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Citric acid monohydrate

Citric acid monohydrate
Citric acid monohydrate structure
Chemical Name:
Citric acid monohydrate
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Citric acid monohydrate Properties

Melting point:
-94 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
56 °C760 mm Hg(lit.)
0.791 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
184 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.359(lit.)
Flash point:
1 °F
storage temp. 
no restrictions.
Citric Acid Monohydrate is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol and sparingly soluble in ether.
3.138, 4.76, 6.401
Specific Gravity
0.810 (20/4℃)
1.85 (50g/l, H2O, 25℃)
Water Solubility 
1630 g/L (20 oC) ;H2O: soluble 54% (w/w) at 10°C (Citric acid in water)
Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents, nitrates.
CAS DataBase Reference
5949-29-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Citric acid monohydrate(5949-29-1)
EPA Substance Registry System
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, hydrate (1:1) (5949-29-1)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Signal word  Warning
Hazard statements  H315-H335-H319
Precautionary statements  P305+P351+P338-P261-P280a-P304+P340-P405-P501a
Hazard Codes  F,Xi
Risk Statements  11-36-66-67-41-36/37/38-37/38
Safety Statements  9-16-26-37/39-36/37/39-36
RIDADR  UN 1090 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  AL3150000
HS Code  29181400
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: 3000 mg/kg
NFPA 704
2 0

Citric acid monohydrate price More Price(43)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.37003 Citric acid monohydrate cryst. EMPROVE? EXPERT Ph Eur,BP,JP,USP,ACS 5949-29-1 1 kg $71.1 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.00244 Citric acid monohydrate for analysis EMSURE? ACS,ISO,Reag. Ph Eur 5949-29-1 500 g $75.2 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.00244 Citric acid monohydrate for analysis EMSURE? ACS,ISO,Reag. Ph Eur 5949-29-1 1 kg $98.97 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.00242 Citric acid monohydrate cryst. EMPROVE? ESSENTIAL Ph Eur,BP,JP,USP,E 330,FCC 5949-29-1 5 kg $125 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich C0706 Citric acid monohydrate BioXtra, ≥99.5% 5949-29-1 500g $105 2021-03-22 Buy

Citric acid monohydrate Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

Citric acid monohydrate occurs as colorless or translucent crystals, or as a white crystalline, efflorescent powder. It is odorless and has a strong acidic taste. The crystal structure is orthorhombic. monohydrate crystals lose water of crystallization in dry air or when heated to about 40 to 50 °C. Citric acid monohydrate softens at 75 °C and melts at approximately 100 °C.
Citric acid monohydrate
Citric acid monohydrate is a natural preservative and is used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks.
Citric acid monohydrate acts as a preservative and antioxidant. It is also used as an acidulant, flavoring agent and antistaling agent in fruit drinks, candy, cookies, biscuits, canned fruits, jams, and jellies. It differs from other forms of citric acid by having a moisture percentage ranging from 7.5-9.0.


Citric Acid Monohydrate is used as an Acidulate, Food additive, Pharmaceutical application and as a synergist in antioxidant mixtures.
Citric Acid Monohydrate is a tricarboxylic acid found in citrus fruits. Citric acid is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations due to its antioxidant properties. It maintains stability of active ingredients and is used as a preservative. It is also used as an acidulant to control pH and acts as an anticoagulant by chelating calcium in blood.

Production Methods

Citric acid occurs naturally in a number of plant species and may be extracted from lemon juice, which contains 5–8% citric acid, or pineapple waste. Anhydrous citric acid may also be produced industrially by mycological fermentation of crude sugar solutions such as molasses, using strains of Aspergillus niger . Citric acid is purified by recrystallization; the anhydrous form is obtained from a hot concentrated aqueous solution and the monohydrate from a cold concentrated aqueous solution.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Citric acid (as either the monohydrate or anhydrous material) is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and food products, primarily to adjust the pH of solutions. It has also been used experimentally to adjust the pH of tablet matrices in enteric-coated formulations for colon-specific drug delivery. Citric acid monohydrate is used in the preparation of effervescent granules, while anhydrous citric acid is widely used in the preparation of effervescent tablets. Citric acid has also been shown to improve the stability of spray-dried insulin powder in inhalation formulations.
In food products, citric acid is used as a flavor enhancer for its tart, acidic taste. Citric acid monohydrate is used as a sequestering agent and antioxidant synergist. It is also a component of anticoagulant citrate solutions. Therapeutically, preparations containing citric acid have been used to dissolve renal calculi.

Biotechnological Applications

Citric acid monohydrate was used in the preparation of citric acid solution employed in the acetone method of 68Ga pre-purification and radiolabeling technique.
It may be used:
As release-modifying agent to improve the release of diltiazem hydrochloride from melt extruded Eudragit RS PO tablets.
To prepare citrate buffer for use in the preparation of platelets for intravital microscopy.
To prepare Tris-citrate buffer employed for the electrophoresis of bacterial enzymes.


Citric acid is found naturally in the body, mainly in the bones, and is commonly consumed as part of a normal diet. Orally ingested citric acid is absorbed and is generally regarded as a nontoxic material when used as an excipient. However, excessive or frequent consumption of citric acid has been associated with erosion of the teeth.
Citric acid and citrates also enhance intestinal aluminum absorption in renal patients, which may lead to increased, harmful serum aluminum levels. It has therefore been suggested that patients with renal failure taking aluminum compounds to control phosphate absorption should not be prescribed citric acid or citrate-containing products.


Citric acid monohydrate loses water of crystallization in dry air or when heated to about 408℃. It is slightly deliquescent in moist air. Dilute aqueous solutions of citric acid may ferment on standing.

Purification Methods

Crystallise it from hot H2O solution (w/w solubility is 54% at 10o, 71% at 50o and 84% at 100o. The monohydrate (softens at ~75o and melts at ~100o) dehydrates in air or when heated gently above 40o . The triethylester ( M 276.3, b 127o/1mm, 294o/atm, d 4 1.137, n D 1.4420.) is a bitter tasting oil. [Beilstein 3 H 556 and 568, 3 IV 1272.]


Citric acid is incompatible with potassium tartrate, alkali and alkaline earth carbonates and bicarbonates, acetates, and sulfides. Incompatibilities also include oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents, and nitrates. It is potentially explosive in combination with metal nitrates. On storage, sucrose may crystallize from syrups in the presence of citric acid.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. The anhydrous form is accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (inhalations; IM, IV, and other injections; ophthalmic preparations; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in Japan and the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Citric acid monohydrate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Citric acid monohydrate Suppliers

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View Lastest Price from Citric acid monohydrate manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2021-11-08 Citric acid monohydrate
US $5.00 / KG 1KG 99% 30 Tons Wuhan wingroup Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd
2021-11-02 Citric acid monohydrate
US $960.00 / KG 25KG 99% 200tons Baoji Guokang Healthchem co.,ltd
2021-08-31 Citric acid monohydrate
US $10.00 / Kg/Drum 1g/Bag 99%min 5000 Wuhan Monad Medicine Tech Co.,LTD

Citric acid monohydrate Spectrum

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