ChemicalBook
Chinese Japanese Germany Korea

Nitromethane

Nitromethane
Nitromethane structure
CAS No.
75-52-5
Chemical Name:
Nitromethane
Synonyms
NM;NM-55;CH3NO2;Nitrofuel;Nitrometan;NITROCARBOL;NITOMETHANE;NITROMETANO;nitro-methan;Nitromethane
CBNumber:
CB2753821
Molecular Formula:
CH3NO2
Formula Weight:
61.04
MOL File:
75-52-5.mol

Nitromethane Properties

Melting point:
-29 °C
Boiling point:
101.2 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.127 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
2.1 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
27.3 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.382(lit.)
Flash point:
95 °F
storage temp. 
Flammables area
solubility 
105g/l
pka
10.2(at 25℃)
form 
Liquid
color 
APHA: ≤10
PH
6.4 (0.6g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Relative polarity
6.8
explosive limit
7.3-63.0%(V)
Water Solubility 
9.5 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
λmax
λ: 380 nm Amax: 1.00
λ: 386 nm Amax: 0.50
λ: 395 nm Amax: 0.20
λ: 400 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 405 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 430-700 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 
14,6611
BRN 
1698205
InChIKey
LYGJENNIWJXYER-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
75-52-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Methane, nitro-(75-52-5)
EPA Substance Registry System
Methane, nitro-(75-52-5)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  Xn,F,Xi
Risk Statements  5-10-22
Safety Statements  41
RIDADR  UN 1261 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  PA9800000
3-10
Autoignition Temperature 784 °F
Hazard Note  Irritant/Flammable
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  29042090
Hazardous Substances Data 75-52-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LC (in air) in guinea pigs: 1000 ppm; LD50 orally in mice: 1.44 g/kg (Weatherby)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H331 Toxic if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 3 Danger P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P370+P380+P375 in case of fire: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
3
2 4
Health   2 Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury (e.g. diethyl ether, ammonium phosphate, iodine)
Flammability   3 Liquids and solids (including finely divided suspended solids) that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions . Liquids having a flash point below 22.8 °C (73 °F) and having a boiling point at or above 37.8 °C (100 °F) or having a flash point between 22.8 and 37.8 °C (73 and 100 °F). (e.g. gasoline, acetone)
Instability   4 Readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition at normal temperatures and pressures (e.g. nitroglycerin,chlorine dioxide, nitrogen triiodide)
Special  

(NFPA, 2010)

Nitromethane price More Price(18)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 02484 Nitromethane analytical standard 75-52-5 1ml $41.2 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1601725 Residual Solvent Class 2 - Nitromethane United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 75-52-5 3x1.2ml $348 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar A11806 Nitromethane, 98+% 75-52-5 100g $26.9 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar A11806 Nitromethane, 98+% 75-52-5 500g $55.2 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 230731 Nitromethane ReagentPlus , ≥99.0% 75-52-5 100ml $76.9 2018-11-13 Buy

Nitromethane Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

clear liquid

Chemical Properties

Nitromethane is a highly flammable and explosive colorless liquid with a strong, disagreeable odor.

Chemical Properties

Nitromethane is explosive and can be detonated by shock or heat (HSDB 1988) and the chemical can be made more sensitive to detonation through the presence of other chemicals, especially amines and acids. Nitromethane forms salts with inorganic bases and the dry salts are explosive.

Uses

Rocket fuel; solvent for zein. Used in the coating industry.

Production Methods

Nitromethane and the other important nitroparaffins are synthesized commercially by the vapor-phase nitration of propane (Baker and Bollmeier 1978). At temperatures of 370-450°C and pressures of 8-12 atmospheres, nitromethane, nitroethane and 1- and 2-nitropropane are formed and then separated by distillation.

General Description

A colorless oily liquid. Flash point 95°F. May violently decompose if intensely heated when contaminated. Denser than water and slightly soluble in water. Hence sinks in water. Vapors are heavier than air. Moderately toxic. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Slightly soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Nitromethane may explode if heated or strongly shocked, especially if mixed with acids, bases [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p.687], acetone, aluminum powder, ammonium salts in the presence of organic solvents, haloforms (chloroform, bromoform), or hydrazine in methanol. Ignites on contact with alkyl aluminum or alkyl zinc halides. Reacts violently with strong bases (potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), amines (1,2-diaminoethane, hydrazine), bromine, carbon disulfide, hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, metal oxides, lithium aluminum hydride, sodium hydride, strong oxidizing agents (lithium perchlorate, nitric acid, calcium hypochlorite). Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate to form explosive silver fulminate [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 183]. Mixtures of Nitromethane and aluminum chloride may explode when organic matter is present [Chem. Eng. News 26:2257. 1948]. Nitromethane, either alone or in a mixture with methanol and castor oil, has a delayed but violent reaction with powdered calcium hypochlorite [Haz. Home Chem 1963]. Nitromethane reacts violently with hexamethylbenzene [Lewis 2544]. Nitromethane is strongly sensitized by hydrazine [Forshey, D. RR. et al, Explosivestoffe, 1969, 17(6), 125-129].

Hazard

Dangerous fire and explosion risk, lower explosion limit 7.3% in air. Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Thyroid effects, upper respiratory tract irritant, and lung damage. Possible carcinogen.

Health Hazard

Liquid may dry out skin and cause irritation.

Health Hazard

Nitromethane is mildly irritating to the skin and mucous membranes (Gosselin et al 1976). It produces narcosis, mucus membrane irritation and central nervous system excitation, and some liver damage. These effects are generally not as marked as after administration of nitroethane. One case of human poisoning has been reported (Kaiffer et al 1972). In that case, a handyman was exposed to high concentrations of nitrocellulose and nitromethane resulting in a 67% conversion of his hemoglobin to methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, transfusion, peritoneal dialysis and then 6 sessions of hemodialysis resulted in recovery.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode

Industrial uses

Nitromethane is used as an intermediate in chemical syntheses, but more importantly it is used as a solvent for coatings and inks. It and the other nitroparaffins are excellent solvents for vinyls, epoxies, polyamides and acrylic polymers (Baker and Bollmeier 1978). It also is used as a military propellant and a racing fuel additive (HSDB 1988). Mixed with methanol and castor oil it is employed as a model airplane fuel.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by intravenous route. Mildly toxic by inhalation. In humans it may cause anorexia, nausea, vomiting, darrhea, kidney injury, and liver damage. exposed to heat, oxidizers, or flame. May explode by detonation, heat, or shock. Its sensitivity is increased when mixed with acids, bases, acetone, aluminum powder, ammonium salts + organic solvents, bis(2- aminoethyl)amine, 1,2-daminoethane + N,2,4,6-tetranitro-N-methyl aniLtne, halo forms (e.g., chloroform, bromoform), hydrazine + methanol. Ignites when mixed with alkyl metal halides (e.g., diethylaluminum bromide, dimethylaluminum bromide, ethylaluminum bromide iodide, methyl zinc iodide, methylaluminum diiodide). Can react violently with AlCl3 + organic matter, Ca(OH)2, m-methyl aniline, Ca(OCl)2, hexamethylbenzene, hydrocarbons, inorganic bases, hydroxides, organic amines, KOH, formaldehyde, nitric acid, metal oxides, 1,2-diaminomethane, litlvum perchlorate, sodium hydride. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate to form the explosive silver fuhnate. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. See also NITROALKANES. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, oxidizers, or flame. May explode by detonation, heat, or shock. Its sensitivity is increased when mixed with acids, bases, acetone, aluminum powder, ammonium salts + organic solvents, bis(2- aminoethyl)amine, 1,2-daminoethane + N,2,4,6-tetranitro-N-methyl aniLtne, halo forms (e.g., chloroform, bromoform), hydrazine + methanol. Ignites when mixed with alkyl metal halides (e.g., diethylaluminum bromide, dimethylaluminum bromide, ethylaluminum bromide iodide, methyl zinc iodide, methylaluminum diiodide). Can react violently with AlCl3 + organic matter, Ca(OH)2, m-methyl aniline, Ca(OCl)2, hexamethylbenzene, hydrocarbons, inorganic bases, hydroxides, organic amines, KOH, formaldehyde, nitric acid, metal oxides, 1,2-diaminomethane, litlvum perchlorate, sodium hydride. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate to form the explosive silver fuhnate. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. See also NITROALKANES. concentrated sulfuric acid. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. See also NITRO COMPOUNDS and AMINES.

Potential Exposure

Nitromethane is used in the production of the fumigant, chloropicrin. It is best known as racing car fuel. It is also used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.

Metabolism

Nitromethane is converted to nitrite and formaldehyde in a 1:1 ratio by hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated male Sprague-Dawley rats (Sakurai et al 1980), but no formaldehyde could be detected when microsomes from the nose or liver of untreated male Fischer-344 rats were incubated with nitromethane (Dahl and Hadley 1983). Whether a similar conversion occurs in vivo has not been determined, but the absence of nitromethane metabolism in microsomes from untreated rats suggests that its metabolism in vivo may be slow.

Shipping

UN1261 Nitromethane, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.

Purification Methods

Nitromethane is generally manufactured by gas-phase nitration of methane. The usual impurities include aldehydes, nitroethane, water and small amounts of alcohols. Most of these can be removed by drying with CaCl2 or by distillation to remove the water/nitromethane azeotrope, followed by drying with CaSO4. Phosphorus pentoxide is not suitable as a drying agent. [Wright et al. J Chem Soc 199 1936.] The purified material should be stored by dark bottles, away from strong light, in a cool place. Purifications using extraction are commonly used. For example, Van Looy and Hammett [J Am Chem Soc 81 3872 1959] mixed about 150mL of conc H2SO4 with 1L of nitromethane and allowed it to stand for 1 or 2days. The solvent was washed with water, aqueous Na2CO3, and again with water, then dried for several days with MgSO4, filtered again with CaSO4. It was fractionally distilled before use. Smith, Fainberg and Winstein [J Am Chem Soc 83 618 1961] washed it successively with aqueous NaHCO3, aqueous NaHSO3, water, 5% H2SO4, water and dilute NaHCO3. The solvent was dried with CaSO4, then percolated through a column of Linde type 4A molecular sieves, followed by distillation from some of this material (in powdered form). Buffagni and Dunn [J Chem Soc 5105 1961] refluxed it for 24hours with activated charcoal while bubbling a stream of nitrogen through the liquid. The suspension was filtered, dried (Na2SO4) and distilled, then passed through an alumina column and redistilled. It has also been refluxed over CaH2, distilled and kept under argon over 4A molecular sieves. It has been purified by zone melting at low temperature, or by distillation under vacuum at 0o, subjecting the middle fraction to several freeze-pump-thaw cycles. An impure sample containing higher nitroalkanes and traces of cyanoalkanes was purified (on the basis of its NMR spectrum) by crystallisation from diethyl ether at -60o (cooling in Dry-ice)[Parrett & Sun J Chem Educ 54 448 1977]. Fractional crystallisation is more effective than fractional distillation from Drierite in purifying nitromethane for conductivity measurements. [Coetzee & Cunningham J Am Chem Soc 87 2529 1965.] Specific conductivities around 5 x 10-9 ohm-1cm-1 were obtained. [Beilstein 1 IV 100.]

Incompatibilities

May explode from heat, shock, friction, or concussion. Reacts with alkalis, strong acids; metallic oxides. Detonates or reacts violently with strong oxidizers, strong reducing agents such as hydrides; formaldehyde, copper, copper alloys; lead, lead alloys; hydrocarbons and other combustibles, causing fire and explosion hazard. Forms shock sensitive mixture when contaminated with acids, amines, bases, metal oxides; hydrocarbons, and other combustible materials.

Waste Disposal

Incineration: large quantities of material may require nitrogen oxide removal by catalytic or scrubbing processes.

Nitromethane Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Nitromethane Suppliers

Global( 0)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage

View Lastest Price from Nitromethane manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2018-08-17 Nitromethane
75-52-5
US $1.00 / KG 1G 98% 100KG career henan chemical co
2019-04-11 nitromethane E:candyli(at)speedgainpharma(dot)com
75-52-5
US $10.00 / kg 1kg 99.5% 5000KG/WEEK Hebei Chisure Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
2018-12-20 Nitromethane
75-52-5
US $10.00 / kg 1kg 99% 500tons/month Hebei Chisure Biotechnology Co., Ltd.

Nitromethane Spectrum


75-52-5(Nitromethane)Related Search:


Copyright 2017 © ChemicalBook. All rights reserved