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General Description
Chemical Name:
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Formaldehyde Properties

Melting point:
Boiling point:
97°C(37% solution),-19.5°C(pure)
1.09 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
1.03 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.377
Flash point:
133 °F
storage temp. 
water: soluble
13.27(at 25℃)
APHA: ≤10
Water Solubility 
CAS DataBase Reference
50-00-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
EPA Substance Registry System
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  T
Risk Statements  23/24/25-34-40-43-39/23/24/25-68-45-68/20/21/22
Safety Statements  36/37-51-45-36/37/39-26-53
RIDADR  UN 1198 3/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  LP8925000
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  III
Hazardous Substances Data 50-00-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H227 Combustible liquid Flammable liquids Category 4 Warning P210, P280, P370+P378, P403+P235,P501
H301 Toxic if swalloed Acute toxicity,oral Category 3 Danger P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H303 May be harmfulif swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 5 P312
H311 Toxic in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 3 Danger P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H331 Toxic if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 3 Danger P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H333 May be harmful if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 5 P304+P312
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H341 Suspected of causing genetic defects Germ cell mutagenicity Category 2 Warning P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H350 May cause cancer Carcinogenicity Category 1A, 1B Danger
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H371 May cause damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

Formaldehyde price More Price(43)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 15512 Formaldehyde solution meets analytical specification of USP, ≥34.5 wt. % 50-00-0 6x1l-r $207 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 15512 Formaldehyde solution meets analytical specification of USP, ≥34.5 wt. % 50-00-0 4x2.5l-r $268 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar 023277 Formaldehyde, Quant? Test Strips 1kit $175 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 033314 Formaldehyde, 37% in aq. soln., ACS, 36.5-38.0%, stab. with 10-15% methanol 50-00-0 *4x1L $141 2018-11-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 252549 Formaldehyde solution ACS reagent, 37 wt. % in H2O, contains 10-15% Methanol as stabilizer (to prevent polymerization) 50-00-0 4l $146 2018-11-13 Buy

Formaldehyde Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

General Description

Formaldehyde, also called formic aldehyde or methyl aldehyde, has extensive application. For instance, it is used as a tissue preservative or organic chemical reagent. Thus, formaldehyde is very common to the chemical industry. In fact, formaldehyde is an important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. It is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes. It is present in substantial concentrations both indoors and outdoors. Formaldehyde is well known as a preservative in medical laboratories, as an embalming fluid, and as a steriliser. Its primary use is in the production of resins and as a chemical intermediate. Urea–formaldehyde (uf) and phenol–formaldehyde (pf) resins are used in foam insulations, as adhesives in the production of particle board and plywood, and in the treating of textiles. Sources of formaldehyde in the home include building materials, smoking, household products, and the use of unvented, fuel-burning appliances, like gas stoves or kerosene space heaters. Formaldehyde, by itself or in combination with other chemicals, serves a number of purposes in manufactured products.
Formaldehyde itself is a colourless gas, but it is more commonly purchased and used in aqueous solution (called formalin solution), with a maximum concentration of 40%. Formalin solutions often contain some amount of methanol as well. Both formaldehyde gas and solutions have a characteristic pungent, unpleasant odour.

Chemical Properties

Formaldehyde,HeHO, also known as methanol,formol,and methylene oxide,is a colorless gas at room temperature, In solution with water,it is a colorless poisonous liquid with a pungent odor. Formaldehyde is used in the manufacture of plastics and resins by reaction with phenols,urea, and melamine. It is used as a preservative,a disinfectant, and as a chemical intermediate,

Chemical Properties

Formaldehyde is an important chemical widely used by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. It is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes. It is present in substantial concentrations both indoors and outdoors. Formaldehyde is well known as a preservative in medical laboratories, as an embalming fl uid, and as a sterilizer. Its primary use is in the production of resins and as a chemical intermediate. Urea formaldehyde (uf) and phenol formaldehyde (pf) resins are used in foam insulations, as adhesives in the production of particle board and plywood, and in the treating of textiles. Sources of formaldehyde in the home include building materials, smoking, household products, and the use of unvented, fuel-burning appliances, like gas stoves or kerosene space heaters. Formaldehyde, by itself or in combination with other chemicals, serves a number of purposes in manufactured products. It has been reported that the use and production of formaldehyde in 1998 was about 11.3 billion pounds and the international production crossed over 46 billion pounds in 2004.

Chemical Properties

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent gas or aqueous solution. The Odor Threshold is 0.8 ppm. Also,formalin is an aqueous solution that is 37% formaldehyde by weight; inhibited solutions (added to prevent polymeri zation) usually contain 6 12% methyl alcohol.


Urea and melamine resins, polyacetal resins, phenolic resins, ethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, hexamethylenetetramine, fertilizer, disinfectant, biocide, embalming fluids, preservative, reducing agent as in recovery of gold and silver, corrosion inhibito


ChEBI: The simplest aldehyde.

Air & Water Reactions

The solution gives up formaldehyde vapors readily. These vapors are flammable over a wide vapor-air concentration range. Water soluble.

Reactivity Profile

FORMALDEHYDE, SOLUTION, reacts violently with strong oxidizing agents (hydrogen peroxide, performic acid, perchloric acid in the presence of aniline, potassium permanganate, nitromethane). Reacts with bases (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia), and with nitrogen dioxide (explosive reaction around 180°C). Reacts with hydrochloric acid to form highly toxic bis(chloromethyl) ether. Polymerization reaction with phenol may develop sudden destructive pressure [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p.168].


Moderate fire risk. Explosive limits in air 7– 73%. Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant, a carcinogen. (Solution) Avoid breathing vapor and avoid skin contact. Confirmed carcinogen.

Health Hazard

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas. Exposures to low levels of formaldehyde cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, skin, nausea, and diffi culty in breathing. Short-term exposure to formaldehyde can be fatal. Long-term exposure to low levels of formaldehyde may cause respiratory diffi culty, eczema, and sensitization. Occupational workers with asthma have been found to be more sensitive to the effects of inhaled formaldehyde; in high concentrations, formaldehyde triggers attacks in people with asthma. Also, intake/drinking large amounts of formaldehyde causes severe pain, vomiting, and coma leading to death. Acute and chronic health effects of formaldehyde vary depending on the individual. The typical threshold for development of acute symptoms due to inhaled formaldehyde is 800 ppb; however, sensitive individuals have reported symptoms at formaldehyde levels around 100 ppb.

Health Hazard

Formaldehyde is moderately toxic by skin contact and inhalation. Exposure to formaldehyde gas can cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, coughing, dry throat, tightening of the chest, headache, a sensation of pressure in the head, and palpitations of the heart. Exposure to 0.1 to 5 ppm causes irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; above 10 ppm severe lacrimation occurs, burning in the nose and throat is experienced, and breathing becomes difficult. Acute exposure to concentrations above 25 ppm can cause serious injury, including fatal pulmonary edema. Formaldehyde has low acute toxicity via the oral route. Ingestion can cause irritation of the mouth, throat, and stomach, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, and coma. An oral dose of 30 to 100 mL of 37% formalin can be fatal in humans. Formalin solutions can cause severe eye burns and loss of vision. Eye contact may lead to delayed effects that are not appreciably eased by eye washing.Formaldehyde is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (Standard 1910.1048) and is listed in IARC Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen"). This substance is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Prolonged or repeated exposure to formaldehyde can cause dermatitis and sensitization of the skin and respiratory tract. Following skin contact, a symptom free period may occur in sensitized individuals. Subsequent exposures can then lead to itching, redness, and the formation of blisters

Health Hazard

The probable oral lethal dose for humans is 0.5-5 g/kg, or between 1 ounce and 1 pint for a 150 pound person. Acute -- below 1 ppm, odor perceptible to most. 2-3 ppm, mild tingling of eyes. 4-5 ppm, increased discomfort, mild lacrimation. 10 ppm, profuse lacrimation; can be withstood only for few minutes. 10-20 ppm, breathing difficult, cough, severe burning of nose and throat. 50-100 ppm, acute irritation of respiratory tract, very serious injury likely. Skin -- primary irritation from strong solutions, gas. Delayed -- sensitization dermatitis. Suspected carcinogen. Effects in women include menstrual disorders and secondary sterility. Solutions splashed in eyes have caused injuries ranging from severe, permanent corneal opacification and loss of vision to minor discomfort. In people sensitized to formaldehyde, late asthmatic reactions may be provoked by brief exposures at approximately 3 ppm.

Fire Hazard

Toxic vapors such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are generated during combustion. Explosion hazard: when aqueous formaldehyde solutions are heated above their flash points, a potential for explosion hazard exists. High formaldehyde concentration or methanol content lowers flash point. Reacts with nitrogen oxides at about 180; the reaction becomes explosive. Also reacts violently with perchloric acid-aniline, performic acid, nitromethane, magnesium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. When heated, irritant formaldehyde gas evolved from solution. The main products of decomposition are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Metals such as platinum, copper, chromia, and alumina also catalyze the formation of methanol, methylformate, formic acid, carbon dioxide, and methane. Reacts with peroxide, nitrogen oxide, and performic acid causing explosions. Can react with hydrogen chloride or other inorganic chlorides to form bis-chloromethylether (BCME), a known carcinogen. Very reactive, combines readily with many substances, 40% solution is powerful reducing agent. Incompatible with amines, azo compounds, dithiocarbamates, alkali and alkaline earth metals, nitrides, nitro compounds, unsaturated aliphatics and sulfides, organic peroxides, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. Aqueous solutions are unstable. Commercial formaldehyde-alcohol solutions are stable. Gas is stable in absence of water. Avoid oxidizing and alkaline materials. Hazardous polymerization may occur. Compound will polymerize with active organic materials such as phenol. Will polymerize violently in the presence of caustics and nitrides; (amines) exothermic reaction, (Azo compound) exothermic reaction giving off nitrogen gas, (caustics) heat generation and violent polymerization, (dithiocarbamates) formation of flammable gases and toxic fumes, formation of carbon disulfide may result, (alkali and alkaline earth metals) heat generation and formation of a flammable hydrogen gas.

Fire Hazard

Formaldehyde gas is extremely flammable; formalin solution is a combustible liquid (NFPA rating = 2 for 37% formaldehyde (15% methanol), NFPA rating = 4 for 37% formaldehyde (methanol free)). Toxic vapors may be given off in a fire. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight formaldehyde fires.

Agricultural Uses

Microbiocide, Fungicide, Bactericide; Soil sterilent: Registered for use in the U.S. Not approved for use in EU countries. Formaldehyde has found wide industrial usage as a fungicide, germicide and in disinfectants. It is used most often in an aqueous solution stabilized with methanol (formalin). It is also a pesticide intermediate.

Trade name


Contact allergens

Sources and uses of formaldehyde are numerous. Exposed people are mainly health workers, cleaners, painters, met alworkers, but also photographers (color developers) and carbonless copy paper users. Formaldehyde can induce contact urticaria. Formaldehyde may be the cause of sen sitization to formaldehyde releasers: benzylhemiformal, bromonitrodioxane, bromonitropropanediol (?), chloroal lylhexaminium chloride or Quaternium-15, diazolidinylu rea, dimethylol urea, dimethyloldimethylhydantoin or DMDM hydantoin, hexamethylenetetramine or methe namine, imidazolidinylurea, monomethyloldimethylhy dantoin or MDM hydantoin, N-methylolchloracetamide, paraformaldehyde and trihydroxyethylhexahydrotriazine or Grotan BK. Formaldehyde is used for the synthesis of many resins. Some of them, such as formaldehyde-urea and melamine formaldehyde resins, can be used in textiles and second arily release free formaldehyde (see Chap. 40). Other resins, such as p-tert-butylphenol formalde hyde resin or tosylamine formaldehyde resin, do not release formaldehyde.

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, tumorigenic, and teratogenic data. Human poison by ingestion. Experimental poison by ingestion, skin contact, inhalation, intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects by inhalation: lachqmation, olfactory changes, aggression, and pulmonary changes. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A human skin and eye irritant. If swallowed it causes violent vomiting and darrhea that can lead to collapse. Frequent or prolonged exposure can cause hypersensitivity leading to contact dermatitis, possibly of an eczematoid nature. An air concentration of 20 ppm is quickly irritating to eyes. A common air contaminant. Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizers. A moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame. The gas is a more dangerous fire hazard than the vapor. Should formaldehyde be involved in a fire, irritating gaseous formaldehyde may be evolved. When aqueous formaldehyde solutions are heated above their flash points, a potential for an explosion hazard exists. High formaldehyde concentration or methanol content lowers the flash point. Reacts with sodum hydroxide to yield formic acid and hydrogen. Reacts with NOx at about 180'; the reaction becomes explosive. Also reacts violently with perchloric acid + anhe, performic acid, nitromethane, magnesium carbonate, H2O2. Moderately dangerous because of irritating vapor that may exist in toxic concentrations locally if storage tank is ruptured. To fight fire, stop flow of gas (for pure form); alcohol foam for 37% methanol-free form. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes. See also ALDEHYDES.

Potential Exposure

Formaldehyde has found wide indus trial usage as a fungicide, germicide; and in disinfectants and embalming fluids. It is also used in the manufacture of artificial silk and textiles, latex, phenol, urea, thiourea and melamine resins; dyes, and inks; cellulose esters and other organic molecules; mirrors, and explosives. It is also used in the paper, photographic, and furniture industries. It is an intermediate in drug manufacture and is a pesticide intermediate.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 30 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, includ ing resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medi cal attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a qualified med ical professional might consider administering a corticoste roid spray. Cigarette smoking may exacerbate pulmonary injury and should be discouraged for at least 72 hours following exposure. If symptoms develop or overexposure is suspected, chest X-ray should be considered.


UN1198 Formaldehyde solutions, flammable, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid, 8-Corrosive material. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner. UN2209 Formaldehyde solutions, with not<25% formal dehyde, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN3077 For solids containing varying amounts of formal dehyde : UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

It commonly contains added MeOH. Add KOH solution (1 mole KOH: 100 moles HCHO) to ~37% by weight aqueous formaldehyde solution (formalin), or evaporate to dryness, to give paraformaldehyde polymer which, after washing with water, is dried in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5 or H2SO4. Formaldehyde is regenerated by heating the paraformaldehyde to 120o under vacuum, or by decomposing it with barium peroxide. The monomer, a colourless flammable gas, is passed through a glass-wool filter cooled to -48o in a CaCl2/ice mixture to remove particles of polymer, then dried by passage over P2O5 and either condensed in a bulb immersed in liquid nitrogen or absorbed in ice-cold conductivity water. The gas or aqueous solutions have pungent suffocating odours, are LACHRYMATORY and suspected carcinogens, handle carefully. Formalin is a disinfectant and a preservative of dead animal and plant tissues. [Beilstein 1 IV 3017.]


Pure formaldehyde may polymerize unless properly inhibited (usually with methanol). May form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with strong acids; amines, strong oxidizers; alkaline materials; nitrogen dioxide; performic acid; phenols, urea. Reaction with hydrochloric acid forms bis-chloromethyl ether, a carcino gen. Formalin is incompatible with strong oxidizers, alkalis, acids, phenols, urea, oxides, isocyanates, caustics, anhydrides.

Waste Disposal

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Incineration in solution of combus tible solvent. Consult with environmental regulatory agen cies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, trans portation, treatment, and waste disposal.

Formaldehyde Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Formaldehyde Suppliers

Global( 266)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-55531817 CHINA 22063 58
Aoxuan Biological Technology Co., Ltd.
- CHINA 147 55
Hebei Jiangkai Trading Co., Ltd
0086-17197824289/17197824028 CHINA 277 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20795 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733 CHINA 32764 55
+86 21 5161 9050/ 5187 7795
+86 21 5161 9052/ 5187 7796 CHINA 14297 60
Shanghai Macklin Biochemical Co.,Ltd. 15221275939
021-51821727 China 15835 55
Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD 021-20337333/400-620-6333
021-50323701 China 25127 65
Beijing Tianyukanghong Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. 010-57794770
010-60593781 China 333 55
Guangzhou Haoyu International Trade Co., Ltd. 18818407278 020-89850646
020-89850646 China 17 58

View Lastest Price from Formaldehyde manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2018-01-10 Formaldehyde skype : honestcooperation Whatsapp:008617197824289
US $3.00 / G 1G 99.5%min 500kg/month Hebei Jiangkai Trading Co., Ltd

Formaldehyde Spectrum

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