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1,1,1-Trichloroethane structure
Chemical Name:
cf2;CF 2;f140a;R140a;Ethana;R-140a;alpha-T;baltana;Cut aid;hcc140a
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

1,1,1-Trichloroethane Properties

Melting point:
−35 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
74-76 °C(lit.)
1.336 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
4.6 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
100 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.4366(lit.)
Flash point:
11 °C
storage temp. 
Water Solubility 
1.4 g/L (20 ºc)
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA 350 ppm (~1900 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA); TLV-STEL 450 ppm (~2450 mg/m3) (ACGIH); IDLH 1000 ppm (NIOSH).
CAS DataBase Reference
71-55-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-(71-55-6)
EPA Substance Registry System
Ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-(71-55-6)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  Xn,N,T,F
Risk Statements  20-59-66-40-19-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-36/38
Safety Statements  24/25-59-61-9-46-16-45-36/37-7-26
RIDADR  UN 2831 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  KJ2975000
HazardClass  6.1(b)
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29031910
Hazardous Substances Data 71-55-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H420 Harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere Hazardous to the ozone layer Category 1 Warning P502
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P311 Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P502 Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
2 0
HEALTH   2 Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury (e.g. diethyl ether, ammonium phosphate, iodine)
FIRE  1 Materials that require considerable preheating, under all ambient temperature conditions, before ignition and combustion can occur. Includes some finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point at or above 93.3 °C (200 °F). (e.g. mineral oil, ammonia)
REACT   0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water (e.g. helium,N2)

(NFPA, 2010)

1,1,1-Trichloroethane price More Price(3)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 40010-U 1,1,1-Trichloroethane solution 71-55-6 u $45.6 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1601226 Residual Solvent Class 1 - 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 3x1.2ml $352.8 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 48614 1,1,1-Trichloroethane solution certified reference material, 200 μg/mL in methanol 71-55-6 48614 $22.7 2018-11-23 Buy

1,1,1-Trichloroethane Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

colourless liquid with a mild ether-like odour. Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol and ether. Nonflammable.

Chemical Properties

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is a colorless liquid. It has an odor similar to chloroform. The Odor Threshold is 120 ppm (NJ) or 400 ppm (NY).


1,1,1-Trichloroethane is used as a cleaningsolvent for cleaning metals and plastic molds.


Solvent for cleaning precision instruments, metal degreasing, pesticide, textile processing.


ChEBI: A member of the class of chloroethanes carrying three chloro substituents at position 1.

General Description

A colorless liquid with a sweet, pleasant odor. May irritate skin, eyes and mucous membranes. In high concentrations the vapors may have a narcotic effect. Nonflammable, but may decompose and emit toxic chloride fumes if exposed to high temperatures. Used as a solvent.

Air & Water Reactions

Insoluble in water. Absorbs some water.

Reactivity Profile

1,1,1-Trichloroethane decomposes in the presence of chemically active metals. This includes aluminum, magnesium and their alloys. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane will react violently with dinitrogen tetraoxide, oxygen, liquid oxygen, sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane will also react violently with acetone, zinc and nitrates. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane can react with sodium hydroxide. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is incompatible with strong oxidizers and strong bases. Mixtures with potassium or its alloys are shock-sensitive and may explode on light impact. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane can react with an aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide, and with chlorine in sunlight. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. Upon contact with hot metal or on exposure to ultraviolet radiation, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane will decompose to form irritant gases. A cobalt/molybdenum-alumina catalyst will generate a substantial exotherm on contact with its vapor at ambient temperatures. Hazardous reactions also occur with (aluminum oxide + heavy metals). .

Health Hazard

INHALATION: symptoms range from loss of equilibrium and incoordination to loss of consciousness; high concentration can be fatal due to simple asphyxiation combined with loss of consciousness. INGESTION: produces effects similar to inhalation and may cause some feeling of nausea. EYES: slightly irritating and lachrymatory. SKIN: defatting action may cause dermatitis.

Health Hazard

The oral and inhalation toxicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane is of low order in animalsand humans. It is an anesthetic at highconcentrations. Exposure to its vapors at a1.5% concentration in air may be lethal tohumans. Death may result from anesthesiaand/or cardiac sensitization. Prolonged skincontact may cause defatting and reddeningof eyes. Vapors are irritant to the eyes andmucous membranes.
The acute oral toxicity is low in testanimals. The oral LD50 values in rabbitsand guinea pigs are 5660 and 9470 mg/kg,respectively (NIOSH 1986). The carcino genicity of this compound in animals andhumans is not known.

Fire Hazard

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating gases are generated in fires.

Industrial uses

Methyl chloroform is a versitile, all purpose solvent, popular with industry because of its powerful cleaning properties, low flammability, and low relative toxicity. It was introduced in the mid 1950s as a cold cleaning solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride. Today, methyl chloroform is used primarily for vapor degreasing and cold cleaning of fabricated metal parts and other materials. The chemical also is used in fluoropolymer synthesis, as a solvent in adhesive and aerosol formulations, for the production of certain coatings and inks, for a variety of textile applications, and for dry cleaning leather and suede garments. Methyl chloroform is a member of a family of saturated aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons.
Metal vapor degreasing is an important process in industrial manufacture, used to remove oils and oil-borne soils (i.e., chips, metal fines, and fluxes) from objects that have been stamped, machined, welded, soldered, molded, or diecast. Vapor degreased parts vary from tiny transistors to aircraft and spacecraft assemblies.
Methyl chloroform is an excellent solvent for the cold (room temperature) cleaning of a wide variety of manufacturing equipment and products including yarns, threads, finished cloth, reinforced fiberglass, plastics, and common and exotic metals. The solvent removes most greases, oils, lubricants, waxes, adhesives, inks, fluxes, paints, stamping and drawing compounds, tars, and other soils.
The main reasons for the use of methyl chloroform in formulations for urethane and neoprene/phenolic contact adhesives, mastics, sealants, and natural rubber tire repair cements are its ability to substantially reduce flammability, its nonphotochemical reactivity, and the favorable characteristics of the resulting adhesive formulation.
The main applications of methyl chloroform in the electronics industry are in circuit board fabrication, where it is used to develop dry film photoresist, and in the semiconductor industry where it is used for secondary cleaning.
Methyl chloroform serves as a raw material for the manufacture of polyvinylidene fluoride fluoropolymer. It also can be used as a raw material for the production of certain hydrochlorofluorocarbons having relatively short atmospheric residence times.
In the coatings manufacturing industry, methyl chloroform is used as a solvent in the formulation of protective and decorative coatings and as a thinner to reduce the viscosity of high-solid content coatings for spray application. The chemical also can be used in the production of rotogravure and flexographic inks. In addition to the above uses, methyl chloroform is used to dry clean leather and suede products and to clean motion picture film.

Contact allergens

Trichloroethane is a solvent that has wide applications in industry, such as for cold type metal cleaning and in cleaning plastic molds. It is mainly an irritant, but can also provoke allergic contact dermatitis.

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation, skin contact, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes. An experimental teratogen. Human systemic effects by ingestion and inhalation: conjunctiva irritation, hallucinations or distorted perceptions, motor activity changes, irritability, aggression, hypermotility, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting and other gastrointestinal changes. Experimental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen. Mutation data reported. A human skin irritant. An experimental skin and severe eye irritant. Narcotic in high concentrations. Causes a proarrhythmic activity that sensitizes the heart to epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. This sometimes will cause cardlac arrest, particularly when this material is massively inhaled as in drug abuse for euphoria.
Under the proper conditions it can undergo hazardous reactions with aluminum oxide + heavy metals, dinitrogen tetraoxide, inhbitors, metals (e.g., magnesium, aluminum, potassium, potassium-sodium alloy), sodium hydroxide, N2O4, oxygen. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. Used as a cleaning solvent, as a chemical intermediate to produce vinylidene chloride, and as a propellant in aerosol cans.

Potential Exposure

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is used as a cleaning solvent, chemical intermediate for vinylidene chloride. In liquid form it is used as a degreaser and for cold cleaning, dip-cleaning; and bucket cleaning of metals. Other industrial applications of 1,1,1-trichlroethane’s solvent properties include its use as a dry-cleaning agent; a vapor degreasing agent; and a propellant. In recent years, 1,1,1-trichloroethane has found wide use as a substitute for carbon tetrachloride.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.


UN2831 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.

Purification Methods

Wash it successively with conc HCl (or conc H2SO4), aqueous 10% K2CO3 (Na2CO3), aqueous 10% NaCl, dry it with CaCl2 or Na2SO4, and fractionally distil it. It can contain up to 3% dioxane as preservative. This is removed by washing successively with 10% aqueous HCl, 10% aqueous NaHCO3 and 10% aqueous NaCl, and distilling over CaCl2 before use. [Beilstein 1 IV 138.]


Not flammable under normal conditions. However, in close or closed spaces, it may form a dangerously explosive atmosphere. See also fireextinguishing section. Strong caustics; strong oxidizers; chemically active metals, such as aluminum, magnesium powder; sodium, potassium. Reacts slowly with water forming hydrochloric acid. Upon contact with hot metal or exposure to UV radiation, it will decompose to form hydrochloric acid, phosgene and dichloroacetylene. Forms shocksensitive mixtures with potassium or its alloys. Attacks natural rubber.

Waste Disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. As an alternative to disposal, trichloroethane may be recovered from waste gases and liquids from various processes and recycled.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

1,1,1-Trichloroethane Suppliers

Global( 139)Suppliers
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1,1,1-Trichloroethane Spectrum

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