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Tetrachlorosilane

Physical Properties Uses Preparation Reactions Toxicity
Tetrachlorosilane
Tetrachlorosilane structure
CAS No.
10026-04-7
Chemical Name:
Tetrachlorosilane
Synonyms
SiCl4;CT1800;SIC-L(TM);SillconChloride;Perchlorosilane;SILICON CHLORIDE;TETRACHOROSILANE;chloridkremicity;tetrachloro-silan;TETRACHLOROSILANE
CBNumber:
CB7412244
Molecular Formula:
Cl4Si
Formula Weight:
169.9
MOL File:
10026-04-7.mol

Tetrachlorosilane Properties

Melting point:
−70 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
57.6 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.483 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
5.86 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
420 mm Hg ( 37.7 °C)
refractive index 
1.413
Flash point:
57.6°C
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
Miscible with benzene, toluene, chloroform, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, ether and hydrochloric acid.
form 
Liquid
color 
Colorless
Specific Gravity
1.483
PH
1 (5g/l, H2O)
Water Solubility 
reacts
Sensitive 
Moisture Sensitive
Hydrolytic Sensitivity
8: reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
Merck 
14,8500
Stability:
Stability Moisture sensitive - reacts violently with water. Incompatible with water, acids, bases, alcohols, alkali metals, organics, powdered metals.
CAS DataBase Reference
10026-04-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
EWG's Food Scores
1
FDA UNII
96L75U0BM3
NIST Chemistry Reference
Silane, tetrachloro-(10026-04-7)
EPA Substance Registry System
Silane, tetrachloro- (10026-04-7)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Symbol(GHS) 
GHS05,GHS07,GHS08,GHS06
Signal word  Danger
Hazard statements  H319-H301+H331-H314-H335-H332-H336-H351-H373
Precautionary statements  P309-P402+P404-P261-P280-P301+P310-P305+P351+P338-P310-P301+P310+P330-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340+P310-P403+P233
Hazard Codes  C,Xi
Risk Statements  20/21/22-34-40-36/37/38-14-67-37-35-20/22
Safety Statements  26-7/8-45-36/37/39-28-27
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  VW0525000
10-21
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2812 19 90
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  II
NFPA 704
0
3 2

Tetrachlorosilane price More Price(22)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 215120 Silicon tetrachloride 99% 10026-04-7 100g $46.7 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.07706 Silicon tetrachloride for synthesis 10026-04-7 100 mL $49.76 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 215120 Silicon tetrachloride 99% 10026-04-7 1kg $104 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 8.07706 Silicon tetrachloride for synthesis 10026-04-7 1 L $164.65 2021-03-22 Buy
TCI Chemical T0636 Tetrachlorosilane >98.0%(T) 10026-04-7 25g $20 2021-03-22 Buy

Tetrachlorosilane Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Physical Properties

Colorless fuming liquid; suffocating odor; density 1.52 g/mL; freezes at –68.9°C; boils at 57.7°C; vapor pressure 235 torr at 25°C; critical temperature 235°C; critical pressure 35.45 atm; critical volume 326 cm3/mol; decomposes in water forming silicic acid and HCl; soluble in benzene, toluence, chloroform, and ether.

Uses

Silicon tetrachloride was first prepared by Berzelius in 1823. It is used widely in preparing pure silicon and many organosilicon compounds such as silicone. It also is used to produce smoke screens in warfare.

Preparation

Silicon tetrachloride is prepared by heating silicon dioxide and carbon in a stream of chlorine:
SiO2 + C + 2Cl2 → SiCl4 + CO2
Also, the compound may be prepared by heating silicon with chlorine or dry hydrogen chloride:
Si + 2Cl2 → SiCl4
Si + 4HCl → SiCl4 + 2H2

Reactions

Silicon tetrachloride decomposes in water forming silicic acid (precipitated silica) and hydrochloric acid:
SiCl4 + 3H2O → H2SiO3 + 4HCl
Reactions with alcohols yield esters of orthosilicic acid. For example, with ethanol the product is tetraethyl orthosilicate or tetraethoxysilane, Si(OC2H5)4:
SiCl4 + 4C2H5OH → Si(OC2H5)4 + 4HCl
An important class of organosilicon compounds known as silicones that are used as lubricants, resins, elastomers, and antifoaming agents in high-vacuum diffusion pumps are synthesized from silicon tetrachloride. Silicon tetrachloride reacts with Grignard reagents, RMgCl to form monoalkyltrichlorosilanes, RSiCl3, dialkyldichlorosilanes, R2SiCl2, trialkylmonochlorosilanes, R3SiCl, and tetraalkylsilanes, R4Si:
SiCl4 + RMgCl → RSiCl3 + MgCl2
SiCl4 + 2RMgCl → R2SiCl2 + 2MgCl2
SiCl4 + 3RMgCl → R3SiCl + 3MgCl2
SiCl4 + 4RMgCl → R4Si + 4MgCl2
The alkylchlorosilanes on hydrolysis form various types of silicones. For example, hydrolysis of trialkylmonochlorosilanes yields sylil ethers, R3SiOSiR3, which form silicones:
2R3SiCl + H2O → R3SiOSiR3 + 2HCl
Silicon tetrachloride reacts with diethylzinc to form tetraethylsilane. This compound was synthesized by Friedel and Crafts in 1863, the first organosilicon compound:
SiCl4 + 2Zn(C2H5)2 → Si(C2H5)4 + 2ZnCl2
Silicon tetrachloride reacts with alkyl chloride and sodium to form thesame tetraalkylsilane:
SiCl4 + 4C2H5Cl + 8Na → Si(C2H5)4 + 8NaCl
Silicon tetrachloride reacts with acetic anhydride to form silicon tetraacetate (tetraacetoxysilane). This reaction was discovered by Friedel and Ladenburg in 1867:
SiCl4 + 4(CH3CO)2O → (CH3COO)4Si + 4CH3COCl
Silicon tetraacetate can also be made by the reaction of silicon tetrachloride with sodium acetate. In general any carboxylate salt of silicon can be prepared from silicon tetrachloride by this reaction:
SiCl4 + 4CH3COO Na → (CH3COO)4Si + 4NaCl
Ladenburg in 1873 synthesized phenyltrichlorosilane, C6H5SiCl3 by heating silicon tetrachloride with diphenylmercury:
SiCl4 + (C6H5)2 Hg → C6H5SiCl3 + C6H5HgCl
Silicon tetrachloride undergoes addition with olefinic and acetylenic unsaturated hydrocarbons. In these addition reactions, one chlorine atom adds to one carbon atom of the double or triple bond while the rest of the unit —SiCl3 attaches to the other carbon atom forming a silicon—carbon bond:
SiCl4 + H2C=CH2 → ClCH2—CH2SiCl3
SiCl4 + HC≡CH → ClCH=CHSiCl3
Silicon tetrachloride is reduced to metallic silicon when heated with sodium, potassium, and a number of metals:
SiCl4 + Mg → Si + MgCl2
It reacts with carbon monoxide to form a compound with a silicon carbon bond:
SiCl4 + CO → ClC(=O)SiCl3
Reaction with excess amine forms amine derivatives of silicon:
SiCl4 + HN(CH3)2 → Si[N(CH3)2]4 + 4HN(CH3)2•HCl

Toxicity

The vapors are very toxic and irritating to the eyes, throat, and mucous membrane.

Description

Chlorosilanes (general formula RnHmSiCl4-n-m, where R is an alkyl, aryl, or olefin group) are compounds in which silicon is bound to between one and four chlorine atoms, bonds with hydrogen and/or organic groups making its total number of bonds up to four. Chlorosilanes react with water, moist air, and steam, producing heat and toxic, corrosive hydrogen chloride fumes. Contact between gaseous hydrogen chloride and metals may release gaseous hydrogen, which is inflammable and explosive. Chlorosilanes react vigorously with oxidizing agents, alcohols, strong acids, strong bases, ketones, and aldehydes.

Chemical Properties

Clear colorless liquid

Uses

. Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) may be used as an intermediate in the manufacture of high purity silicon. High purity silicon derived from silicon tetrachloride may find major applications in the semiconductors industry and photovoltaic cells. . High purity SiCl4 may be used to manufacture of optical fibers.

Uses

Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4), produced when both silicon and chlorine are combined at high temperatures, is used by the military to produce smoke screens.

Uses

Chlorosilanes are chemical intermediates used in the production of silicon and silicon-containing materials, and in the semiconductor industry; they are also protecting agents for intermediates in pharmaceutical syntheses. The most important industrially utilized silicon halides are trichlorosilane and silicon tetrachloride.
Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) can be manufactured by chlorination of silicon compounds such as ferrosilicon or silicon carbide, or by heating silicon dioxide and carbon in a stream of chlorine. It can also be obtained as a by-product in the production of zirconium tetrachloride, and in the past substantial quantities were produced by this route, which in recent decades has lost importance owing to the reduced demand for zirconium in nuclear facilities. Nowadays, industrial silicon tetrachloride is produced either by direct reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon – this product mainly being employed as an intermediate in fumed silica production – or as the by-product of the production of silane for the microelectronics industry by disproportionation of trichlorosilane.

Production Methods

Manufactured directly by the reaction of chlorine on silicon metal or ferrosilicon at 500C or silicon carbide.

General Description

Tetrachlorosilane is a colorless, fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Tetrachlorosilane is decomposed by water to hydrochloric acid with evolution of heat. Tetrachlorosilane is corrosive to metals and tissue in the presence of moisture. Tetrachlorosilane is used in smoke screens, to make various silicon containing chemicals, and in chemical analysis.

Reactivity Profile

Chlorosilanes, such as Tetrachlorosilane, are compounds in which silicon is bonded to from one to four chlorine atoms with other bonds to hydrogen and/or alkyl groups. Chlorosilanes react with water, moist air, or steam to produce heat and toxic, corrosive fumes of hydrogen chloride. They may also produce flammable gaseous H2. They can serve as chlorination agents. Chlorosilanes react vigorously with both organic and inorganic acids and with bases to generate toxic or flammable gases. Tetrachlorosilane is incompatible with alkali metals and dimethyl sulfoxide.

Hazard

Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong irritant to tissue.

Health Hazard

Inhalation causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract resulting in coughing, choking, and a feeling of suffocation; continued inhalation may produce ulceration of the nose, throat, and larynx; if inhaled deeply, edema of the lungs may occur. Contact of liquid with eyes causes severe irritation and painful burns; may cause permanent visual impairment. Liquid may cause severe burns of skin. Repeated skin contact with dilute solutions or exposure to concentrated vapors may cause dermatitis. Ingestion causes severe internal injury with pain in the throat and stomach, intense thirst, difficulty in swallowing, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; in severe cases, collapse and unconsciousness may result.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Contact with water in foam applied to adjacent fires will produce irritating fumes of hydrogen chloride.

Safety Profile

Mildly toxic by inhalation. A corrosive irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Reacts with water to form HCl. Violent reaction with Na, K. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLOROSILANES.

Environmental Fate

Studies of rats subjected to acute inhalation of 10 structurally similar chlorosilanes, including tetrachlorosilane, suggest that the acute toxicity of chlorosilanes is largely due to the hydrogen chloride hydrolysis product. The observed effects were similar to those of HCl inhalation both qualitatively (clinical signs) and quantitatively (molar equivalents of hydrogen chloride at the atmospheric LC50).

Purification Methods

Distil it under vacuum and store it in sealed ampoules under N2. It fumes in moist air and is very sensitive to moisture. It is soluble in organic solvents. It is a strong irritant. [Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 682-683 1963.]

Toxicity evaluation

Silicon tetrachloride is a colorless, noninflammable, volatile liquid with a pungent, suffocating odor. It fumes in air and is corrosive to metals and tissues in the presence of moisture. In experiments at Argonne National Laboratory in which it was mixed with water and stirred under room conditions, about 35% of the theoretical yield of HCl evolved as a gas in the first minute. It also reacts very rapidly with alcohols, primary and secondary amines, ammonia, and other compounds containing active hydrogen atoms. Thermal decomposition or burning may produce dense white clouds of silicon oxide particles and hydrogen chloride.
Silicon tetrachloride is a by-product in the production of polysilicon, the key component of sunlight-capturing wafers in solar energy panels, and for each ton of polysilicon produced, at least four tons of silicon tetrachloride liquid waste are generated. Pollution by silicon tetrachloride has been reported in China, associated with the increased demand for photovoltaic cells that has been stimulated by subsidy programs.

Tetrachlorosilane Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Tetrachlorosilane Suppliers

Global( 203)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-66670886
info@dakenchem.com China 21032 58
Shanghai Time Chemicals CO., Ltd.
+8618017249410 +86-021-57951555
+86-021-57951555 jack.li@time-chemicals.com CHINA 1365 55
ATK CHEMICAL COMPANY LIMITED
+86 21 5161 9050/ 5187 7795
+86 21 5161 9052/ 5187 7796 ivan@atkchemical.com CHINA 26734 60
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258
sales@coreychem.com CHINA 29961 58
City Chemical LLC
2039322489
203.937.8400 sales@citychemical.com United States 97 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 linda@hubeijusheng.com CHINA 28229 58
Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8619930503282
sales3@crovellbio.com China 5361 58
Xiamen AmoyChem Co., Ltd
+86 592-605 1114
sales@amoychem.com CHINA 6369 58
Hubei xin bonus chemical co. LTD
86-13657291602
027-59338440 linda@hubeijusheng.com CHINA 23035 58
Chongqing Chemdad Co., Ltd
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View Lastest Price from Tetrachlorosilane manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2019-07-06 Tetrachlorosilane
10026-04-7
US $1.00 / kg 1kg 98% 500kg career henan chemical co

Tetrachlorosilane Spectrum


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