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Aluminum

Description Production Methods
Aluminum
Aluminum
CAS No.
7429-90-5
Chemical Name:
Aluminum
Synonyms
AE;AL;a00;a95;ad1;ADO;AR2;L16;ABPP;A 00
CBNumber:
CB6227696
Molecular Formula:
Al
Formula Weight:
26.98
MOL File:
7429-90-5.mol

Aluminum Properties

Melting point:
660.37 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
2460 °C(lit.)
Density 
2.7 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Flash point:
400°C
storage temp. 
Flammables area
form 
wire
color 
Yellow
Water Solubility 
Insoluble in water.
Sensitive 
Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
13,321 / 13,321
Stability:
Stable. Powder is flammable. Reacts very exothermically with halogens. Moisture and air sensitive. Incompatible with strong acids, caustics, strong oxidizing agents, halogenated hydrocarbons.
CAS DataBase Reference
7429-90-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Aluminum(7429-90-5)
EPA Substance Registry System
Aluminum(7429-90-5)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  F,Xi,Xn,N
Risk Statements  17-15-36/38-10-67-65-62-51/53-48/20-38-11-50
Safety Statements  7/8-43A-43-26-62-61-36/37-33-29-16-9
RIDADR  1396
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  BD0330000
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  76032000
Hazardous Substances Data 7429-90-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H228 Flammable solid Flammable solids Category 1
Category 2
Danger
Warning
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H250 Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air Pyrophoric liquids; Pyrorophoric solids Category 1 Danger P210, P222, P280, P302+P334,P370+P378, P422
H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas Substances And Mixtures Which, In Contact With Water,Emit Flammable Gases Category 2
Category 3
Danger
Warning
P231+P232, P280, P370+P378,P402+P404, P501
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P222 Do not allow contact with air.
P223 Keep away from any possible contact with water, because of violent reaction and possible flash fire.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P231+P232 Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture.
P391 Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P335+P334 Brush off loose particles from skin. Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P422 Store contents under …
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

Aluminum price More Price(330)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 11008 Aluminum grit, ≥97.0% (complexometric) 7429-90-5 500g $57.5 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 11009 Aluminum powder, ≥91% (complexometric) 7429-90-5 500g-r $186 2018-11-20 Buy
Alfa Aesar 000004 Aluminum foil, 0.13mm (0.005in) thick, 50x125mm (2.0x4.9in), 99.9995% (metals basis) 7429-90-5 4pc $192 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 000004 Aluminum foil, 0.13mm (0.005in) thick, 50x125mm (2.0x4.9in), 99.9995% (metals basis) 7429-90-5 1pc $56.1 2018-11-16 Buy
Strem Chemicals 13-0025 Aluminum foil (99.5%) 7429-90-5 5pcs $277 2018-11-13 Buy

Aluminum Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the crust of the earth, accounting for 8.13% by weight. It does not occur in free elemental form in nature, but is found in combined forms such as oxides or silicates. It occurs in many minerals including bauxite, cryolite, feldspar and granite. Aluminum alloys have innumerable application; used extensively in electrical transmission lines, coated mirrors, utensils, packages, toys and in construction of aircraft and rockets.

Production Methods

Most aluminum is produced from its ore, bauxite, which contains between 40 to 60% alumina either as the trihydrate, gibbsite, or as the monohydrate, boehmite, and diaspore. Bauxite is refined first for the removal of silica and other impurities. It is done by the Bayer process. Ground bauxite is digested with NaOH solution under pressure, which dissolves alumina and silica, forming sodium aluminate and sodium aluminum silicate. Insoluble residues containing most impurities are filtered out. The clear liquor is then allowed to settle and starch is added to precipitate. The residue, so-called “red-mud”, is filtered out. After this “desilication,” the clear liquor is diluted and cooled. It is then seeded with alumina trihydrate (from a previous run) which promotes hydrolysis of the sodium aluminate to produce trihydrate crystals. The crystals are filtered out, washed, and calcined above 1,100°C to produce anhydrous alumina. The Bayer process, however, is not suitable for extracting bauxite that has high silica content (>10%). In the Alcoa process, which is suitable for highly silicious bauxite, the “red mud” is mixed with limestone and soda ash and calcined at 1,300°C. This produces “lime-soda sinter” which is cooled and treated with water. This leaches out water-soluble sodium alumnate, leaving behind calcium silicate and other impurites.
Alumina may be obtained from other minerals, such as nepheline, sodium potassium aluminum silicate, by similar soda lime sintering process.Metal aluminum is obtained from the pure alumina at 950 to 1000°C electrolysis (Hall-Heroult process). Although the basic process has not changed since its discovery, there have been many modifications. Aluminum is also produced by electrolysis of anhydrous AlCl3.
Also, the metal can be obtained by nonelectrolytic reduction processes. In carbothermic process, alumina is heated with carbon in a furnace at 2000 to 2500°C. Similarly, in “Subhalide” process, an Al alloy, Al-Fe-Si-, (obtained by carbothermic reduction of bauxite) is heated at 1250°C with AlCl vapor. This forms the subchloride (AlCl), the vapor of which decomposes when cooled to 800°C.

Physical properties

Silvery-white malleable metal, cubic crystal; melts at 660°C; b. p. 2520°C; density 2.70 g/cm3; insoluble in water, soluble in acids and alkalies.

History

The ancient Greeks and Romans used alum in medicine as an astringent, and as a mordant in dyeing. In 1761 de Morveau proposed the name alumine for the base in alum, and Lavoisier, in 1787, thought this to be the oxide of a still undiscovered metal. Wohler is generally credited with having isolated the metal in 1827, although an impure form was prepared by Oersted two years earlier. In 1807, Davy proposed the name alumium for the metal, undiscovered at that time, and later agreed to change it to aluminum. Shortly thereafter, the name aluminium was adopted to conform with the “ium” ending of most elements, and this spelling is now in use elsewhere in the world. Aluminium was also the accepted spelling in the U.S. until 1925, at which time the American Chemical Society officially decided to use the name aluminum thereafter in their publications. The method of obtaining aluminum metal by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in cryolite was discovered in 1886 by Hall in the U.S. and at about the same time by Heroult in France. Cryolite, a natural ore found in Greenland, is no longer widely used in commercial production, but has been replaced by an artificial mixture of sodium, aluminum, and calcium fluorides. Bauxite, an impure hydrated oxide ore, is found in large deposits in Jamaica, Australia, Suriname, Guyana, Russia, Arkansas, and elsewhere. The Bayer process is most commonly used today to refine bauxite so it can be accommodated in the Hall–Heroult refining process used to make most aluminum. Aluminum can now be produced from clay, but the process is not economically feasible at present. Aluminum is the most abundant metal to be found in the Earth’s crust (8.1%), but is never found free in nature. In addition to the minerals mentioned above, it is found in feldspars, granite, and in many other common minerals. Twenty-two isotopes and isomers are known. Natural aluminum is made of one isotope, 27Al. Pure aluminum, a silvery- white metal, possesses many desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic, has a pleasing appearance, can easily be formed, machined, or cast, has a high thermal conductivity, and has excellent corrosion resistance. It is nonmagnetic and nonsparking, stands second among metals in the scale of malleability, and sixth in ductility. It is extensively used for kitchen utensils, outside building decoration, and in thousands of industrial applications where a strong, light, easily constructed material is needed. Although its electrical conductivity is only about 60% that of copper, it is used in electrical transmission lines because of its light weight. Pure aluminum is soft and lacks strength, but it can be alloyed with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements to impart a variety of useful properties. These alloys are of vital importance in the construction of modern aircraft and rockets. Aluminum, evaporated in a vacuum, forms a highly reflective coating for both visible light and radiant heat. These coatings soon form a thin layer of the protective oxide and do not deteriorate as do silver coatings. They have found application in coatings for telescope mirrors, in making decorative paper, packages, toys, and in many other uses. The compounds of greatest importance are aluminum oxide, the sulfate, and the soluble sulfate with potassium (alum). The oxide, alumina, occurs naturally as ruby, sapphire, corundum, and emery, and is used in glassmaking and refractories. Synthetic ruby and sapphire have found application in the construction of lasers The Elements 4-3 for producing coherent light. In 1852, the price of aluminum was about $1200/kg, and just before Hall’s discovery in 1886, about $25/kg. The price rapidly dropped to 60¢ and has been as low as 33¢/kg. The price in December 2001 was about 64¢/ lb or $1.40/kg.

Definition

ChEBI: An aluminium cation that has a charge of +3.

Uses

As pure metal or alloys (magnalium, aluminum bronze, etc.) for structural material in construction, automotive, electrical and aircraft industries. In cooking utensils, highway signs, fencing, containers and packaging, foil, machinery, corrosion resistant chemical equipment, dental alloys. The coarse powder in aluminothermics (thermite process); the fine powder as flashlight in photography; in explosives, fireworks, paints; for absorbing occluded gases in manufacture of steel. In testing for Au, As, Hg; coagulating colloidal solutions of As or Sb; pptg Cu; reducer for determining nitrates and nitrites; instead of Zn for generating hydrogen in testing for As. Forms complex hydrides with lithium and boron, such as LiAlH4, which are used in preparative organic chemistry.

General Description

Aluminum metal held above melting point of 1220°F (660°C) for ease in handling. Cools and solidifies if released. Contact causes thermal burns. Plastic or rubber may melt or lose strength upon contact. Protective equipment designed for chemical exposure only is not effective against direct contact. Take care walking on the surface of a spill to avoid stepping into a pocket of molten aluminum below the crust. Do not attempt to remove aluminum impregnated clothing because of the danger of tearing flesh if there has been a burn.

Air & Water Reactions

Violent reaction with water; contact may cause an explosion or may produce a flammable gas (hydrogen). Moist air produces hydrogen gas. Does not burn on exposure to air.

Reactivity Profile

ALUMINUM , MOLTEN, is a reducing agent. Coating moderates or greatly moderates its chemical reactivity compared to the uncoated material. Reacts exothermically if mixed with metal oxides and heated (thermite process). Heating a mixture with copper oxides caused a strong explosion [Mellor 5:217-19 1946-47]. Reacts with metal salts, mercury and mercury compounds, nitrates, sulfates, halogens, and halogenated hydrocarbons to form compounds that are sensitive to mechanical shock [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 135]. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and powdered aluminum were mixed with carbon or hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents, have occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. A mixture with powdered ammonium persulfate and water may explode [NFPA 491M 1991]. Heating a mixture with bismuth trioxide leads to an explosively violent reaction [Mellor 9:649 (1946-47)]. Mixtures with finely divided bromates(also chlorates and iodates) of barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium or zinc can explode by heat, percussion, and friction, [Mellor 2:310 (1946-47]. Burns in the vapor of carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, sulfur dichloride, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, or nitrogen peroxide, [Mellor 5:209-212,1946-47]. A mixture with carbon tetrachloride exploded when heated to 153° C and also by impact, [Chem. Eng. News 32:258 (1954)]; [UL Bull. Research 34 (1945], [ASESB Pot. Incid. 39 (1968)]. Mixing with chlorine trifluoride in the presence of carbon results in a violent reaction [Mellor 2 Supp. 1: 1956]. Ignites in close contact with iodine. Three industrial explosions involving a photoflash composition containing potassium perchlorate with aluminum and magnesium powder have occurred [ACS 146:210 1945], [NFPA 491M 1991]. Is attacked by methyl chloride in the presence of small amounts of aluminum chloride to give flammable aluminum trimethyl. Give a detonable mixture with liquid oxygen [NFPA 491M 1991]. The reaction with silver chloride, once started, proceeds with explosive violence [Mellor 3:402 1946-47]. In an industrial accident, the accidental addition of water to a solid mixture of sodium hydrosulfite and powdered aluminum caused the generation of SO2, heat and more water. The aluminum powder reacted with water and other reactants to generate more heat, leading to an explosion that killed five workers [Case Study, Accident Investigation: Napp Technologies, 14th International Hazardous Material Spills Conference].

Health Hazard

Finely divided aluminum dust is moderately flammable and explodes by heat or contact with strong oxidizing chemicals. Chronic inhalation of the powder can cause aluminosis, a type of pulmonary fibrosis. It is almost nontoxic by ingestion.

Fire Hazard

Substance is transported in molten form at a temperature above 705°C (1300°F). Violent reaction with water; contact may cause an explosion or may produce a flammable gas. Will ignite combustible materials (wood, paper, oil, debris, etc.). Contact with nitrates or other oxidizers may cause an explosion. Contact with containers or other materials, including cold, wet or dirty tools, may cause an explosion. Contact with concrete will cause spalling and small pops.

Safety Profile

Although aluminum is not generally regarded as an industrial poison, inhalation of finely dwided powder has been reported to cause pulmonary fibrosis. It is a reactive metal and the greatest industrial hazards are with chemical reactions. As with other metals the powder and dust are the most dangerous forms. Dust is moderately flammable and explosive by heat, flame, or chemical reaction with powerful oxidizers. To fight fire, use special mixtures of dry chemical. following dangerous interactions: explosive reaction after a delay period with KClO4 + Ba(NO3)2 + mo3 + H20, also with Ba(NO3)2 + mo3 + sulfur + vegetable adhesives + H2O. Wxtures with powdered AgCl, NH4NO3 or NH4NO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + formamide + H20 are powerful explosives. Murture with ammonium peroxodisulfate + water is explosive. Violent or explosive "thermite" reaction when heated with metal oxides, oxosalts (nitrates, sulfates), or sulfides, and with hot copper oxide worked with an iron or steel tool. Potentially explosive reaction with ccl4 during ball milling operations. Many violent or explosive reactions with the following halocarbons have occurred in industry: bromomethane, bromotrifluoromethane, ccl4, chlorodfluoromethane, chloroform, chloromethane, chloromethane + 2- methylpropane, dchlorodifluoromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,2- dichloropropane, 1,2-difluorotetrafluoro- ethane, fluorotrichloroethane, hexa- chloroethane + alcohol, polytrifluoro- ethylene oils and greases, tetrachloro- ethylene, tetrafluoromethane, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2- trichlorotrifluoro-ethane, and trichlorotrifluoroethane-dchlorobenzene. Potentially explosive reaction with chloroform amidinium nitrate. Ignites on contact with vapors of AsCl3, SC4, Se2Cl2, and PCl5. Reacts violently on heating with Sb or As. Ignites on heating in SbCl3 vapor. Ignites on contact with barium peroxide. Potentially violent reaction with sodium acetylide. Mixture with sodum peroxide may ignite or react violently. Spontaneously igmtes in CS2 vapor. Halogens: ignites in Powdered aluminum undergoes the chlorine gas, foil reacts vigorously with liquid Br2, violent reaction with H20 + 12. Violent reaction with hydrochloric acid, hydro-fluoric acid, and hydrogen chloride gas. Violent reaction with disulfur dbromide. Violent reaction with the nonmetals phosphorus, sulfur, and selenium. Violent reaction or ignition with the interhalogens: bromine pentafluoride, chlorine fluoride, iodne chloride, iodine pentafluoride, and iodne heptafluoride. Burns when heated in CO2. Ignites on contact with O2, and mixtures with O2 + H20 ignite and react violently. Mixture with picric acid + water ignites after a delay period. Explosive reaction above 800°C with sodium sulfate. Violent reaction with sulfur when heated. Exothermic reaction with iron powder + water releases explosive hydrogen gas. Aluminum powder also forms sensitive explosive mixtures with oxidants such as: liquid Cl2 and other halogens, N2O4, tetranitromethane, bromates, iodates, NaClO3, KClO3, and other chlorates, NaNO3, aqueous nitrates, KClO4 and other perchlorate salts, nitryl fluoride, ammonium peroxodisulfate, sodium peroxide, zinc peroxide, and other peroxides, red phosphorus, and powdered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). following dangerous interactions: exothermic reaction with butanol, methanol, 2-propanol, or other alcohols, sodium hydroxide to release explosive hydrogen gas. Reaction with dborane forms pyrophoric product. Ignition on contact with niobium oxide + sulfur. Explosive reaction with molten metal oxides, oxosalts (nitrates, sulfates), sulfides, and sodium carbonate. Reaction with arsenic trioxide + sodum arsenate + sodium hydroxide produces the toxic arsine gas. Violent reaction with chlorine trifluoride. Incandescent reaction with formic acid. Potentially violent alloy formation with palladium, platinum at mp of Al, 600℃. Vigorous dssolution reaction in Bulk aluminum may undergo the ALUMINUM CHLORIDE HYDROXIDE AHAOOO 45 methanol + carbon tetrachloride. Vigorous amalgamation reaction with mercury(Ⅱ) salts + moisture. Violent reaction with molten silicon steels. Violent exothermic reaction above 600℃ with sodium diuranate.

Aluminum Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Aluminum Suppliers

Global( 203)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
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+86-371-55531817
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0371-55170693
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+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32764 55
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022-89880739
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86-21-63290778 86-21-63218885 sj_scrc@sinopharm.com China 9975 79
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021-34790236 17317635738@163.com China 235 58
Tianjin Zhongxin Chemtech Co., Ltd. 86(0)22-89880739
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Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
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