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alkaloid Toxicity
Nicotine structure
Chemical Name:
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Nicotine Properties

Melting point:
-80 °C
-166 º (c=neat)
Boiling point:
243-248 °C
1.010 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.)
vapor pressure 
0.06 hPa (20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.5265(lit.)
Flash point:
215 °F
storage temp. 
ethanol: 50 mg/mL
8.02(at 25℃)
10.2 (8.1g/l, H2O, 20°C)
optical activity
[α]20/D 169°(lit.)
explosive limit
Water Solubility 
Air Sensitive & Hygroscopic
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA air 0.5 mg/m3 (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA).
CAS DataBase Reference
54-11-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
EPA Substance Registry System
Pyridine, 3-[(2S)-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]- (54-11-5)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  T+,N,Xn,F,Xi,T
Risk Statements  25-27-51/53-36-20/21/22-11-36/37/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-59-48/20-40-36/38-24-20/22-63
Safety Statements  7-16-36/37-45-61-36-26-37/39-59
RIDADR  UN 1654 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  QS5250000
Autoignition Temperature 240 °C
HazardClass  6.1
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  29399910
Hazardous Substances Data 54-11-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 0.3 i.v.; 9.5 i.p.; 230 orally (Barlow, McLeod)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H301 Toxic if swalloed Acute toxicity,oral Category 3 Danger P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H310 Fatal in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 1, 2 Danger P262, P264, P270, P280, P302+P350,P310, P322, P361, P363, P405, P501
H401 Toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 2 P273, P501
H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 2
Precautionary statements:
P262 Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
P321 Specific treatment (see … on this label).
P405 Store locked up.

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
4 0
HEALTH   4 Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury (e.g. hydrogen cyanide, phosgene, methyl isocyanate, hydrofluoric acid)
FIRE  1 Materials that require considerable preheating, under all ambient temperature conditions, before ignition and combustion can occur. Includes some finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point at or above 93.3 °C (200 °F). (e.g. mineral oil, ammonia)
REACT   0 Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water (e.g. helium,N2)

(NFPA, 2010)

Nicotine price More Price(8)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.20877 (-)-Nicotine for synthesis. CAS 54-11-5, pH 10.2 (8.1 g/l, H O, 20 °C)., for synthesis 54-11-5 8208770025 $47.5 2018-11-23 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.20877 (-)-Nicotine for synthesis. CAS 54-11-5, pH 10.2 (8.1 g/l, H O, 20 °C)., for synthesis 54-11-5 8208770100 $116 2018-11-23 Buy
Alfa Aesar A12398 (S)-(-)-Nicotine, 99% 54-11-5 25g $56.1 2018-11-13 Buy
Alfa Aesar A12398 (S)-(-)-Nicotine, 99% 54-11-5 100g $189 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich N3876 ()-Nicotine ≥99% (GC), liquid 54-11-5 100ml $282 2018-11-23 Buy

Nicotine Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Nicotine is the substance in tobacco, nicotine content of tobacco because there are different species and origin, alkali content of tobacco each part is different. Cigarette factory scraps (tobacco powder) containing about 1% to 2% of the nicotine, tobacco stems and ribs smoke nicotine containing about 1% or so, people smoked cigarette contains nicotine amounted to about 3%. Pure nicotine is a colorless, oily liquid, miscible with water below 60 ℃, hydrate, more than 210 ℃ also miscible with water. Unstable nature, likely to be volatile, soluble in water and organic solvents. Nicotine is an alkaloid, so all properties of a base, to a compound made of salts and acids. In case of light and air turn brown and sticky, there is the odd smell and strong irritant.


Pure nicotine for people, livestock highly toxic rat oral LD50 of 50~60mg/kg, rabbit acute percutaneous LD5050mg/kg. Rabbit acute percutaneous LD50 for 50~60mg/kg, rabbit acute oral LD50 of 50mg/kg. Based on China's pesticide toxicity grading standards, is a highly toxic pesticides. However, because of volatile and rapidly decompose in air and light, and therefore can still be used to control pests on crops. Rapidly absorbed through the skin, inhalation and dermal exposure to toxic people. Toxic to birds. Young steelhead LC504mg/L, toxic to bees, but there insecticide effect. D. Pulex LC50 of 0.24mg/L. Fish and shellfish toxicity, mild injury to crops.

Chemical Properties

Yellow Liquid

Chemical Properties

Nicotine is a pale yellow to dark brown, oily liquid. Slight, fishy or pyridine-like odor when warm. It is also available as a powder.


Prototype nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist; naturally occurring isomer.


(S)-(-)-Nicotine is a prototype nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. (S)-(-)-Nicotine is the naturally occurring isomer. Nicotine can be absorbed through the alimentary canal, respiratory tract and intact skin. Nicotine is used in the treatment of smoking withdrawal syndrome. Nicotine has been used as an anthelmintic.


Nicotine is one of the principal constituentsof tobacco. It occurs in the dried leavesof Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana rusticato the extent of 2–8%. Exposure risk tothis alkaloid arises from smoking, chewing,or inhaling tobacco. Nicotine and its saltsare used as insecticides and fumigants, intanning, and in medicine.


Naturally-occuring isomer


Nicotine is the second most widely used recreational drug after caffeine. At low doses, nicotineacts as a stimulant to the central nervous system by activating acetylcholine receptors, specifically called nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, in the postsynaptic neurons during nerve transmission.At higher doses nicotine acts as a depressant.Nicotine in tobacco has always been used for medicinal purposes. Nicotine solutions made from soaking tobacco leaves in water have been used as pesticides for several hundred years. In modern times, numerous pharmaceutical companies have explored nicotine's use for treating diseases. Nicotine's most prevalent medicinal use is for smoking cessation in the form of alternate delivery systems such as gums and dermal patches. Nicotine is used medically for numerous conditions and its use is being explored in additional areas including pain relievers, attention deficit disorder medications and medications associated with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, colitis, herpes, and tuberculosis.

Production Methods

The nicotine molecule consists of a pyrrolidine ring attached to a pyridine ring by a bondbetween carbon atoms in the two-ring systems. Nicotine was isolated in impure form fromtobacco in 1809 by Louis Nicholas-Vauquelin (1763–1829). Vauquelin called the substancenicotianine. In 1826, Wilhelm Posselt (1806–1877) and Karl Ludwig Reimann (1804–1872),medical students at Heidelberg University, isolated pure nicotine and published dissertationson its pharmacology in 1828. Louis Henri Melsens (1814–1886) determined nicotine’sempirical formula. Amé Pictet (1857–1937) and P. Crépieux reported the synthesis of nicotine in 1903.


ChEBI: An optically active form of nicotine having S-configuration.


A colourless poisonousalkaloid present in tobacco. It isused as an insecticide.

brand name

Habitrol (Novartis); Nicoderm (Sanofi Aventis); Nicotrol (Pharmacia & Upjohn); Prostep (Aveva).

General Description

Liquids. Toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption. More dense than water. Flash points usually below 140°F. Contact may irritate skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. If available, obtain the technical name of the material from the shipping papers and contact CHEMTREC, (800-424-9300) for specific response information.

Air & Water Reactions

Flammable. Slightly soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

An alkaloid produced from tobacco. Colorless, oily liquid, combustible, highly toxic. When heated to decomposition L-Nicotine emits very toxic fumes of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen [Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 919].


Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption. Gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system impairment, and cardiac impairment

Health Hazard

Nicotine is a highly toxic compound. It stimulatesneuromuscular junctions and nicotinicreceptors, causing depression and paralysisof autonomic ganglia. Exposure routesare ingestion, absorption through skin, orinhalation (smoking or inhaling tobacco).The acute toxic symptoms in humansinclude nausea, vomiting, salivation, muscularweakness, twitching, and convulsions.The symptoms of confusion, hallucinations,and distorted perceptions have also beennoted in humans. Death may occur from respiratoryfailure. The lethal dose is approximately40 mg/kg. Chronic poisoning fromoccupational exposure may exhibit symptomsof vomiting and diarrhea. Fatal casesdue to occupational poisoning are unusual.
Nicotine administered in animals producedtoxic symptoms that include somnolence,change in motor activity, ataxia, dyspnea,tremor, and convulsions.
LD50 values, intraperitoneal (rats): 14.5 mg/kgLD50 values, oral (rats): 50 mg/kg
Kramer and coworkers (1989) investigatedthe effect of nicotine on the accumulation ofdopamine in synaptic vesicles prepared frommouse cerebral cortex or bovine striatum. Itwas found to be a weak inhibitor of dopamineaccumulation.
The role of nicotine in tobacco carcinogenesisis not yet fully understood. Nicotine is a precursor of N0-nitrosonornicotine , which is asuspected lung carcinogen (Hoffmann et al.1985). Nicotine-derived N-nitrosoaminescontribute significantly to carcinogenesiscaused by tobacco. However, there is noevidence in animals or humans of cancerscaused by nicotine itself. Berger and coworkers(1987) have found a beneficial effect ofperinatal nicotine administration in decreasingthe tumors of the neuorogenic systeminduced by N-methylnitrosourea in Sprague-Dawley rats. Although nicotineis noncarcinogenic, it acts as a cofactorin carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in male Syrian goldenhamsters (Chen and Squier 1990).
Nicotine produced teratogenic effects intest animals, causing postimplantation mortality,fetal death, and developmental abnormalities.Nicotine and its primary metabolitecotinine exhibited teratogenic potential withXenopus frog embryo teratogenesis assay(Dowson et al. 1988).
Nicotine tested negative in the Neurosporacrassa –aneuploidy and histidinereversion–Ames tests for mutagenicity.

Health Hazard

L-Nicotine is classified as super toxic. Probable oral lethal dose in humans is less than 5 mg/kg or a taste (less than 7 drops) for a 70 kg (150 lbs.) person. It may be assumed that ingestion of 40-60 mg of nicotine is lethal to humans. There is fundamental difference between acute toxicity from use of nicotine as insecticide or from ingestion, and chronic toxicity that may be caused by prolonged exposure to small doses as occurs in smoking. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and still-birth. Nicotine was found as a co-carcinogen in animals.

Fire Hazard

There is a moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition, L-Nicotine emits nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other highly toxic fumes. Avoid oxidizing materials. Stable under normal conditions. Avoid heat or flames.

Agricultural Uses

Insecticide: Nicotine is used in some drugs and insecticides. Classified for restricted use as an insecticide, limited to use by or under the direct supervision of a certified applicator. Not listed for use in EU countries. Registered for use in the U.S. and Canada. A U.S. EPA restricted Use Pesticide (RUP).

Trade name


Potential Exposure

An alkaloid produced from tobacco. Nicotine is used in some drugs; and in tanning. At one time, nicotine was used in the United States as an insecticide and fumigant; however, it is no longer produced or used in the United States for this purpose.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.


UN1654 Nicotine, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.

Purification Methods

(-)-Nicotine is a very pale yellow hygroscopic oil with a characteristic odour (tobacco extract) which turns brown in air on exposure to light. It is purifed by fractional distillation under reduced pressure in an inert atmosphere. A freshly distilled sample should be stored in dark sealed containers under N2. It is a strong base; a 0.05 M aqueous solution has a pH of 10.2. It is very soluble in organic solvents. It is soluble in H2O and readily forms salts. [UV: Parvis J Chem Soc 97 1035 1910, Dobbie & Fox J Chem Soc 103 1194 1913.] The hydrochlorides (mono-and di-) form deliquescent crystals soluble in H2O and EtOH but insoluble in Et2O. It has also been purified via the ZnCl2 double salt. [Ratz Monatsh Chem 26 1241 1905, Biosynthesis: Nakan & Hitchinson J Org Chem 43 3922 1978.] The picrate has m 218o (from EtOH). [Beilstein 23/6 V 64.] POISONOUS.


Incompatible with strong oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Incompatible with strong acids. Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.

Waste Disposal

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.

Nicotine Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Nicotine Suppliers

Global( 200)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Hubei XinRunde Chemical Co., Ltd.
+8615102730682; +8618874586545
02783214688 CHINA 552 55
Shenzhen Sendi Biotechnology Co.Ltd.
0755-23311925 18102838259
0755-23311925 CHINA 3217 55
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20786 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733 CHINA 32651 55
Hangzhou FandaChem Co.,Ltd.
0086 158 5814 5714 (Mobile; WhatsApp; Telegram)
+86-571-56059825 CHINA 2456 55
Chengdu Biopurify Phytochemicals Ltd.
18080483897 CHINA 2238 58
Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
86-21-51861608;;; CHINA 24118 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-188-71490254 CHINA 20229 58
Hebei Jimi Trading Co., Ltd.
+86 017772612259 +86 319 5273535 CHINA 305 58
Cangzhou Wanyou New Material Technology Co.,Ltd
18631714998 CHINA 226 58

View Lastest Price from Nicotine manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2019-04-17 L-Nicotine
US $1.00 / g 1g 99% 1000kg Cangzhou Wanyou New Material Technology Co.,Ltd
2019-04-15 L - Nicotine
US $1.00 / kg 1kg 99% 500KG Hebei Jimi Trading Co., Ltd.
2018-03-05 L-Nicotine
US $200.00 / KG 1KG 99% 100000KG Hubei XinRunde Chemical Co., Ltd.

Nicotine Spectrum

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