pharmacopoeia (2010), and the International Pharmacopoeia (5th ed.). Commonly used dosage forms of caffeine include tablet, powder, and injection. Mainly used dosage forms in the market include caffeine citrate tablets, amidopyrine caffeine tablets, amidopyrine caffeine, children acetaminophen aspirin caffeine tablets, ergotamine caffeine tablets, caffeine sodium benzoate injection, cafe bromine agent, etc.
ChEBI: A trimethylxanthine in which the three methyl groups are located at positions 1, 3, and 7. A purine alkaloid that occurs naturally in tea and coffee.
Caffeine was synthesized by the reaction N-chloromethylation of theophylline by action dimethylsulphate in dimethylsulfoxide.
NoDoz Caplets and Chewable Tablets (Bristol-Myers Products).
Neurotropic, Central stimulant
Aroma threshold values
Detection at 29 to 300 ppm. Also see description.
Taste threshold values
Odorless white powder or white glistening needles, usually melted together. Bitter taste. Solutions in water are neutral to litmus. Odorless.
Air & Water Reactions
Efflorescent in air. Water soluble.
Caffeine may be hygroscopic. Aqueous solutions (1.12 mg/mL) are stable for three weeks at 41° F if protected from light. In normal room lighting and at room temperature, solutions are stable for 3 days. Solutions of Caffeine in water, DMSO, 95% ethanol or acetone should be stable for 24 hours under normal lab conditions. REACTIVITY: Caffeine may react with strong oxidizing agents. Caffeine is also incompatible with iodine, silver salts and tannins. Caffeine is a very weak base. Caffeine is decomposed by strong solutions of caustic alkalis.
One grain or more is toxic, 200 μg/m L has been found to inhibit activity of the enzyme DNA polymerase. Use in soft drinks not to exceed 0.02%. Questionable carcinogen.
Caffeine is a stimulant of the central nervoussystem. It eliminates fatigue and drowsiness. However, high doses cause gastrointestinal motility, restlessness, sleeplessness,nervousness, and tremor. Acute poisoningeffects include nausea, vomiting, headache,excitability, tremor, and sometimes, convulsive coma. Other symptoms may be respiratory depression, muscle contraction, distortedperception, and hallucination. Ingestion of15–20 g may be fatal to humans.
LD50 value, oral (mice): 127 mg/kg
LD50 value, oral (rabbits): 224 mg/kg
Animal studies indicate that caffeine athigh doses produces adverse reproductiveeffects, causing developmental abnormalities. It tested negative in the histidine reversion–Ames and TRP reversion tests.
Flash point data for Caffeine are not available; however, Caffeine is probably combustible.
Central nervous system stimulant. Antagonist at A 1 and A 2A adenosine receptors and inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Mobilises calcium from intracellular stores and inhibits benzodiazepine binding to GABA receptors.
The commonly used clinical preparations include caffeine sodium benzoate and ergotamine caffeine. The preparation of caffeine sodium benzoate (injection) is constituted of 0.12?g/ml of caffeine, 0.13?g/ml of sodium benzoate, and cafe bromine mixture (oral liquid). Clinically, it can be used for migraine headaches, cerebral artery dilated headache, or headache caused by histamine. However, it is invalid in the prevention of headaches. The adverse reactions include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Other common symptoms include numbness and tingling of the hands, toes, and face and swelling of the foot and lower limb. Overdose causes severe poisoning, mental disorder, ataxia, convulsions, gray chills of the hand and foot, sensory disturbance, and even death due to coma and respiratory paralysis. Caffeine citrate preparation, including injection and oral solution, is the only internationally approved drug for the treatment of premature infant apnea.
A human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, rectal, and intravenous routes. Human systemic effects: ataxia, blood pressure elevation, change in heart rate, changes in tubules, convulsions or effect on seizure threshold, dtarrhea, distorted perceptions, hallucinations, hypermotility, muscle contraction, musculoskeletal tumors, nausea or vomiting, toxic psychosis, tremors. A human teratogen causing developmental abnormalities of the craniofacial and musculoskeletal systems, pregnancy termination (abortion), and stillbirth. Human maternal effects include an unspecified effect on labor or chddbirth. Human mutation data reported. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic data. Large doses (above 1.0 g> cause palpitation, excitement, insomnia, dtzziness, headache, and vomiting. Continued excessive use of caffeine in tea or coffee may lead to digestive disturbances, constipation, palpitations, shortness of breath, and depressed mental states. It is also implicated in cardiac disorders under those condttions. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx
Usually obtained from tea dust in which it is present up to 5% or as a by-product from the manufacture of caffeine-free coffee; synthetically prepared starting with dimethylurea and malonic acid.
Caffeine can have profound effects on the cardiovascular
system. At least four mechanisms have been proposed for the
pro-arrhythmic potential of caffeine in overdose. First,
caffeine increases circulating catecholamines. Second, caffeine
inhibits phosphodiesterase. Increased circulating catecholamines
after caffeine overdose increase b1-receptor stimulation.
Stimulation of b1-receptors increases intracellular cAMP
by G protein stimulation of adenylate cyclase. The activity of
cAMP is prolonged due to its decreased metabolism as
phosphodiesterase is inhibited by caffeine. Subsequently,
b1-receptor effects are exaggerated and tachydysrhythmias are
induced. Third, caffeine increases myocardial intracellular calcium. Caffeine both induces release of calcium from the
sarcoplasmic reticulumand blocks calcium’s reuptake into the
sarcoplasmic reticulum. This resulting increase in cytosolic
calcium may provoke dysrhythmias. Fourth, caffeine blocks
cardiac adenosine receptors, which have been shown to be
The hypotension that has been noted with overdoses of caffeine is due primarily to two mechanisms. First, caffeineinduced tachydysrhythmias lead to inadequate filling of the heart and subsequent decrease in cardiac output. Second, caffeine augments β2-effects and causes subsequent vasodilation with resulting hypotension.
Caffeine crystallises from water or absolute EtOH. [Beilstein 26 III/IV 2338.]
Caffeine’s production and widespread use as an additive to food and as a stimulant may result in release to the environment through waste systems. It has an estimated vapor pressure of 7.3×10-9 mmHg (25°C), which indicates that it will exist as particulate in the atmosphere. Caffeine is not susceptible to photolysis and if released into soil it has a high mobility based on the Koc of 22.
Caffeine Preparation Products And Raw materials
- General Introduction of Caffeine
- Caffeine has recently become popular as a component of topical cosmeceuticals due to its well-known biological activity. It ha....
- Mar 3，2022