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Benzene

Benzene
Benzene
CAS No.
71-43-2
Chemical Name:
Benzene
Synonyms
PHENE;BENZOL;Benzen;Fenzen;BENZENE;Benzeen;Benzole;Benzolo;Annulene;BenzeneI
CBNumber:
CB6854153
Molecular Formula:
C6H6
Formula Weight:
78.11
MOL File:
71-43-2.mol

Benzene Properties

Melting point:
5.5 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
80 °C(lit.)
Density 
0.874 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
2.77 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
166 mm Hg ( 37.7 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.501(lit.)
Flash point:
12 °F
storage temp. 
0-6°C
solubility 
Miscible with alcohol, chloroform, dichloromethane, diethyl ether, acetone and acetic acid.
pka
43(at 25℃)
form 
Liquid
color 
APHA: ≤10
Relative polarity
0.111
explosive limit
1.4-8.0%(V)
Water Solubility 
0.18 g/100 mL
Merck 
14,1066
BRN 
969212
Stability:
Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, halogens. Highly flammable.
CAS DataBase Reference
71-43-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Benzene(71-43-2)
EPA Substance Registry System
Benzene(71-43-2)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  F,T
Risk Statements  45-46-11-36/38-48/23/24/25-65-39/23/24/25-23/24/25
Safety Statements  53-45-36/37-16-7
RIDADR  UN 1114 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  CY1400000
3-10
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  3
PackingGroup  II
Hazardous Substances Data 71-43-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in young adult rats: 3.8 ml/kg (Kimura)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways Aspiration hazard Category 1 Danger
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H340 May cause genetic defects Germ cell mutagenicity Category 1A, 1B Danger
H350 May cause cancer Carcinogenicity Category 1A, 1B Danger
H361 Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child Reproductive toxicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 2
H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 3 P273, P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P311 Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P331 Do NOT induce vomiting.
P391 Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P307+P311 IF exposed: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P308+P313 IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.

Benzene price More Price(48)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.01782 Benzene 71-43-2 2EA $163 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.01782 Benzene 71-43-2 1EA $78.5 2017-11-08 Buy
TCI Chemical B0020 Benzene [for Spectrophotometry] >99.5%(GC) 71-43-2 500mL $41 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 33290 Benzene, ACS, 99.0% min 71-43-2 1L $50.9 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 33290 Benzene, ACS, 99.0% min 71-43-2 *4x1L $172 2017-11-08 Buy

Benzene Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

Benzene,C6H6, also known as benzol, phenyl hydride, phene, cyclohexatriene and coal naptha,is a colorless,flammable liquid. It is an aromatic hydrocarbon that boils at 80.1 DC. It is used as a solvent and an intermediate in manufacturing organic compounds such as styrene and phenol.

Definition

ChEBI: A six-carbon aromatic annulene in which each carbon atom donates one of its two 2p electrons into a delocalised pi system. A toxic, flammable liquid byproduct of coal distillation, it is used as an industrial solvent. Benzene is a carcinogen that also damages bone marrow and the central nervous system.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with a petroleum-like odor. Flash point less than 0°F. Less dense than water and slightly soluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors are heavier than air.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Slightly soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Benzene reacts vigorously with allyl chloride or other alkyl halides even at minus 70°C in the presence of ethyl aluminum dichloride or ethyl aluminum sesquichloride. Explosions have been reported [NFPA 491M 1991]. Ignites in contact with powdered chromic anhydride [Mellor 11:235 1946-47]. Incompatible with oxidizing agents such as nitric acid. Mixtures with bromine trifluoride, bromine pentafluoride, iodine pentafluoride, iodine heptafluoride and other interhalogens can ignite upon heating [Bretherick 5th ed. 1995]. Benzene and cyanogen halides yield HCl as a byproduct (Hagedorn, F. H. Gelbke, and Federal Republic of Germany. 2002. Nitriles. In Ullman Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.). The reaction of Benzene and trichloroacetonitrile evolves toxic chloroform and HCl gasses. (Hagedorn, F., H.-P. Gelbke, and Federal Republic of Germany. 2002. Nitriles. In Ullman Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.).

Health Hazard

Dizziness, excitation, pallor, followed by flushing, weakness, headache, breathlessness, chest constriction, nausea, and vomiting. Coma and possible death.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.

Purification Methods

For most purposes, *benzene can be purified sufficiently by shaking with conc H2SO4 until free from thiophene, then with H2O, dilute NaOH and water, followed by drying (with P2O5, sodium, LiAlH4, CaH2, 4X Linde molecular sieve, or CaSO4, or by passage through a column of silica gel, and for a preliminary drying, CaCl2 is suitable), and distillation. A further purification step to remove thiophene, acetic acid and propionic acid, is crystallisation by partial freezing. The usual contaminants in dry thiophene-free *benzene are non-benzenoid hydrocarbons such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and heptanes, together with naphthenic hydrocarbons and traces of toluene. Carbonyl-containing impurities can be removed by percolation through a Celite column impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, phosphoric acid and H2O. (Prepared by dissolving 0.5g DNPH in 6mL of 85% H3PO4 by grinding together, then adding and mixing 4mL of distilled H2O and 10g Celite.) [Schwartz & Parker Anal Chem 33 1396 1961.] *Benzene has been freed from thiophene by refluxing with 10% (w/v) of Raney nickel for 15minutes, after which the nickel is removed by filtration or centrifugation. Dry *benzene is obtained by doubly distilling high purity *benzene from a solution containing the blue ketyl formed by the reaction of sodium-potassium alloy with a small amount of benzophenone. Thiophene has been removed from *benzene (absence of bluish-green coloration when 3mL of *benzene is shaken with a solution of 10mg of isatin in 10mL of conc H2SO4) by refluxing the *benzene (1.25L) for several hours with 40g HgO (freshly precipitated) dissolved in 40mL glacial acetic acid and 300mL of water. The precipitate is filtered off, the aqueous phase is removed and the *benzene is washed twice with H2O, dried and distilled. Alternatively, *benzene dried with CaCl2 has been shaken vigorously for 0.5hour with anhydrous AlCl3 (12g/L) at 25-35o, then decanted, washed with 10% NaOH, and water, dried and distilled. The process is repeated, giving thiophene-free *benzene. [Holmes & Beeman Ind Eng Chem 26 172 1934.] After shaking successively for about an hour with conc H2SO4, distilled water (twice), 6M NaOH, and distilled water (twice), *benzene is distilled through a 3-ft glass column to remove most of the water. Absolute EtOH is added and the *benzene-alcohol azeotrope is distilled. (This low-boiling distillation leaves any non-azeotrope-forming impurities behind.) The middle fraction is shaken with distilled water to remove EtOH, and again redistilled. Final slow and very careful fractional distillation from sodium, then LiAlH4 under N2, removed traces of water and peroxides. [Peebles et al. J Am Chem Soc 82 2780 1960.] *Benzene liquid and vapour are very TOXIC and HIGHLY FLAMMABLE, and all operations should be carried out in an efficient fume cupboard and in the absence of naked flames in the vicinity. [Beilstein 5 H 175, 5 I 95, 5 II 119, 5 III 469.] Rapid purification: To dry benzene, alumina, CaH2 or 4A molecular sieves (3% w/v) may be used (dry for 6hours). Then benzene is distilled, discarding the first 5% of distillate, and stored over molecular sieves (3A, 4A) or Na wire.

Benzene Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Benzene Suppliers

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