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Chemical Properties Uses Preparation Reactions Toxicity
Chemical Name:
Calotab;Hg2-Cl2;CALOMEL;Calogreen;mercurous;chloruremercureux;Mercury(Ⅰ)chloride;Chlorure mercureux;mercurysubchloride;MERCUROUS CHLORIDE
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:


Melting point:
400 °C (subl.)(lit.)
Boiling point:
storage temp. 
Poison room
Specific Gravity
Water Solubility 
Soluble in (0.002g/L )water.
Moisture & Light Sensitive
Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)
pKsp: 17.88(25°C)
CAS DataBase Reference
10112-91-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Mercurous chloride(10112-91-1)
EPA Substance Registry System
Mercury chloride (Hg2Cl2)(10112-91-1)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn,N
Risk Statements  22-36/37/38-50/53
Safety Statements  13-24/25-46-60-61
RIDADR  UN 2811 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  OV8740000
HazardClass  6.1
PackingGroup  II
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled Sensitisation, respiratory Category 1 Danger P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
Precautionary statements:
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P342+P311 IF experiencing respiratory symptoms: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P405 Store locked up.

MERCUROUS CHLORIDE price More Price(6)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 230405 Mercury(I) chloride ACS reagent, ≥99.5% 10112-91-1 100g $128 2018-11-20 Buy
Alfa Aesar 087240 Mercury(I) chloride, 99.5% 10112-91-1 100g $59.6 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 036419 Mercury(I) chloride, ACS, 99.5% min 10112-91-1 100g $77.9 2018-11-16 Buy
Strem Chemicals 93-8018 Mercury(I) chloride, 99.5+% (ACS) 10112-91-1 100g $108 2018-11-13 Buy
Strem Chemicals 93-8018 Mercury(I) chloride, 99.5+% (ACS) 10112-91-1 500g $432 2018-11-13 Buy

MERCUROUS CHLORIDE Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

Mercury (I) chloride is a dense white powder and insoluble in water and may be light sensitive. It is incompatible with strong bases, carbonates, sulphides, cyanides, alkalis, sulphites, sulphates, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, iodine, and hydrogen bromide.


Mercury(I) chloride is used in calomel electrodes; in ceramic painting; as a fungicide; in pyrotechnics for producing dark green light; in agriculture for controlling root maggots; and as an antiseptic and antisyphilitic agent in medicine.


Mercury(I) chloride is prepared by passing a limited amount of chlorine gas over mercury in a heated silica retort. Excess chlorine should be avoided as it can oxidize mercury(I) chloride to mercury(II) chloride.
2Hg + Cl2 → Hg2Cl2
The product generally contains some mercury(II) chloride which is removed by treating the product mixture with water and filtering out the insoluble mercury(I) salt from the soluble mercury(II) salt.
The compound also can be made by heating mercury(II) chloride with mercury. The product Hg2Cl2 sublimes and is collected:
HgCl2 + Hg → Hg2Cl2
Mercury(I) chloride is obtained as a white precipitate by adding a cold acidic solution of sodium chloride or other soluble chloride to a solution of mercurous salt, such as mercury(I) nitrate:
[Hg2]2+ (aq) + 2Cl¯ (aq) → Hg2Cl2 (s)
The precipitation method, however, does not form high-purity product as it contains small amounts of reactant and product ions that stick to the Hg2Cl2 precipitate and are difficult to remove by washing with water.


Mercury(I) chloride oxidizes to mercury(II) chloride when heated with chlorine:
Hg2Cl2 + Cl2 → 2HgCl2
Mercury(I) chloride is a reducing agent and, therefore, its reaction with oxidizing substances can oxidize it to Hg(II) compounds.
When heated at elevated temperatures, it partially dissociates to mercury metal and mercury(II) chloride:
Hg2Cl2 → Hg + HgCl2
This disproportionation (or breakdown of a compound into two products containing the same element but in different oxidation states) also occurs to some degree when mercury(I) chloride is heated and sublimed in an open container. Reaction with ammonia in solution forms an unstable black adduct which slowly converts to mercury(II) amidochloride, NH2HgCl, releasing mercury:
Hg2Cl2 + 2NH3 → ClHg—HgNH2 + NH4Cl
ClHg—HgNH2 → NH2HgCl + Hg


Mercury(I) chloride is highly toxic by ingestion and other routes of exposure. The symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and kidney damage.

Chemical Properties

White, rhombic crystals or crystalline powder; odorless. Stable in air but darkens on exposure to light.decomposed by alkalies. Insoluble in water, ether, alcohol, and cold dilute acids.


Dark green Bengal lights; calomel paper, mixed with gold in painting on porcelain; for calomel electrodes; as fungicide; in agriculture to control root maggots on cabbage and onions.

General Description

Odorless white solid. Sinks in water.

Reactivity Profile

MERCUROUS CHLORIDE is incompatible with acetylene, ammonia, chlorine dioxide, azides, calcium (amalgam formation), sodium carbide, lithium, rubidium, copper .


Toxic dose is uncertain.

Health Hazard

Acute poisoning can result from inhaling dust concentrations of 1.2-8.5 mg/m 3 in air; symptoms include pain and tightness in chest, coughing, and difficulty in breathing. Compound is an irritant, cathartic, or purgat ive; rarely, ``calomel sickness,'' a benign reaction with fever and rash, appears after about 1 week; seldom causes systemic poisoning but may be fatal if retained to 30-40 mg/kg. Contact with eyes causes mild irritation.

MERCUROUS CHLORIDE Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


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