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Tetrachlorosilane

Physical Properties Uses Preparation Reactions Toxicity
Tetrachlorosilane
Tetrachlorosilane structure
CAS No.
10026-04-7
Chemical Name:
Tetrachlorosilane
Synonyms
SiCl4;CT1800;SIC-L(TM);Perchlorosilane;SillconChloride;chloridkremicity;SILICON CHLORIDE;TETRACHOROSILANE;Chlorid kremicity;Silicium chloride
CBNumber:
CB7412244
Molecular Formula:
Cl4Si
Formula Weight:
169.9
MOL File:
10026-04-7.mol

Tetrachlorosilane Properties

Melting point:
−70 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
57.6 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.483 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 
5.86 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
420 mm Hg ( 37.7 °C)
refractive index 
1.413
Flash point:
57.6°C
storage temp. 
Store below +30°C.
solubility 
Miscible with benzene, toluene, chloroform, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, ether and hydrochloric acid.
form 
Liquid
color 
Colorless
Specific Gravity
1.483
PH
1 (5g/l, H2O)
Water Solubility 
reacts
Sensitive 
Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
14,8500
Stability:
Stability Moisture sensitive - reacts violently with water. Incompatible with water, acids, bases, alcohols, alkali metals, organics, powdered metals.
CAS DataBase Reference
10026-04-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Silane, tetrachloro-(10026-04-7)
EPA Substance Registry System
Silane, tetrachloro-(10026-04-7)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Symbol(GHS) 
GHS05,GHS07,GHS08,GHS06
Signal word  Danger
Hazard statements  H319-H301+H331-H314-H335-H332-H336-H351-H373
Precautionary statements  P309-P402+P404-P261-P280-P301+P310-P305+P351+P338-P310-P301+P310+P330-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340+P310-P403+P233
Hazard Codes  C,Xi
Risk Statements  20/21/22-34-40-36/37/38-14-67-37-35-20/22
Safety Statements  26-7/8-45-36/37/39-28-27
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  VW0525000
10-21
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2812 19 90
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  II

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
0
3 2
Health   3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury (e.g. liquid hydrogen, sulfuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, hexafluorosilicic acid)
Flammability   0 Materials that will not burn under typical fire conditions, including intrinsically noncombustible materials such as concrete, stone, and sand. Materials that will not burn in air when exposed to a temperature of 820 °C (1,500 °F) for a period of 5 minutes.(e.g. Carbon tetrachloride)
Instability   2 Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water (e.g. white phosphorus, potassium, sodium)
Special  

(NFPA, 2010)

Tetrachlorosilane price More Price(20)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 215120 Silicon tetrachloride 99% 10026-04-7 100g $45.1 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 215120 Silicon tetrachloride 99% 10026-04-7 1kg $99.4 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical T0636 Tetrachlorosilane >98.0%(T) 10026-04-7 25g $19 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical T0636 Tetrachlorosilane >98.0%(T) 10026-04-7 100g $32 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar 040148 Silicon(IV) chloride, 99.998% (metals basis) 10026-04-7 25ml $44.2 2018-11-16 Buy

Tetrachlorosilane Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Physical Properties

Colorless fuming liquid; suffocating odor; density 1.52 g/mL; freezes at –68.9°C; boils at 57.7°C; vapor pressure 235 torr at 25°C; critical temperature 235°C; critical pressure 35.45 atm; critical volume 326 cm3/mol; decomposes in water forming silicic acid and HCl; soluble in benzene, toluence, chloroform, and ether.

Uses

Silicon tetrachloride was first prepared by Berzelius in 1823. It is used widely in preparing pure silicon and many organosilicon compounds such as silicone. It also is used to produce smoke screens in warfare.

Preparation

Silicon tetrachloride is prepared by heating silicon dioxide and carbon in a stream of chlorine:
SiO2 + C + 2Cl2 → SiCl4 + CO2
Also, the compound may be prepared by heating silicon with chlorine or dry hydrogen chloride:
Si + 2Cl2 → SiCl4
Si + 4HCl → SiCl4 + 2H2

Reactions

Silicon tetrachloride decomposes in water forming silicic acid (precipitated silica) and hydrochloric acid:
SiCl4 + 3H2O → H2SiO3 + 4HCl
Reactions with alcohols yield esters of orthosilicic acid. For example, with ethanol the product is tetraethyl orthosilicate or tetraethoxysilane, Si(OC2H5)4:
SiCl4 + 4C2H5OH → Si(OC2H5)4 + 4HCl
An important class of organosilicon compounds known as silicones that are used as lubricants, resins, elastomers, and antifoaming agents in high-vacuum diffusion pumps are synthesized from silicon tetrachloride. Silicon tetrachloride reacts with Grignard reagents, RMgCl to form monoalkyltrichlorosilanes, RSiCl3, dialkyldichlorosilanes, R2SiCl2, trialkylmonochlorosilanes, R3SiCl, and tetraalkylsilanes, R4Si:
SiCl4 + RMgCl → RSiCl3 + MgCl2
SiCl4 + 2RMgCl → R2SiCl2 + 2MgCl2
SiCl4 + 3RMgCl → R3SiCl + 3MgCl2
SiCl4 + 4RMgCl → R4Si + 4MgCl2
The alkylchlorosilanes on hydrolysis form various types of silicones. For example, hydrolysis of trialkylmonochlorosilanes yields sylil ethers, R3SiOSiR3, which form silicones:
2R3SiCl + H2O → R3SiOSiR3 + 2HCl
Silicon tetrachloride reacts with diethylzinc to form tetraethylsilane. This compound was synthesized by Friedel and Crafts in 1863, the first organosilicon compound:
SiCl4 + 2Zn(C2H5)2 → Si(C2H5)4 + 2ZnCl2
Silicon tetrachloride reacts with alkyl chloride and sodium to form thesame tetraalkylsilane:
SiCl4 + 4C2H5Cl + 8Na → Si(C2H5)4 + 8NaCl
Silicon tetrachloride reacts with acetic anhydride to form silicon tetraacetate (tetraacetoxysilane). This reaction was discovered by Friedel and Ladenburg in 1867:
SiCl4 + 4(CH3CO)2O → (CH3COO)4Si + 4CH3COCl
Silicon tetraacetate can also be made by the reaction of silicon tetrachloride with sodium acetate. In general any carboxylate salt of silicon can be prepared from silicon tetrachloride by this reaction:
SiCl4 + 4CH3COO Na → (CH3COO)4Si + 4NaCl
Ladenburg in 1873 synthesized phenyltrichlorosilane, C6H5SiCl3 by heating silicon tetrachloride with diphenylmercury:
SiCl4 + (C6H5)2 Hg → C6H5SiCl3 + C6H5HgCl
Silicon tetrachloride undergoes addition with olefinic and acetylenic unsaturated hydrocarbons. In these addition reactions, one chlorine atom adds to one carbon atom of the double or triple bond while the rest of the unit —SiCl3 attaches to the other carbon atom forming a silicon—carbon bond:
SiCl4 + H2C=CH2 → ClCH2—CH2SiCl3
SiCl4 + HC≡CH → ClCH=CHSiCl3
Silicon tetrachloride is reduced to metallic silicon when heated with sodium, potassium, and a number of metals:
SiCl4 + Mg → Si + MgCl2
It reacts with carbon monoxide to form a compound with a silicon carbon bond:
SiCl4 + CO → ClC(=O)SiCl3
Reaction with excess amine forms amine derivatives of silicon:
SiCl4 + HN(CH3)2 → Si[N(CH3)2]4 + 4HN(CH3)2•HCl

Toxicity

The vapors are very toxic and irritating to the eyes, throat, and mucous membrane.

Chemical Properties

Clear colorless liquid

Uses

. Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) may be used as an intermediate in the manufacture of high purity silicon. High purity silicon derived from silicon tetrachloride may find major applications in the semiconductors industry and photovoltaic cells. . High purity SiCl4 may be used to manufacture of optical fibers.

Uses

Silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4), produced when both silicon and chlorine are combined at high temperatures, is used by the military to produce smoke screens.

General Description

Tetrachlorosilane is a colorless, fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Tetrachlorosilane is decomposed by water to hydrochloric acid with evolution of heat. Tetrachlorosilane is corrosive to metals and tissue in the presence of moisture. Tetrachlorosilane is used in smoke screens, to make various silicon containing chemicals, and in chemical analysis.

Reactivity Profile

Chlorosilanes, such as Tetrachlorosilane, are compounds in which silicon is bonded to from one to four chlorine atoms with other bonds to hydrogen and/or alkyl groups. Chlorosilanes react with water, moist air, or steam to produce heat and toxic, corrosive fumes of hydrogen chloride. They may also produce flammable gaseous H2. They can serve as chlorination agents. Chlorosilanes react vigorously with both organic and inorganic acids and with bases to generate toxic or flammable gases. Tetrachlorosilane is incompatible with alkali metals and dimethyl sulfoxide.

Hazard

Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong irritant to tissue.

Health Hazard

Inhalation causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract resulting in coughing, choking, and a feeling of suffocation; continued inhalation may produce ulceration of the nose, throat, and larynx; if inhaled deeply, edema of the lungs may occur. Contact of liquid with eyes causes severe irritation and painful burns; may cause permanent visual impairment. Liquid may cause severe burns of skin. Repeated skin contact with dilute solutions or exposure to concentrated vapors may cause dermatitis. Ingestion causes severe internal injury with pain in the throat and stomach, intense thirst, difficulty in swallowing, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; in severe cases, collapse and unconsciousness may result.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: Contact with water in foam applied to adjacent fires will produce irritating fumes of hydrogen chloride.

Safety Profile

Mildly toxic by inhalation. A corrosive irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Reacts with water to form HCl. Violent reaction with Na, K. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLOROSILANES.

Purification Methods

Distil it under vacuum and store it in sealed ampoules under N2. It fumes in moist air and is very sensitive to moisture. It is soluble in organic solvents. It is a strong irritant. [Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 682-683 1963.]

Tetrachlorosilane Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Tetrachlorosilane Suppliers

Global( 182)Suppliers
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View Lastest Price from Tetrachlorosilane manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2018-12-19 Tetrachlorosilane
10026-04-7
US $1.00 / kg 1kg 98% 500kg career henan chemical co

Tetrachlorosilane Spectrum


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