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DL-Limonene structure
Chemical Name:
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

DL-Limonene Properties

Melting point:
-84--104 °C
Boiling point:
176-177 °C(lit.)
0.844 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
4.7 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
<3 mm Hg ( 14.4 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.473(lit.)
Flash point:
119 °F
storage temp. 
Clear colorless to pale yellow
Pleasant, pine-like; lemon-like.
explosive limit
0.7-6.1%, 150°F
Water Solubility 
<1 g/100mL
Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS DataBase Reference
138-86-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
EPA Substance Registry System
Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)- (138-86-3)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  Xi,N
Risk Statements  10-38-43-50/53
Safety Statements  24-37-60-61
RIDADR  UN 2052 3/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  OS8350000
Autoignition Temperature 458 °F
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29021990
Hazardous Substances Data 138-86-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: 5300 mg/kg
Signal word: Warning
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled Sensitisation, respiratory Category 1 Danger P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P391 Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
Flammability   2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur and multiple finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point between 37.8 and 93.3 °C (100 and 200 °F). (e.g. diesel fuel, sulfur)
Instability   0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water (e.g. helium,N2)

(NFPA, 2010)

DL-Limonene price More Price(11)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 334111 Dipentene technical, for use as solvent (for the paint industry), mixture of various terpenes 138-86-3 1l $32.3 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 334111 Dipentene technical, for use as solvent (for the paint industry), mixture of various terpenes 138-86-3 4l $90.8 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical L0046 (+/-)-Limonene >95.0%(GC) 138-86-3 25mL $21 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical L0046 (+/-)-Limonene >95.0%(GC) 138-86-3 500mL $90 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar 045805 Dipentene, tech. 138-86-3 250ml $32.4 2018-11-16 Buy

DL-Limonene Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

colourless or light yellow liquid

Chemical Properties

Limonene (4R)-(+)-limonene and (4S)-(?)-limonene as well as the racemate (dipentene) occur abundantly in many essential oils.The(+) isomer is present in citrus peel oils at a concentration of over 90%; a low concentration of the (?) isomer is found in oils from the Mentha species and conifers.
Limonene is a liquid with lemon-like odor. It is a reactive compound; oxidation often yields more than one product. Dehydrogenation leads to p-cymene. Limonene can be converted into cyclic terpene alcohols by hydrohalogenation, followed by hydrolysis. Nitrosyl chloride adds selectively to the endocyclic double bond; this reaction is utilized in the manufacture of (?)-carvone from (+)- limonene.
(+)-Limonene is obtained in large amounts as a by-product in the production of orange juice; (?)-limonene is isolated in relatively small quantities from essential oils. Racemic limonenes, which are commercially available under the name dipentene, are formed as by-products in many acid-catalyzed isomerizations of α- and β-pinene. Distillation of the so-called dipentene fraction yields limonenes in varying degrees of purity.
The limonenes are used as fragrance materials for perfuming household products and as components of artificial essential oils.

Chemical Properties

d-, l- or dl-Limonene has a pleasant, lemon-like odor free from camphoraceous and turpentine-like notes. Limonene is the most important and widespread terpene; it is known in the d- and l- optically active forms and in the optically inactive dl-form (known as dipentene).


It has been reported found in more than 300 essential oils in amounts ranging from 90 to 95% (lemon, orange, mandarin) to as low as 1% (palmarosa); the most widespread form is the d-limonene, followed by the racemic form and then l-limo nene. Also reported found in ginger, nutmeg, pepper, mace, hop oil, coriander seed, calamus, dill herb, caraway seed and rosemary.


d-limonene is used for perfuming and to mask odor. It is a chemical constituent of citrus oil.


d-Limonene is a flavoring agent that is a liquid, colorless with a pleasant odor resembling mild citrus. It is miscible in alcohol, most fixed oils, and mineral oil; soluble in glycerin; and insoluble in water and propylene glycol. It is obtained from citrus oil. It is also termed d-p-mentha-1,8,diene and cinene.


Limonene is an antioxidant and flavoring agent that occurs in lemons, oranges, and pineapple juice, being obtained from the oils. It is a colorless liquid which is insoluble in water and propylene glycol, very slightly soluble in glycerin, and miscible with alcohol, most fixed oils, and mineral oil. It prevents or delays enzymatic browning-type oxidation.


ChEBI: A monoterpene that is cyclohex-1-ene substituted by a methyl group at position 1 and a prop-1-en-2-yl group at position 4 respectively.


d-Limonene may be obtained by steam distillation of citrus peels and pulp resulting from the production of juice and cold pressed oils, or from deterpenation of citrus oils; it is sometimes redistilled.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 4 to 229 ppb

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: sweet, orange, citrus and terpy.

General Description

A colorless liquid with an odor of lemon. Flash point 113°F. Density about 7.2 lb /gal and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air. Used as a solvent for rosin, waxes, rubber; as a dispersing agent for oils, resins, paints, lacquers, varnishes, and in floor waxes and furniture polishes.

Air & Water Reactions

Flammable. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Cinene may react vigorously with strong oxidizing agents. May react exothermically with reducing agents to release hydrogen gas.

Health Hazard

Liquid irritates eyes; prolonged contact with skin causes irritation. Ingestion causes irritation of gastrointestinal tract.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode.

Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Contact allergens

Dipentene corresponds to a racemic mixture of d-limonene and l-limonene. Dipentene can be prepared from wood turpentine or by synthesis. It is used as a solvent for waxes, rosin and gums, in printing inks, perfumes, rubber compounds, paints, enamels, and lacquers. An irritant and sensitizer, dipentene caused contact dermatitis mainly in painters, polishers, and varnishers

Contact allergens

Limonene is a racemic form of dand l-limonene. d-Limonene is contained in Citrus species such as citrus, orange, mandarin, and bergamot. l-Limonene is contained in Pinus pinea. The racemic form (dand l-limonene) is also named dipentene.

Anticancer Research

Tested as promising antitumor molecules in induced tumor on rat tissues, D-limonenewas tested in preclinical studies in patients with advanced cancer. Limonene inhibitsthe activity of HMG-CoA reductase, subsequently reducing the possibility of cancergrowth. The mechanism of action involves the inhibition of prenyltransferases withthe activation of glutathione-S transferase and uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.More interest was pointed on the principal metabolite:perillyl alcohol which is more potent than limonene. The interest on perillyl alcoholis based on the necessity of a very high dosage of D-limonene in preclinical studies(about 1000 mg/kg/day in human mammary tumor) that can cause notably importantside effects. The more active perillyl alcohol and the less low active doseshypothesized this molecule as a clinical candidate (Pattanayak et al. 2009; Chenet al. 2013; Fontes et al. 2013; Rani and Sharma 2013).

Safety Profile

A skin irritant. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidzing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

DL-Limonene Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

DL-Limonene Suppliers

Global( 199)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733 CHINA 32447 55
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
86-0551-65418684 18949823763
86-0551-65418684 China 1852 55
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258 CHINA 27142 58
+86 18953170293
+86 0531-67809011 CHINA 2995 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
027-59599243 CHINA 28236 58
Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd
+86 531 8582 1093 CHINA 8260 58
Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8619930501651 CHINA 2299 58
hdzhl biotechnology co., ltd
86-13032617415 CHINA 915 58
Chongqing Chemdad Co.,Ltd
+86-19923101450 CHINA 4001 58
Xiamen AmoyChem Co., Ltd
+86 592-605 1114 CHINA 6370 58

View Lastest Price from DL-Limonene manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2018-12-17 DL-Limonene
US $1.00 / kg 1 g 99% 100KG career henan chemical co

DL-Limonene Spectrum

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