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Introduction Physical Properties Production Reactions
Chemical Name:
TIN;W-Sn;wang;Zinn;50Sn;G-Sn;AT-SN;FSn 2;Sn-HWQ;Stanum
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

TIN Properties

Melting point:
231.9 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
2270 °C(lit.)
Flash point:
H2O: soluble
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Highly flammable as a powder. Can, in powder form, lead to dust explosions. Moisture sensitive.
CAS DataBase Reference
7440-31-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xi,F,C
Risk Statements  36/37/38-36/37-11-36/38-34-20/21/22
Safety Statements  26-24/25-22-36/37/39-33-16-36/37-45
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  XP7320000
HazardClass  4.1
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  80070080
Signal word: Warning
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H228 Flammable solid Flammable solids Category 1
Category 2
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.

TIN price More Price(84)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 14509 Tin ≥99%, powder 7440-31-5 250g-r $87 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 14509 Tin ≥99%, powder 7440-31-5 1kg-r $267.5 2017-11-08 Buy
Strem Chemicals 50-0070 Tin shot (99.999%) 7440-31-5 25g $109 2017-11-27 Buy
Strem Chemicals 50-0070 Tin shot (99.999%) 7440-31-5 5g $28 2017-11-27 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 265632 Tin powder, <45μm particle size, 99.8% trace metals basis 7440-31-5 100g $33.2 2017-11-08 Buy

TIN Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Tin is known from ancient times. Its alloy, bronze, containing 10 to 15% tin has been in use in weapons and tools for millennia.
The most important mineral of tin is cassiterite, SnO2. It occurs in the form of alluvial sand. Also, it is found embedded in granite rocks. Other tin-bearing minerals are stannite and tealite. Abundance of tin in the earth’s crust is estimated to be 2.3 mg/kg. Tin is used for plating steel to make “tin cans” for preserving food. Also, tin is coated over other metals to prevent corrosion. An important application of tin is to produce float glass, made by floating molten glass on molten tin which is used for windows. A number of tin alloys have wide industrial applications and include bronze, solder, Babbit metal, White metal, type metal, fusible metal, and phosphor bronze. A tin-niobium alloy that is superconducting at low temperatures is used in constructing super magnets. Tin also is in wrapping foil and collapsible tube.

Physical Properties

Silvery-white metal at ordinary temperature; slowly changes to gray below 13.2°C; soft, malleable, and somewhat ductile; Brinell hardness 2.9. Tin has two allotropic forms: (1) white tin, the beta form, and (2) gray tin, the alpha form. The white tin (beta form) has a tetragonal structure. When cooled below 13.2°C, its color slowly changes from white to gray, the beta allotrope converting to alpha (gray tin). The presence of small amounts of antimony or bismuth prevents this transformation from white to gray tin. Other impurities such as zinc or aluminum promote change from white to gray tin.
Some other physical properties are: density 7.28 g/cm3 (white), 5.75 g/cm3 (gray) and 6.97 g/cm3 (liquid at the melting point); melts at 231.9°C; vaporizes at 2,602°C; electrical resistivity 11.0 and 15.5 microhm-cm at 0 and 100°C, respectively; viscosity 1.91 and 1.38 centipoise at 240 and 400°C, respectively; surface tension 5.26 and 5.18 dynes/cm at 300 and 400°C, respectively; modulus of elasticity 6 – 6.5x106 cgs psi; magnetic suspectibility 0.027x10–6 cgs units; thermal neutron absorption cross section 0.625 barns; insoluble in water; soluble in HCl, H2SO4, aqua regia, and alkalies; slightly soluble in dilute nitric acid.


Tin is produced commercially from mineral cassiterite, SnO2. The mineral is mined from alluvial sand deposits by different techniques, such as various dredging (usually applied to low-grade deposits), gravel-pump mining (on level ground), and open-pit mining. The ore is broken up mechanically by blasting and drilling. It then is crushed and ground to produce finely divided material that can be separated by gravity concentration and froth flotation. Tin concentrates so obtained require removal of sulfide before smelting. This is done by roasting concentrates at high temperatures which removes both sulfur and arsenic. Lead sulfide is converted to lead sulfate but all other associated metal sulfides, such as those of iron, copper, zinc, and bismuth, are converted to oxides.
Tin is produced from oxide by heating at high temperatures with carbon. Small amounts of limestone and sand are added to coal for this reduction and to promote removal of impurities. Primary smelting is carried out in a reverbaratory furnace at a temperature between 1,200 to 1,300°C. Electric arc furnaces also are used. The molten tin collected at the bottom is cast into slabs. The slags are resmelted at a higher temperature, up to 1,480°, in the same type of furnaces to recover more tin that is combined as silicates.
Tin obtained above contains small amounts of impurities. It is purified by resmelting in a small reverberatory furnace at a temperature just above the melting point of tin. The molten tin is drawn out, separating iron, copper, arsenic, antimony, and other metals. Purified tin is further refined by boiling or polling processes to remove traces of impurity metals, such as lead and bismuth.


At ordinary temperatures tin is stable in air. It actually forms a very thin protective oxide film. In powder form, and especially in the presence of moisture, it oxidizes. When heated with oxygen it forms tin(IV) oxide, SnO2.Tin reacts with all halogens forming their halides. Reaction with fluorine is slow at ordinary temperatures; however, chlorine, bromine and iodine readily react with the metal.
Tin is attacked by concentrated acids. With dilute acids the reaction may be slow or very slow. The metal readily reacts with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid and aqua regia but slowly with cold dilute hydrochloric acid. The reaction also is slow with hot dilute sulfuric acid, which dissolves the metal, particularly in the presence of an oxidizing agent. The reaction with nitric acid is generally slow. Hot concentrated acid converts the metal to an insoluble hydrated tin(IV) oxide. The reaction is rapid with moist sulfur dioxide or sulfurous acid, chlorosulfonic, and pyrosulfuric acids. Organic acids such as, acetic, oxalic, and citric acids react slowly with the metal, particularly in the presence of air or an oxidizing agent.
Strong alkaline solutions of caustic soda or caustic potash dissolve tin forming the stannate, Na2SnO3, or K2SnO3. The metal is stable in dilute solutions of ammonia or sodium carbonate.
Tin dissolves in solutions of oxidizing salts such as potassium chlorate or potassium persulfate. The metal does not react with neutral salts in aqueous solutions. In air, tin reacts slowly with neutral salts.
The metal does not combine directly with hydrogen, nitrogen or ammonia gas.

Chemical Properties

silver-white to grey powder or lump


Chiefly for tin-plating and manufacture of food, beverage and aerosol containers, soldering alloys, babbitt and type metals, manufacture of tin salts, collapsible tubes, coating for copper wire. Principle component in pewter. Alloys as dental materials (silver-tin-mercury), nuclear reactor components (tin-zirconium), aircraft components (tin-titanium), bronze (copper-tin), brass.

General Description

White TIN is an almost silver-white, ductile, malleable, lustrous solid. Mp 232°C; bp: 2507°C. Density: 7.3 g cm-3. Pure white TIN becomes non-metallic powdery gray TIN if held for a sustained period at temperatures less than 13°C.

Reactivity Profile

TIN is a reducing agent. Stable in massive form in air, but oxidizes (corrodes) in air as a powder, especially in the presence of water. Dissolve slowly in dilute strong acids in the cold. Dissolves in hot aqueous KOH and other strongly basic solutions. Incompatible with acids and base. Incompatible with chlorine and turpenTINe.

Purification Methods

Tin powder is purified by adding it to about twice its weight of 10% aqueousNaOH and shaking vigorously for 10minutes. (This removes oxide film and stearic acid or similar material that is sometimes added for pulverisation.) It is then filtered, washed with water until the washings are no longer alkaline to litmus, rinsed with MeOH and dried in air. [Sisido et al. J Am Chem Soc 83 538 1961.]

TIN Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

TIN Suppliers

Global( 174)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-55531817 CHINA 22144 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20803 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733 CHINA 32765 55
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
+86-10-82849933; China 96815 76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing) China 40399 62
3B Pharmachem (Wuhan) International Co.,Ltd. 86-21-50328103 * 801、802、803、804 Mobile:18930552037
86-21-50328109 China 15940 69
Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
021-67582001/03/05 China 30308 84
BeiJing Hwrk Chemicals Limted 4006990298;010-57411839;0757-86311057;021-51691807
010-87653215;0757-86311057;021-55236763 China 14687 55
Energy Chemical 021-58432009 / 400-005-6266
021-58436166-800 China 44192 61
Beijing Ouhe Technology Co., Ltd +86-10-4006331231;+86-10-51280831;+86-10-82967028
+86-10-82967029 China 12614 60

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