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Acrylamide

description Chemical Properties Synthesis Polymerization Uses Toxicity Production methods
Acrylamide
Acrylamide structure
CAS No.
79-06-1
Chemical Name:
Acrylamide
Synonyms
aam;optimum;NSC 7785;acrylagel;Acrylamid;Akrylamid;ACRYLAMIDE;CH2CHCONH2;vinylamide;PROPENAMIDE
CBNumber:
CB4690458
Molecular Formula:
C3H5NO
Formula Weight:
71.08
MOL File:
79-06-1.mol

Acrylamide Properties

Melting point:
82-86 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
125 °C25 mm Hg(lit.)
Density 
1,322 g/cm3
vapor density 
2.45 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
0.03 mm Hg ( 40 °C)
refractive index 
1.460
Flash point:
138 °C
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
H2O: 50 mg/mL at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form 
powder
color 
White
PH
5.0-7.0 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Odor
Odorless solid
Water Solubility 
SOLUBLE, 216 g/100 mL
Sensitive 
Light Sensitive
Merck 
14,129
BRN 
605349
Stability:
Unstable. Do not heat above 50C. Explosive. Incompatible with acids, bases, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, iron and iron salts, copper, aluminium, brass, free radical initiators. Air sensitive. Hygroscopic.
InChIKey
HRPVXLWXLXDGHG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
79-06-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Acrylamide(79-06-1)
EPA Substance Registry System
2-Propenamide(79-06-1)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  T
Risk Statements  45-46-20/21-25-36/38-43-48/23/24/25-62-48/20/21/22-22-24/25
Safety Statements  53-45-24-36/37/39-26-36/37
RIDADR  UN 3426 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  AS3325000
8-10
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  6.1
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29241900
Hazardous Substances Data 79-06-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 i.p. in mice: 170 mg/kg (Peterson, Sheth)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H301 Toxic if swalloed Acute toxicity,oral Category 3 Danger P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H312 Harmful in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 4 Warning P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H313 May be harmful in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 5 P312
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 Harmful if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 4 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H333 May be harmful if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 5 P304+P312
H340 May cause genetic defects Germ cell mutagenicity Category 1A, 1B Danger
H350 May cause cancer Carcinogenicity Category 1A, 1B Danger
H360 May damage fertility or the unborn child Reproductive toxicity Category 1A, 1B Danger
H361 Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child Reproductive toxicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H402 Harmful to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 3
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P307+P311 IF exposed: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.
P405 Store locked up.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
2
2 2
HEALTH   2 Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury (e.g. diethyl ether, ammonium phosphate, iodine)
FIRE  2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur and multiple finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point between 37.8 and 93.3 °C (100 and 200 °F). (e.g. diesel fuel, sulfur)
REACT   2 Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water (e.g. white phosphorus, potassium, sodium)
SPEC. HAZ. 

(NFPA, 2010)

Acrylamide price More Price(40)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 01696 Acrylamide for Northern and Southern blotting, powder blend 79-06-1 100g $89.6 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 01696 Acrylamide for Northern and Southern blotting, powder blend 79-06-1 1kg $492 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical A0139 Acrylamide Monomer >98.0%(GC)(T) 79-06-1 25g $14 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical A0139 Acrylamide Monomer >98.0%(GC)(T) 79-06-1 500g $33 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar 036545 Acrylamide, 99.9% 79-06-1 25g $32.9 2018-11-16 Buy

Acrylamide Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

description

Acrylamide is a white crystalline chemical substance and is a raw material for production of polyacrylamide. Solid acrylamide (abbreviated AM) is usually colorless and transparent flaky crystals with pure product being white crystalline solid which is soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, propanol, and slightly soluble in ethyl acetate, chloroform, and benzene. It can be hydrolyzed to acrylic acid in acidic or alkaline environment.
Acrylamide is a large class of the parent compound of monomers including methacrylamide, the AMPS (anionic monomer, 2-Acraylamide-2-Methyl Propane Sulfonic Acid), the DMC (cationic monomer, methyl-acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) and N-substituted acrylamide compound.
Occupational exposure is mainly seen in acrylamide production and the synthesis of resins, adhesives, etc. It is also possible for contract in underground construction, upon soil improvement, painting, paper industry and garment processing.
At daily life, people can touch it in smoking, drinking and eating the starchy foods processed at high temperature.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai xiongfeng.

Chemical Properties

It is odorless and colorless crystal. It is soluble in water, ethanol, acetone, ether, and methyl chloroform, and slightly soluble in toluene but insoluble in benzene.

Synthesis

At the end of 19th century, people had first made acrylamide using propylene chloride and ammonia.
In 1954, American Cyanamid Company uses sulfuric acid hydrolysis of acrylonitrile for industrial production.
In 1972, Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Inc. had first established the skeleton copper (see the metal catalyst) catalyzed acrylamide synthesis via acrylonitrile hydration. Then other countries have developed different types of catalyst and applied this technology for industrial production.
In 1980s, Japanese Nitto Chemical Industry Company has achieved that using biological catalyst for industrial production of acrylamide from acrylonitrile.
Sulfuric acid hydration way
Acrylonitrile and water is hydrolyzed into acrylamide sulfate in the presence of sulfuric acid and then treated neutralized liquid ammonia to give ammonium sulfate and acrylamide:
CH2 = CHCN + H2O + H2SO4 → CH2 = CHCONH2 • H2SO4 CH2 = CHCONH2 • H2SO4 + 2NH3→ CH2 = CHCONH2 + (NH4) 2SO4
The disadvantage of this method is by-producing a large number of low-value, low fertilizing efficacy-ammonium sulfate and causing serious sulfuric acid corrosion and pollution.
Catalytic hydration way
Acrylonitrile is reacted with water by the copper-based catalyst to have liquid phase hydration reaction at 70~120 °C at 0.4MPa pressure.
CH2 = CH-CN + H2O → CH2 = CHCONH2; Filter the catalyst after reaction catalyst; recycle the unreacted acrylonitrile; acrylamide solution was concentrated and cooled to give crystals. This is a simple method with the yield up to 98%.

Polymerization

For polymerization of acrylamide, people generally applies chemical catalytic systems or photocatalytic systems.
(1) Chemical catalyst system: chemical catalytic polymerization of acrylamide is done in the systems containing the trigger and accelerator. Trigger reagents participating the reaction include ammonium persulfate (or potassium persulfate) and hydrogen peroxide while the accelerator includes dimethylamine propionitrile and so on. Because the polymerization of acrylamide can performed under both acidic or alkaline conditions, so the choice of trigger and accelerator should be changed with pH.
When the aqueous solution of acrylamide (Arc), cross-linking agent (Bis) and tetramethylethylenediamine (tetramethyl ethylene diamine, TEMED) is added into ammonium persulfate (ammoniumpersulfate, AP), AP [(NH4) 2S20s] immediately generate radical (S: OU-2S07), after the reaction between Arc and the free radicals, then it becomes "activate", activated Arc connects with each other to form a long chain poly. The solution containing this polymer chain, although is sticky but can’t form a gel and can form into a gel only when Bis is also presented. In the AP-TEMED catalyzed system, the initiating polymerization rate between Arc and Bis is positively proportional to the square root of the concentration of AP and can occur rapidly under alkaline conditions. For example, the complete polymerization of 7% Arc, only needs 0.5 h upon pH8.8; however, needs 1.5 h upon pH4.3. In addition, temperature, oxygen molecules and other impurities will also affect the rate of polymerization. Usually faster polymerization occurs at room temperature than at 0 °C; Solution subjecting to pre-pumping also has faster polymerization rate than that without pre-puming.
(2) Photocatalytic System: This catalysis of this system is vitamin B2. Photo-polymerization process is catalyzed at light excitation. Vitamin B: in the presence of oxygen and ultraviolet light, can produce products containing free radicals whose function is similar as AP agent described above. The mixture is usually placed next to a fluorescent lamp where the reaction can take place. When using Vitamin B2 for catalyzing, TEMED is not demaned, but adding it can accelerate the rate of polymerization. Gel formed by photo-polymerization is milky white like with poor transparency. The advantage of using this catalyst is that it needs a very small amount (1ml/100mi) without any adverse effect on the analysis of samples; polymerization time can be extended or shortened by chaning the light intensity and time.
The apertube of chemical polymerization is smaller thant that of photo-polymerization. The reproducibility and transparency is also better for the former one than the latter one. However, the trigger of the chemical polymerization, AP, is a strong oxidizing agent, tend to cause loss of activity of certain protein molecules if remaining in the gel or cause distortion on the electrophoresis pattern.

Uses

1. It can be used as a monomer of polyacrylamide. Its polymer or copolymer is used as chemical grouting materials, soil conditioners, flocculants, adhesives and coatings.
2. Polyacrylamide, when used as a kind of additive, can improve the oil recycling efficiency. When used as flocculants, it can be used for sewage treatment. It can also be used as a paper strength agent.
3. Acrylamide is the most important products in acrylamide and methacrylamide-based products. Since its application in industry in 1954, the demand gradually increase. It is mainly used for the preparation of water soluble polymers which can be used as additives to improve oil recovery; as a flocculant, thickening agents, and paper additives. A small amount of acrylamide is introduce the hydrophilic center into the lipophilic polymer to improve the viscosity, increase the softening point and improve anti-solvents ability of resin, and can aso introduce a center for the coloring property of dye. Acrylamide is also often used as a component of the photopolymer. For the vinyl polymer, its crosslinking reaction can take advantage of this kind of reactive amide groups. Acrylamide can co-polymerizze with certain monomers such as vinyl acetate, styrene, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, and acrylonitrile to obtain a polymer with a variety of applications.
The main application areas: (1) used for the oilfield; the materials can be used in oilfield injection of wells for adjustment of the injection profile. Mix this product with initiator, and deaerator and inject into the high permeability layer part of water wells. This will lead the formation of high-viscosity polymer unearth of the stratum. This can plug the large pore, increase the swept volume of oil, and enhance the oil recovery. In addition, the product polymer or copolymer can be used for tertiary oil recovery, fracturing, water shutoff, drilling mixing process and chemical grouting. (2) It can be used as flocculants. Its partially hydrolyzed product and its graft copolymer of methyl cellulose can be used in wastewater treatment and sewage treatment. (3) Soil conditioner; using the hydrolyzed product as soil amendments can aggregate soil and can improve air circulation, water permeability and water retention. (4) Modification of fiber and resin processing; using acrylamide for carbamylation or graft polymerization can improve the resin arrangement of a variety of fiber containing synthetic fiber, as well as for warp and printing paste in order to improve the basic physical properties of fabrics as well as preventing wrinkle, shrink and keeping a good hand feeling. (5) It can be used as paper enhancer; copolymer of acrylamide and acrylic acid or partial hydrolysis products of polyacrylamide can be used as paper strength reinforcing agent for either replacing or combining with starch, and water-soluble amino resin. (6) it can be used as an adhesive agent including glass fiber adhesive agent with the combination of phenolic resin and polyacrylamide solution, as well as pressure sensitive adhesive combined with synthetic rubber.
4. It is the raw material for producing polyacrylamide and related products.
5. It can be used as the monomer of polyacrylamide. Its polymer or copolymer can be used as chemical grouting materials, soil conditioners, flocculants, adhesives and coatings. Polyacrylamide, as an additive, can improve oil recovery. As a kind of flocculants, it can be used for waste water treatment as well as paper strength enhancer can. It is the raw material for producing polyacrylamide and related products. It can also used for determining the relative molecular weight of acid.

Toxicity

Acrylamide is moderately toxic and have a stimulating effect on eyes and skin. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory and digestive tract, and have in vivo accumulation effect which mainly affects the nervous system with acute poisoning being very rare.
Frequently close contact can cause sub-acute onset such as drowsiness and cerebellar dysfunction, manifested as eye level tremors, slurred speech, and unstable finger-nose, knee-shin test, rotation movement disorders, unsteady gait and so on. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy disease may occur after 2 weeks manifested as numbness, prickly, weakness in lower limb. Tuning fork vibration sense and achilles tendon reflexes have a value of early diagnosis. EMG examination revealed: distal sensory potentials significantly decreased with neurogenic damage; it may be associated with much spontaneous denervation potentials.
Long-term low-level exposure can cause chronic poisoning manifested as headache, dizziness fatigue, drowsiness, prickly fingers, and numbness, often accompanied by palm redness, scaling, palms and foot sweating, and with further development into limb weakness, muscle paining, and cerebellar dysfunction, staggering gait, and being prone to forward dumping. Neurological examination can identify the reduction or loss of deep reflex, reduction of tuning fork vibration sense and position sense, and positive symptoms in Romberg test and so on. EMG examination showed similar behavior as sub-acute toxicity while EEG abnormalities can be mild.
The most interesting issue about chronic toxicity of acrylamide is its carcinogenicity. Study have confirmed that acrylamide can be absorbed into the body through a variety of ways, including through the digestive tract giving the fastest absorption rate; it is widely distributed in body tissues including breast milk, so there may exist the possibility of transmission between mother and child. After it enters into the body, it is converted into glycidamide through the action of cytochrome oxidase. Glycidamide is more easily to bind with the guanine on DNA to form adducts, causing the genetic damage and mutations.
Animal studies have found that acrylamide can cause multiple organ tumors in rats or mice, such as breast, thyroid, testes, adrenal glands, central nervous system, oral cavity, uterus, and pituitary tumors. But there is no sufficient epidemiological evidence that the dietary intake of the product has significant correlation with some human tumors. International Cancer Research (IARC) has evaluated the carcinogenicity of acrylamide, it was listed as a category 2 carcinogen (2A), meaning that it may be carcinogenic to human beings. The main basis is that it can be converted to carcinogenic active metabolite epoxypropionamide inside animals and humans.

Production methods

1. Acrylonitrile sulfate hydration; Acrylonitrile and water is hydrolyzed into acrylamide sulfate in the presence of sulfuric acid and then treated neutralized liquid ammonia to give ammonium sulfate and acrylamide: The reaction products further undergoes filtering and separation. Crystallize the filtrate, dry to obtain the final product. The disadvantage of this method is by-producing a large number of low-value, low fertilizing efficacy-ammonium sulfate and causing serious sulfuric acid corrosion and pollution. This method can produce by-products of 2280 kg ammonium sulfate in per tons of acrylonitrile.Material consumption amount: Acrylonitrile (100%) 980kg/t, sulfuric acid (100%) 200kg/t, ammonia (100%) 700kg/t.
2. Direct hydration of acrylonitrile: acrylonitrile is directly hydrated by water with copper being the catalyst at 85-125 °C and 0.3-0.4MPa pressure. The yielding aqueous solution of acrylamide (containing only small amounts of by-products) can be directly sold as a finished product. This method avoids acrylamide dust pollution and is advantageous for labor protection for using aqueous solution. Reference Product Specifications: appearance: white flakes or powder. With first-grade product containing content ≥95%; Secondary-grade content ≥90%; grade III content ≥85%.
3. Enzyme catalysis; at room temperature transfer the acrylonitrile solution into the fixed-bed reactor containing bacteria catalyst; after the reaction, 100% of acrylonitrile is converted into acrylamide. After isolation and even without the necessity of refining and concentration, we can get the acrylamide industrial products.
4. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydration method: mixture containing sulfate, phenothiazine (polymerization inhibitor), and water is added to the reactor; stir slowly with dropping acrylonitrile After the addition is completed, raise the temperature to 95~100 °C, keep the temperature for 50 min. Cool to 20~25 °C, dilute with an appropriate amount of water, neutralize with sodium carbonate, filtrate to obtain aqueous acrylic acid solution. Further cool and crystallize, separate, dry to obtain the completed products.
5. Catalytic hydration method; acrylonitrile and water undergoes liquid phase hydration in the presence of copper-based catalyst; It is generally used for continuous production with the reaction temperature being 85~120 °C, reaction pressure being 0.29~0.39 MPa, feed concentration of 6.5%, airspeed being 5 L/ h, the conversion rate being 85%, and selectivity being about 95% and the concentration of acrylamide in the reaction being 7% to 8%. Aqueous solution obtained by this method may be directly used as the product for sale.

Chemical Properties

White crystals

Chemical Properties

Acrylamide, in monomeric form, is an odorless, flake-like crystals. May be dissolved in a flammable liquid

Uses

Used as chemical intermediate in production of polyacrylamides, for use in protein electrophoresis (PAGE), synthesis of dyes and copolymers for contact lenses. It is reasonably anticipated to be a hum an carcinogen.

Definition

ChEBI: A member of the class of acrylamides that results from the formal condensation of acrylic acid with ammonia.

Definition

acrylamide: An inert gel (polyacrylamide)employed as a medium inelectrophoresis. It is used particularlyin the separation of macromolecules,such as nucleic acids and proteins.

General Description

A solution of a colorless crystalline solid. Flash point depends on the solvent but below 141°F. Less dense than water. Vapors heavier than air. Toxic oxides of nitrogen produced during combustion. Used for sewage and waste treatment, to make dyes and adhesives.

Air & Water Reactions

Acrylamide is very soluble in water. The solvent is not necessarily water soluble.

Reactivity Profile

ACRYLAMIDE SOLUTION reacts with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Flammable gases are formed with strong reducing agents. Combustion generates mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Spontaneous, violent polymerization occurs at the melting point (86°C of the undissolved solid [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 428].

Health Hazard

Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.

Health Hazard

The acute toxicity of acrylamide is moderate by ingestion or skin contact. Skin exposure leads to redness and peeling of the skin of the palms. Aqueous acrylamide solutions cause eye irritation; exposure to a 50% solution of acrylamide caused slight corneal injury and slight conjunctival irritation, which healed in 8 days. The chronic toxicity of acrylamide is high. Repeated exposure to ~2 mg/kg per day may result in neurotoxic effects, including unsteadiness, muscle weakness, and numbness in the feet (leading to paralysis of the legs), numbness in the hands, slurred speech, vertigo, and fatigue. Exposure to slightly higher repeated doses in animal studies has induced multisite cancers and reproductive effects, including abortion, reduced fertility, and mutagenicity. Acrylamide is listed in IARC Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen") and is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.

Fire Hazard

The volatility of acrylamide is low (0.03 mmHg at 40 °C), and it does not pose a significant flammability hazard.

Fire Hazard

Flash Point: Not flammable; Flammable Limits in Air (%): Not flammable; Fire Extinguishing Agents: Not pertinent; Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used: Not pertinent; Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic oxides of nitrogen may form in fire; Behavior in Fire: Sealed containers may burst as a result of polymerization; Ignition Temperature: Not pertinent; Electrical Hazard: Not pertinent; Burning Rate: Not pertinent.

Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: Data not available; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: May occur at temperature above 50°C (120°F); Inhibitor of Polymerization: Oxygen (air) plus 50 ppm of copper as copper sulfate.

Contact allergens

Acrylamide is used in the plastic polymers industry for water treatments and soil stabilization and to prepare polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis. This neurotoxic, carcinogenic, and genotoxic substance is known to have caused contact dermatitis in industrial and laboratory workers

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Poison by ingestion, skin contact, and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. A skin and eye irritantIntoxication from it has caused a peripheral neuropathy, erythema, and peeling palms. In industry, intoxication is mainly via dermal route, next via inhalation, and last via ingestion. Time of onset varied from 1-24 months to 8 years. Symptoms were, via dermal route, a numbness, tingling, and touch tenderness. In a couple of weeks, coldness of extremities; later, excessive sweating, bluish-red and peeling palms, marked fatigue and limb weakness. It is dangerous because it can be absorbed through the unbroken skin. From animal experiments it seems to be a central nervous system toxin. Adult rats fed an average of 30 mg/kg for 14 days were all partially paralyzed and had reduced their food consumption by 50 percent. Polymerizes violently at its melting point. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid fumes and NOX,.

Potential Exposure

Added to water during sewage/wastewater treatment. Used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, rubber, synthetic textiles; as a dye, pigment. A major application for monomeric acrylamide is in the production of polymers as polyacrylamides. Polyacrylamides are used for soil stabilization, gel chromatography, electrophoresis, papermaking strengtheners, clarifications, and treatment of potable water and foods.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately. If thischemical contacts the skin, flush with water immediately. If a person breathes in large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once and perform artificial respiration. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.

storage

In particular, this substance should be handled only when wearing appropriate impermeable gloves to prevent skin contact, and all operations that have the potential of producing acrylamide dusts or aerosols of solutions should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation.

Shipping

UN2074 Acrylamide, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials

Purification Methods

Crystallise acrylamide from acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol or *benzene/chloroform mixture, then vacuum dry and store it in the dark under vacuum. Recrystallise it from CHCl3 by dissolving 200g in 1L, heating to boiling and filtering without suction in a warmed funnel through Whatman 541 filter paper; allowing to cool to room temperature and keeping at -15o overnight. The crystals are collected with suction in a cooled funnel and washed with 300mL of cold MeOH. The crystals are air-dried in a warm oven. [Dawson et al. Data for Biochemical Research, Oxford Press 1986 p. 449, Beilstein 2 IV 1471.] CAUTION: Acrylamide is extremely TOXIC (neurotoxic), and precautions must be taken to avoid skin contact or inhalation. Use gloves and handle in a well-ventilated fume cupboard.

Flammability and Explosibility

The volatility of acrylamide is low (0.03 mmHg at 40 °C), and it does not pose a significant flammability hazard.

Incompatibilities

Acrylamide may decompose with heat and polymerize at temperatures above 84 C, or exposure to light, releasing ammonia gas. Reacts violently with strong oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Reacts with reducing agents; peroxides, acids, bases, and vinyl polymerization initiators. Fine particles of dust form explosive mixture with air.

Waste Disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Acrylamide residue and sorbent material may be packaged in epoxy-lined drums and taken to an EPAapproved disposal site. Incineration with provisions for scrubbing of nitrogen oxides from flue gases. Deep well injection.

Acrylamide Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Acrylamide Suppliers

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Acrylamide Spectrum


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