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HYDRAZINE

Chemical Properties Uses Production
HYDRAZINE
HYDRAZINE structure
CAS No.
302-01-2
Chemical Name:
HYDRAZINE
Synonyms
N2H4;Zerox;Diamid;Diamine;Diazane;Hydrazin;Amerzine;Levoxine;HYDRAZINE;N4,N4'
CBNumber:
CB7742604
Molecular Formula:
H4N2
Formula Weight:
32.05
MOL File:
302-01-2.mol

HYDRAZINE Properties

Melting point:
1,4°C
Boiling point:
65 °C
Density 
1.011 g/mL at 25 °C
vapor density 
>1 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
5 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.47(lit.)
Flash point:
−4 °F
storage temp. 
2-8°C
form 
Liquid
pka
pK1 (25°): ~6.05
color 
Clear colorless
Odor
Fishy or ammonia-like odor detectable at 3 to 4 ppm (mean = 3.7 ppm)
explosive limit
99.99%
Water Solubility 
miscible with H2O and the following alcohols: methyl, ethyl, propyl, isobutyl [MER06]
Merck 
13,4789
BRN 
878137
Exposure limits
TLV-TWA (skin) 1 ppm (1.3 mg/m3 ) (MSHA and OSHA), 0.1 ppm (ACGIH).
Stability:
Stability May be an explosion hazard, particularly if heated. Incompatible with sources of ignition, light, shock, strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, metal oxides, nitrous oxide, hydrogen peroxide, most common metals, organic materials, porous materials such as wood, paper, asbestos, soil or rust. Many types of metal may cause rapid d
CAS DataBase Reference
302-01-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)
HYDRAZINE
FDA 21 CFR
173.310
EWG's Food Scores
9-10
FDA UNII
27RFH0GB4R
IARC
2A (Vol. 4, Sup 7, 71, 115) 2018
Proposition 65 List
Hydrazine
EPA Substance Registry System
Hydrazine (302-01-2)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Symbol(GHS) 
GHS02,GHS07,GHS08,GHS09,GHS05,GHS06
Signal word  Danger
Hazard statements  H225-H302+H312-H315-H317-H319-H331-H350-H410-H302+H332-H335-H301+H331-H314-H226-H301+H311-H330
Precautionary statements  P201-P210-P261-P273-P280-P370+P378-P308+P313-P403+P235-P301+P310+P330-P305+P351+P338-P260-P304+P340+P310
Hazard Codes  T,N,F
Risk Statements  45-23/24/25-34-43-50/53-10-51/53-36/37/38-20/21/22-19-11-36/38
Safety Statements  53-26-36/37-45-61-60-36/37/39-16
RIDADR  UN 3293 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  MU7175000
10-21
Autoignition Temperature 24 °C on iron rust surface; 270 °C on glass surface
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  I
HS Code  28251090
Toxicity LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 57 i.v.; 59 orally (Witkin)
NFPA 704
4
4 3

HYDRAZINE price More Price(10)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 215155 Hydrazine anhydrous, 98% 302-01-2 50g $118 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 215155 Hydrazine anhydrous, 98% 302-01-2 100g $205 2021-03-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar 042561 Hydrazine, standard solution, Specpure?, N2H4 100μg/ml 302-01-2 450ml $92.4 2018-11-16 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 309400 Hydrazine solution 35 wt. % in H2O 302-01-2 500g $115 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 309400 Hydrazine solution 35 wt. % in H2O 302-01-2 5g $39.9 2021-03-22 Buy

HYDRAZINE Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

Hydrazine is a colorless flammable liquid with strong toxicity and instability, and combines easily in the air with water molecules to form hydrazine hydrate. It is also very important for industrial uses such as rocket fuel, photographic development, and in fuel cells.
Hydrazine structure
Hydrazine is the simplest diamine in its class of compounds and may be thought of as derived from ammonia by replacement of a hydrogen atom by the – NH2 group. The hydrated hydrazine, N2H4.H2O was first prepared by Curtius in 1887. The anhydrous hydrazine as a water free base was prepared by De Bruyn for the first time. Preparation of hydrazine by the oxidation of NH3 with hypochlorite – a process that became the chief commercial method of manufacture was first demonstrated by Raschig.

Uses

Hydrazine is mostlyed used as a blowing agent in preparing polymer foams. It is mainly used as rocket fuels, boiler water treatments, chemical reactants, medicines, and in cancer research.

Production

The industrial production of hydrazine always applies Raschin method. In October 1981, the French company Jürgen-Coleman successfully studied the imine hydrogen peroxide oxidation method, which is a promising method of production. Raschin uses ammonia and sodium hypochlorite as raw materials, followed by chlorination and amination to obtain hydrazine: ammonia and sodium hypochlorite are sent into the reactor in 1: 3 (molar ratio) with reaction generating chloramines. Chloramine can react with anhydrous ammonia to generate hydrazine in the hydrazine reactor. We can also use urea as the raw material to have it reacted with sodium hypochlorite-sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of a potassium permanganate catalyst (see hydrazine hydrate, [7803-57-8]).
The dehydrating agent method mixes caustic soda and 50% ~ 54% hydrazine hydrate (the mass ratio is 10: 8), gradually send nitrogen to remove air and heats the alkaline temperature to 118 DEG C. After the caustic soda is completely dissolved, cool to around 60℃, apply vacuum distillation to a distillate containing hydrazine content of 90% to 94%, followed by fractional distillation to remove water, condensation to obtain 98% to 99.5% of anhydrous hydrazine.
Extraction dehydration method: hydrazine hydrate solution can subject to fractionation to distill out of water to until the water and hydrazine become azeotropic (68% hydrazine); the solution is subject to secondary fractionation; add aniline to change its boiling point and distill the aniline and water off from the water; the recovered aniline can be for recycling use; the secondary fractionation solution is further subject to three times fractionation to obtain anhydrous hydrazine.

Description

Hydrazine sulphate, hydrobromide and hydrochloride have been reported to be occupational sensitizers, mainly in soldering flux.

Chemical Properties

HYDRAZINE, colorless, fuming liquid, decomposes when heated above 350 °C at atmospheric pressure into N2 and NH2, also decomposes in presence of a catalyst (e.g., platinum) into N2 and NH3. Hydrazine burns when ignited in air with a violet-colored flame. The compound is soluble in all proportions with H2O and is soluble in alcohol. Hydrazine forms a hydrate with one molecule of H2O. Upon moderate heating or in a vacuum, the hydrate yields hydrazine and H2O. Hydrazine is a base slightly weaker than NH4OH.

Chemical Properties

colourless oily liquid

Physical properties

Colorless, mobile, fuming liquid; ammoniacal odor; density 1.0045 g/mL at25°C; refractive index 1.46044 at 22°C; solidifies at 2°C to a white crystallinesolid; boils at 113.5°C; flash point 52°C; burns with a violet flame; vapor pres-sure 14.4 torr at 25°C; critical temperature 379.85°C; critical pressure 145atm; surface tension 66.67 dyne/cm at 25°C; dielectric constant 51.7 at 25°C;viscosity 0.876 centipoise at 25°C; very soluble in water; forms an azeotropewith water at molar composition of 58.5% hydrazine: 41.5% water (71.48%:28.52% by weight), the azeotrope with water boils at 120.5°C; forms hydrazinehydrate at 1:1 molar concentration in water; soluble in alcohols and other polar solvents; pKa 8.1 at 25°C.

History

Hydrazine was isolated first as a sulfate salt by Curtius in 1887. Earlier, in1875, Fischer prepared and identified the organic derivatives of hydrazine.Raschig in 1906 prepared hydrazine by hypochlorite oxidation of ammonia.
Hydrazine and its derivatives have numerous commercial applications. Itwas used initially as rocket propellant. During World War II, it was used as afuel for rocket-powered fighter planes. However, the most important applications of hydrazine and its derivatives at present are: as blowing agents; forinsect control; in pharmaceuticals; in water treatment; and in fuel cells.Hydrazine derivatives release nitrogen on decomposition, producing foamingaction in polymers to form pores or cells. A large number of hydrazine derivatives are used in agricultural applications as fungicides, herbicides, and pesticides for weed and pest control. A few hydrazide drugs, such as isoniazid [54-85-3] are used extensively for treating tuberculosis. Other applications ofhydrazine include its use in fuel cells; and in wastewater treatment forremoval of iron; iron removal from hot-water heating systems; reduction ofred iron oxide rust into magnetite; and for removal of oxygen to protectagainst corrosion. It also is used in electrolytic plating of metals on glassesand as a reducing agent. Several hydrazine derivatives are used in azo dyes;as coupling agents in color photography; and in explosives and ammunitionprimers.

Uses

Hydrazine is used as a high-energy rocket fuel, as a reducing agent, and for preparing organic hydrazine derivatives. The propellant grade of commercial hydrazine is more than 97.7% active. It is also used as an oxygen scavenger in boiler water. Hydrazine has also been used as an experimental drug for treating tuberculosis and sickle cell anemia.

Uses

Reducing agent for many transition metals and some nonmetals (arsenic, selenium, tellurium), as well as uranium and plutonium; corrosion inhibitor in boiler feedwater and reactor cooling water; waste water treatment; electrolytic plating of metals on glas

Uses

Hydrazine is a highly reactive base and powerful reducing agent. It acts as an oxygen scavenger and is highly reactive with other chemicals. Hydrazine has a number of uses including, as a chemical precursor to blowing agents (e.g., azodicarbonamide and azobisisobutyronitrile), in the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals and pesticides (e.g., isoniazid, fluconazole, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), as a missile and rocket propellant (e.g., used in the F-16 fighter), as a gas-forming agent in air bags (e.g., sodium nitrite), as a corrosion inhibitor and reducing agent in large industrial boilers, and as a fuel source in fuel cells.

Production Methods

Although the earlier processes for the commercial production of hydrazine used urea as a raw material, modern processes employ direct ammonia oxidation. In one such process, reactions occur in two steps:
NH3 + NaOCl → NH2Cl + NaOH (1) NH3 + NH2Cl + NaOH → H2N·NH2 + NaCl + H2O. (2)
High-grade hypochlorite is required for Step 1. Special agents, such as gelatin, ethylenediamine tetracetic acid, glue, high alcohols, and formaldehyde, are required to inhibit undesirable side reactions that would reduce the hydrazine yield through formation of ammonium chloride and N2. In another hydrazine process, chlorine, NH3, and H2SO4, along with methylethyl ketone, are used as the charge. The products of this process include hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine sulfate, ketazine, and dialkyldiazacyclopropane. Hydrazine also is used as a start-up ingredient in the preparation of cooling water for nuclear reactors where it is desired to keep the oxygen content of the water to an absolute minimum and thus decrease corrosion. Oxygen reacts with hydrazine. H2N·NH2 + O2 → N2 + 2H2O. When no oxygen is present in the water, the hydrazine acts as a sink for dissolved oxygen that may enter later, by maintaining metal oxides at their lower oxidation states.
In the laboratory, hydrazine can be prepared by converting one-half of a given amount of NH3 into chloramine, NH2Cl, by sodium hypochlorite solution in the presence of a colloid and heating. The remaining one-half of the NH3 reacts with chloramine to form hydrazine. The product is then cooled to 0 °C and H2SO4 added in amount to react with the hydrazine to form hydrazine sulfate, N2H6SO4, insoluble solid. Hydrazine hemisulfate, (N2H5)2SO4, is soluble in H2O. It can also be made by the reaction of NH3 and hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid.

Production Methods

Hydrazine is a colorless, fuming, oily liquid with an ammonia-like odor. It should be stored in glass containers in a cool, dark place.
Hydrazine is prepared commercially by the Raschig and the urea processes. The Raschig method involves reacting sodium hypochlorite with excess ammonia, flash boiling to recover dilute hydrazine, and fractionating to produce the hydrate. In the urea process, urea is oxidized with hypochlorite to produce the hydrate. Both anhydrous hydrazine and the hydrate are fuming, strongly basic (pKb1=5.52), colorless liquids. Hydrazine may ignite under various circumstances (e.g., on contact with rust) and it decomposes violently in contact with oxidizing materials. It is usually stored under nitrogen to reduce the flammability hazard and to maintain purity.

Definition

A colorless liquid that can be prepared by the oxidation of ammonia with sodium chlorate(I) or by the gas phase reaction of ammonia with chlorine. Hydrazine is a weak base, forming salts (e.g. N2H4.HCl) with strong acids. It is a powerful reducing agent, reducing salts of the noble metals to the metal. Anhydrous hydrazine ignites spontaneously in oxygen and reacts violently with oxidizing agents. The aqueous solution, hydrazine hydrate, has been used as a fuel for jet engines and for rockets.

Definition

hydrazine: A colourless liquid orwhite crystalline solid,N2H4; r.d. 1.01(liquid); m.p. 1.4°C; b.p. 113.5°C. It isvery soluble in water and soluble inethanol. Hydrazine is prepared bythe Raschig synthesis in which ammoniareacts with sodium(I) chlorate(sodium hypochlorite) to give NH2Cl,which then undergoes further reactionwith ammonia to give N2H4. Industrialproduction must be carefullycontrolled to avoid a side reactionleading to NH4Cl. The compound is aweak base giving rise to two series ofsalts, those based on N2H5+, whichare stable in water (sometimes writtenin the form N2H4.HCl rather thanN2H5+Cl-), and a less stable and extensivelyhydrolysed series based onN2H62+. Hydrazine is a powerful reducingagent and reacts violentlywith many oxidizing agents, henceits use as a rocket propellant. It reactswith aldehydes and ketones togive hydrazones.

General Description

Colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. A violent poison. Causes delayed eye irritation. Very corrosive, attacks glass, rubber, and cork. Corrodes molybdenum steels such as Allegheny stainless 316.
It is a strong reducing agent and a flammable liquid and vapour. Hydrazine is a useful building block in organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. There are many kinds of hydrazine compounds, including hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Small amounts of hydrazine occur naturally in plants. Most hydrazines are manufactured for use as rocket propellants and fuels, boiler water treatments, chemical reactants, medicines, and in cancer research. Hydrazines are highly reactive and easily catch fire.

Air & Water Reactions

Fumes in air. Water soluble.

Reactivity Profile

HYDRAZINE are strongly basic and are powerful reducing agents. Note that a 64% solution corresponds to the composition hydrazine hydrate (N2H4.H2O). Spontaneous ignition can occur with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid. Contact with metallic oxide surfaces may lead to flaming decomposition [Haz. Chem. Data (1966)]. The reaction between 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and hydrazine hydrate shattered the reaction flask [Wischmeyer 1967]. Spontaneous ignition occurs when nitrous oxide and hydrazine are mixed [Mellor 8, Supp. 2:214(1967)]. Potassium and sodium dichromate react explosively with hydrazine [Mellor 11:234(1946-1947)]. Hydrazine hydrate reacts with stannous chloride to give stannous dihydrazinechloride, which decomposes explosively when heated [Mellor 7:430(1946-1947)]. Explodes during distillation if traces of air are present. Affected by UV and metal ion catalysis [Merck, 11th ed., 1989].

Hazard

Severe explosion hazard when exposed to heat or by reaction with oxidizers. Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption; strong irritant to skin and eyes; a confirmed carcinogen.

Health Hazard

Hydrazine is extremely destructive to the tissues of the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Skin contact with the liquid can result in severe burns; hydrazine is readily absorbed through the skin, leading to systemic effects, which may include damage to the liver, kidney, nervous system, and red blood cells. Hydrazine vapor is irritating to the nose, throat, and respiratory tract, and inhalation of high concentrations may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, chemical pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema. Symptoms of exposure may include a burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Hydrazine vapor is extremely irritating to the eyes and can cause temporary blindness. Eye contact with the liquid can result in severe burns and permanent damage. Hydrazine is not considered to have adequate warning properties. Hydrazine is listed by IARC in Group 2B "possible human carcinogen" and is classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard.Chronic exposure to subacute levels of hydrazine can cause lethargy, vomiting, tremors, itching and burning of the eyes and skin, conjunctivitis, and contact dermatitis. Hydrazine has been found to exhibit reproductive and developmental toxicity in animal tests.

Fire Hazard

Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.

Flammability and Explosibility

Hydrazine is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) over a very broad range of vapor concentrations (4.7 to 100%). Hydrazine may undergo autoxidation and ignite spontaneously when brought in contact with porous substances such as rusty surfaces, earth, wood, or cloth. Fires should be extinguished with water spray, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers.

Carcinogenicity

Hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate are reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.

Environmental Fate

Hydrazine can be found in the environment in small quantities and is a component of tobacco smoke. However, hydrazine is primarily an industrial chemical that enters the environment by emissions from its use as an aerospace fuel and from industrial facilities that manufacture, process, and/or use this chemical. Treatment and disposal of wastes containing hydrazine also contribute to environmental concentrations. However, hydrazine rapidly degrades in the environment and is rarely encountered outside the industrial setting.

storage

work with hydrazine should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Hydrazine should be used only in areas free of ignition sources. Hydrazine should be stored under nitrogen in containers placed in secondary containers in areas separate from oxidizers and acids.

Purification Methods

Hydrazine hydrate is dried by refluxing with an equal weight of KOH pellets for 3hours, then distilled from fresh solid NaOH or BaO in a current of dry N2. Use stainless steel or copper equipment. Hydrazine and its hydrates have VERY IRRITATING and TOXIC vapours and should be used in an efficient fume cupboard. Store in a well-stoppered vessel, preferably under N2. It is a reducing agent. [Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 469-472 1963.]

Toxicity evaluation

Hydrazine is strongly corrosive and therefore severely irritates the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Systemic toxicity observed after hydrazine exposure is thought to be the result of several possible mechanisms including:
1. Corrosive actions directly with tissue.
2. The reaction of hydrazine with endogenous alpha-keto acids such as vitamin B, (pyridoxine). The formation of hydrazones of pyridoxine is the proposed mechanism by which hydrazine produces the neurological effects observed after exposure.
3. The generation of free radical intermediates, which have been detected during the metabolism of hydrazine in vitro.
The carcinogenicity of hydrazine is believed to be a result of the condensation of hydrazine with endogenous formaldehyde forming a formaldehyde hydrazone, which is further metabolized to a potent DNA methylating agent causing the formation of methylated DNA and transcription errors.

Incompatibilities

Hydrazine is a highly reactive reducing agent that forms shock-sensitive, explosive mixtures with many compounds. It explodes on contact with barium oxide, calcium oxide, chromate salts, and many other substances. On contact with metal catalysts (platinum black, Raney nickel, etc.), hydrazine decomposes to ammonia, hydrogen, and nitrogen gases, which may ignite or explode.

Waste Disposal

In the event of a spill, remove all ignition sources, soak up the hydrazine with a spill pillow or absorbent material, place in an appropriate container, and dispose of properly. Evacuation and cleanup using respiratory protection may be necessary in the event of a large spill or release in a confined area. Disposal Excess hydrazine and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.

HYDRAZINE Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


HYDRAZINE Suppliers

Global( 99)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 linda@hubeijusheng.com CHINA 28229 58
Hubei xin bonus chemical co. LTD
86-13657291602
027-59338440 linda@hubeijusheng.com CHINA 23035 58
Standardpharm Co. Ltd.
86-714-3992388
overseasales1@yongstandards.com United States 14344 58
CONIER CHEM AND PHARMA LIMITED
86-18523575427
sales@conier.com CHINA 47496 58
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
0551-65418671
0551-65418697 sales@tnjchem.com CHINA 37441 58
Dideu Industries Group Limited
029-88380327
Service@dideu.com CHINA 29986 58
Mainchem Co., Ltd. +86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sale@mainchem.com CHINA 32439 55
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 010-82848833-
86-10-82849933 jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com China 96815 76
Beijing dtftchem Technology Co., Ltd. 13651141086
86 (10) 60270825 dtftchem@sina.com China 3392 62
Beijing Ouhe Technology Co., Ltd 13552068683 010-82967028-
+86-10-82967029 2355560935@qq.com China 12356 60

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View Lastest Price from HYDRAZINE manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2021-04-24 HYDRAZINE
302-01-2
US $10.00 / KG 1KG 99% 10 mt Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
2020-01-03 Hydrazine
302-01-2
US $0.10 / KG 1KG 99.0% 1000 tons Shaanxi Dideu Medichem Co. Ltd

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