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Levulinic acid

Chemical Properties Uses Application Preparation Content analysis Toxicity Usage limit
Levulinic acid
Levulinic acid structure
Chemical Name:
Levulinic acid
LA;LEVA;aevuL;usafcz-1;levulinic;USAF cz-1;FEMA 2627;4-oxovaleric;laevulicacid;levulic acid
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Levulinic acid Properties

Melting point:
30-33 °C (lit.)
Boiling point:
245-246 °C (lit.)
1.134 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 102 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.439(lit.)
Flash point:
280 °F
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
Liquid After Melting
pKa 4.65(H2O,t = 25,c=0.03-0.001) (Uncertain)
Clear yellow
Water Solubility 
Soluble in water ( 675g/L at 20°C).
Light Sensitive
JECFA Number
CAS DataBase Reference
123-76-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)
EWG's Food Scores
NIST Chemistry Reference
Pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-(123-76-2)
EPA Substance Registry System
Levulinic acid (123-76-2)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Signal word  Warning
Hazard statements  H314-H318-H302-H315-H319
Precautionary statements  P280-P309-P310-P301+P312+P330-P305+P351+P338
Hazard Codes  Xn,C
Risk Statements  22-36/37/38-34-R34-R22
Safety Statements  26-45-36/37/39-S45-S36/37/39-S26
RIDADR  3261
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  OI1575000
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29183000
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: 1850 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit > 5000 mg/kg
NFPA 704
3 1

Levulinic acid price More Price(28)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.14254 Levulinic acid for synthesis 123-76-2 100 g $28.58 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 41474 Levulinic acid analytical standard 123-76-2 100mg $55.2 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich W262706 Levulinic acid ≥97%, FG 123-76-2 1 kg $70 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich W262701 Levulinic acid natural, 99%, FG 123-76-2 100 g $70 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.14254 Levulinic acid for synthesis 123-76-2 500 g $85.01 2021-03-22 Buy

Levulinic acid Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

White flake crystals, hygroscopic. clear yellowish liquid after melting.It is easily soluble in water and alcohol, ether organic solvents.
Levulinic acid
Levulinic acid conventionally is derived from refined petroleum but technological advances now permit the production of levulinic acid from biomass. Suitable feedstocks from the forest industry include pulp and paper mill residues, sawmill and logging residues, and solid municipal waste. It takes approximately 2 kg of cellulose to produce 1 kg of levulinic acid (US Department of Energy 1998). Obtaining enough raw materials to support the production of levulinic acid from biomass is not a foreseeable concern; Canada currently produces over 75 million tonnes of logging residues annually which, in turn, could produce 19 million tonnes of levulinic acid.


Levulinic acid is a biomass product and its derivatives, such as ethyl levulinate and alkyl levulinate, can be used as fuel additives.
levulinic acid is used for calcium levulinate in pharmaceuticals, as esters in solvents and plasticizers, and for making valerolactone. As its uses expand, it will probably be made from cellulosic wastes. Mesitonic acid, a homolog of levulinic acid is obtained by boiing mesityl oxide with KCN.
Hydrogenation of levulinic acid can produce other useful chemicals. Valeric-g-lactone, which is an effective solvent with extensive uses, can be obtained in very high yields. This compound may be hydrogenated to 1,4-pentandiol, which upon dehydration yields 1,3-pentadine (piperylene). Piperylene is known to polymerize to a rubbery mass and is therefore a source of synthetic rubber (Ghorpade and Hanna 1997).
Levulinic acid is a precursor for the synthesis of useful intermediates such as γ-valerolactone, ethyl levulinate, pentanoic acid and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran. Derivatization and esterification of levulinic acid results in potential biofuels.
It can also be used in:
The preparation of catalytic composite to synthesize 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural.
The synthesis of a commercial fragrance, fraistone.
The synthesis of pyrrolidone derivatives via reductive amination.
The total synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan.


It can be used as the raw materials of medicine, spices and paint, and used as solvent.
This product has wide applications. Levulinic acid can be used as both a carboxylic acid and can also be used as a ketone for reaction for making various kinds of products through esterification, halogenation, hydrogenation, oxidation dehydrogenation, condensation, etc., including resins, pharmaceuticals, spices, solvents, rubber and plastic additives, lubricants additives, surfactants and so on. In the pharmaceutical industry, its calcium salt (calcium fructose) can be used for intravenous injection. As a nutritional medicine, it helps to boost the formation of bone and maintain the normal excitability of nerves and muscles. It can also used for the production of indomethacin and plant hormones. Levulinic acid manufactured bisphenol acid can be made of water-soluble resin, used in the paper industry to produce filter paper. Levulinic acid is also an intermediate of pesticides and dyes.
Used for biochemical reagents, but also for organic synthesis
It can be used as an important chemical raw material or solvents. It can be used for the manufacturing of medicine (intravenous injection, indomethacin, etc.), resin (bisphenol acid water-soluble resin), spices (spices or tobacco spices), paint, paint, pesticides, and surfactants.
It can be used for biochemical research; manufacturing of esters and drugs. It is also the inhibitor of chlorophyll synthesis.


The residue during the manufacturing of furfural with cotton seed shell or corncob sugar (furfural residue) or waste taro residue, through pressured hydrolysis with dilute acid, can be used to produce levulinic acid. The furfural residue was added to 10% dilute hydrochloric acid, the solidified solution was 1: 1.75, mixed and put into the hydrolysis pot, steamed at a pressure of 0.2MPa for 8-10 h. The diluted solution is then filtered and concentrated to a concentration of about 50%. It is further subject to vacuum distillation for collecting the fraction above 130 ℃ (2.67kPa) to obtain the finished product. Raw material consumption quota: potato tacar 7,000 kg/t, hydrochloric acid (fold 100%) 1800kg/t. Another method is manufacturing through the rearrangement and hydrolysis of sugar alcohol.
4% hydrochloric acid solution was added to the reaction pot, stir and heat to 97-100 ℃, slowly add the mixture of furfuryl alcohol, ethanol and water. After addition, stir 30 min. The filtrate was concentrated at 80 ° C (21.3 kPa) under reduced pressure to give crude levulinic acid. Then apply vacuum distillation, collect the fraction of 160-170 ° C (2.67kPa), and then re-distill once, to obtain the refined levulinic acid with the yield of about 75%.

Content analysis

Accurately weigh about 1.0 g of the sample, and put it into a 250ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 75~100ml water, add phenolphthalein test solution; apply 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide for titration to until it began to appear pink and maintain 15 s. Each mL of 0.5mol/L sodium hydroxide solution is equivalent to 58.08mg of the goods.



Usage limit

FEMA (mg/kg): Beverage, cold drink, 14.0; Candy, baked goods, 53.0; Gelatin, pudding, 4.0.
FDA, §172.515 (2000): take proper amount as limit.


Levulinic acid has a tart, whiskey taste. It may be synthesized by the action of more or less concentrated HCL on sucrose, glucose, or fructose; hence, its reported presence in caramels.

Chemical Properties

Levulinic acid has a tart, whiskey taste.


Reported found in papaya, wheat bread, rice, sake and Chinese quince.


Replenisher (calcium).


By action of more or less concentrated HCl on sucrose, glucose or fructose; hence, its reported presence in caramels.

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 70 ppm: acidic, sweet, creamy and slight dairy.

Synthesis Reference(s)

Tetrahedron Letters, 30, p. 5329, 1989 DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(01)93778-5

Levulinic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Levulinic acid Suppliers

Global( 420)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Langfang Hawk Techology & Development Co, Ltd.
+86 (316) 222-4727
+86 (316) 222-4730 CHINA 23 58
Hubei xin bonus chemical co. LTD
027-59338440 CHINA 23035 58
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
0551-65418697 CHINA 37441 58
Hebei Lihe Biotechnology Co.,ltd
13315122300 86-311-80292533 CHINA 309 58
13588875226 86-571-88216897、88216896
86-571-88216895 CHINA 6469 58
Capot Chemical Co.,Ltd.
+86(0)13336195806 +86-571-85586718
+86-571-85864795 China 20012 60
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-66670886 China 20914 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 22607 55
Hangzhou FandaChem Co.,Ltd.
+86-571-56059825 CHINA 8909 55
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
86-0551-65418697 China 3000 55

Related articles

View Lastest Price from Levulinic acid manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2021-11-25 Levulinic acid
US $20.00 / Kg/Drum 25Kg/Drum 99.99% 1 ton per week Wuhan Mulei New Material Technology Co. Ltd
2021-11-08 Levulinic acid
US $5.00 / IU 1KG 99% 50 tons Wuhan wingroup Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd
2021-11-02 Levulinic acid
US $555.00 / Kg/Bag 25Kg/Bag 99% 20000T Baoji Guokang Healthchem co.,ltd

Levulinic acid Spectrum

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