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Description Chemical Composition and Reactions Application Safety and Side Effects Dosing
(S)-(-)-LIMONENE structure
Chemical Name:
LIMONENER;L-LIMONENE;(-)-CARVENE;(-)-Limonene;beta-limonene;S-(-)-CARVENE;(-)-Dipentene;(4S)-limonene;(s)-cyclohexen;LIMONEN TECHN.
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

(S)-(-)-LIMONENE Properties

Melting point:
Boiling point:
175-177 °C(lit.)
-99.5 º (C=NEAT)
0.844 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
4.7 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
<3 mm Hg ( 14.4 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.471(lit.)
Flash point:
119 °F
storage temp. 
Flammables area
Clear colorless to pale yellow
optical activity
[α]20/D 94±4°, c = 10% in ethanol
explosive limit
Water Solubility 
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Flammable.
CAS DataBase Reference
5989-54-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-(5989-54-8)
EPA Substance Registry System
Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (4S)-(5989-54-8)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xi,N
Risk Statements  10-38-43-50/53
Safety Statements  24-37-60-61
RIDADR  UN 2052 3/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  OS8350000
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29029090
Signal word: Warning
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P391 Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

(S)-(-)-LIMONENE price More Price(12)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 218367 (S)-(?)-Limonene 96% 5989-54-8 50g $22.4 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 218367 (S)-(?)-Limonene 96% 5989-54-8 250g $77.6 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical L0132 (-)-Limonene >95.0%(GC) 5989-54-8 5mL $10 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical L0132 (-)-Limonene >95.0%(GC) 5989-54-8 25mL $15 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar L13244 (S)-(-)-Limonene, 97% 5989-54-8 50g $26.5 2018-11-13 Buy

(S)-(-)-LIMONENE Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


(S)-(-)-Limonene is one of the most popular natural occurring cyclic terpenes and its chemical name is D-Limonene. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a characteristic lemon-like odor. Although it is insoluble in ether and alcohol, (S)-(-)-Limonene is soluble in water and has a boiling point of 74oC. (S)-(-)-Limonene can be recovered from orange peel from the conversion of press liquor to molasses. It is a major constituent of numerous citrus oils such as lemon, orange, lime, mandarin, and grapefruit, which are fruits from the Rutaceae family.
(S)-(-)-Limonene can be obtained by stream distillation of pulp and citrus peels resulting from production of cold-pressed oils and juice or from deterpenation of citrus oils. The compound also occurs in other essences and oils obtained during the processing of citrus juice, including deoiler, essence oil, aroma, and juice oil.

Chemical Composition and Reactions

The main D-Limonene’s compositions include camphene, a-pinene, a-terpene, b-pinene, b-bisabolene, trans-a-bergamotene, limonene, neral, and nerol. It chemically belongs to the family of cycloalkane known as terpenes. Notably, its IUPAC name is 4-isopropeny–1–methylcyclohexane.
D-limonene can be distilled without decomposing and is a typically stable monoterpene, but can crack in high temperatures to form isoprene. D-limonene oxidizes easily in moist air to generate limonene oxide, carvone, and carveol. It dehydrates when reacted with Sulphur to form p-cymene. D-limonene isomerizes to conjugated diene α-terpinene when heated with mineral acid.


Clinical Applications
As an excellent cholesterol solvent, (S)-(-)-Limonene is normally used clinically to dissolve cholesterol containing gallstones.
It has also been used for relieving of heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) due to its gastric acid neutralizing characteristic and its support for normal peristalsis.
Studies have established (S)-(-)-Limonene’s chemo-preventive activity against many types of cancers. Patients with breast cancer showed partial response while patients with colorectal cancer were stable for more than six months from phase 1 clinical trials.
D-limonene is also used in maintaining regular bowel movements, particularly when slow movements are caused by a fungus known as Candida albicans that normally lead cause intestinal infection.
D-limonene is used as a mild suppressor of appetite, thus it can be employed to help in managing weight. Notably, it is useful when an individual has unhealthy blood sugar levels.
Personal Use
D-limonene is used as flavoring agent to mask the bitter taste of alkaloids as well as a fragrance in perfumery. The compound is also used in bath products, aftershave lotions as well as other personal products. It is normally added to cleaning products, for instance, hand wash solutions to give an orange or lemon fragrance.
Food Industry
D-limonene is used as a fragrance and flavoring in the manufacture of foods, chewing gums, and beverages.
Agricultural Use
D-limonene is utilized as botanical insecticide as well as in the organic herbicide “Aenger.”
Industrial Purposes
Since it is produced from naturally from citrus oil and byproducts during manufacturing of orange juice, d-Limonene is used as solvent for cleaning purposes, for example, the removal of oil from parts of machines.
It is also used as a paint stripper as well as an alternative fragrance to turpentine. In some airplane models, d-Limonene is used as a solvent in glues and as a constituent in some paints. The compound is also used in commercial air fresheners. It is also used to remove self-adhesive postage stamps from envelopes by philatelists.
d-Limonene has been considered as a biofuel due to its combustibility.
D-Limonene is used as a solvent for filament that is used in 3D printing. Printers are able to erect binders and supports from HIPS, which is a polystyrene plastic that can easily dissolve in d-Limonene.
The therapeutic properties of d-limonene include antimicrobial, antianaemic, antiseptic, and anti-sclerotic. The compound also has carminative, bactericidal, depurative, cicatrizant, diuretic, rubefacient, hyposensitive, vermifuge, and tonic characteristics.
D-Limonene is often used in preparing tissues (especially when cleaning dehydrated specimen) for histology due to its less toxic characteristic as compared to xylene.
D-limonene is used on wounds and sores, aromatherapy, douching, cataract, foots, mouth ulcers, varicose, and spots.

Safety and Side Effects

D-limonene is considered to have low toxicity; therefore, does not pose a carcinogenic, mutagenic, or nephrotoxic risk to humans. In proportional food amounts, d-limonene is safe. When taken orally for up to one year in correct medical amounts, d-limonene appears safe for most people.
However, there is no enough information or research regarding the effect of d-limonene on pregnant and breast feeding women when taken in larger medical amounts. As such, it is vital to stay on the safer side until more research is done.


The correct dosage for d-limonene is dependent on numerous factors, such as user’s health, age, as well as other conditions. It is important to note that natural products are not necessarily safe, thus dosage can be important.

Chemical Properties

colourless liquid with lemon odour


ChEBI: An optically active form of limonene having (4S)-configuration.

Contact allergens

Limonene is a racemic form of dand l-limonene. d-Limonene is contained in Citrus species such as citrus, orange, mandarin, and bergamot. l-Limonene is contained in Pinus pinea.

Safety Profile

A skin irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

(S)-(-)-LIMONENE Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

(S)-(-)-LIMONENE Suppliers

Global( 70)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-55531817 CHINA 21967 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20680 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733 CHINA 32457 55
Nanjing ChemLin Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
025-83697070; CHINA 3015 60
Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
86-21-51861608;;; CHINA 24001 58
Shanghai Zheyan Biotech Co., Ltd.
18017610038 CHINA 3623 58
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
+86-10-82849933; China 96815 76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing) China 40277 62
Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
021-67582001/03/05 China 30168 84
TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd. 021-67121386 / 800-988-0390
021-67121385 China 24560 81

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