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Vancomycin hydrochloride

Glycopeptide antibiotics Vancomycin Pharmacokinetics Dosing instructions Side effects Uses
Vancomycin hydrochloride
Vancomycin hydrochloride structure
CAS No.
1404-93-9
Chemical Name:
Vancomycin hydrochloride
Synonyms
Meek;VANCOR;LYPHOCIN;VANCOCIN;Vancocyn;VANCOMYCIN HCL;VancoMycin HC1;ycin hydrochloride;vancocinehydrochloride;VANCOCIN HYDROCHLORIDE
CBNumber:
CB8117577
Molecular Formula:
C66H76Cl3N9O24
Formula Weight:
1485.71
MOL File:
1404-93-9.mol

Vancomycin hydrochloride Properties

Melting point:
>190°C (dec.)
alpha 
[α]D20 -30~-40゜ (c=1, H2O)
Flash point:
87℃
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
H2O: 50 mg/mL, clear, yellow
form 
Powder
color 
colorless to faint yellow or tan
PH
pH (50g/l, 25℃) : 2.5~4.5
Water Solubility 
Soluble in water. Slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide.
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
Merck 
13,9995
BRN 
3704657
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xi
Risk Statements  43-42
Safety Statements  36/37-24/25-22-36
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  YW4380000
8-10-21
HS Code  29419090
Toxicity LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 489 i.v.; 1734 i.p.; 5000 s.c.; 5000 orally (Anderson)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled Sensitisation, respiratory Category 1 Danger P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
Precautionary statements:
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P321 Specific treatment (see … on this label).
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P333+P313 IF SKIN irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P342+P311 IF experiencing respiratory symptoms: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.

Vancomycin hydrochloride price More Price(25)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 75423 Vancomycin supplement for microbiology 1404-93-9 5vl $158 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1709007 Vancomycin hydrochloride 197638-25-8 4vl $357.7 2018-11-20 Buy
Alfa Aesar J62790 Vancomycin hydrochloride Molecular Biology Grade 1404-93-9 5g $202 2018-11-20 Buy
Alfa Aesar J62790 Vancomycin hydrochloride Molecular Biology Grade 1404-93-9 1g $92.7 2018-11-20 Buy
Cayman Chemical 15327 Vancomycin (hydrochloride) ≥98% 1404-93-9 5g $179 2018-11-13 Buy

Vancomycin hydrochloride Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Glycopeptide antibiotics

Vancomycin hydrochloride is a glycopeptide antibiotic and is the hydrochloride salt of vancomycin. It is white or white-like crystalline powder at room temperature. Its mechanism of action is that it can bind with high affinity to the poly-terminus alanyl-alanine of the precursor peptide located on the cell wall the sensitive bacterial cells, blocking the biosynthesis of the peptide glycan polymer constituting the bacterial cell wall, and thus resulting in the defects of cell wall and further killing bacteria. In addition, it is also possible to change the permeability of the bacterial cell membrane, and selectively inhibit the synthesis of RNA. The characteristic of vancomycin hydrochloride is its strong bactericidal effect against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and streptococcus pneumoniae. It also has certain anti-bacteria effects on Streptococci anaerobius, Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, Actinomycetes, Corynebacterium diphtheria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus bovis, and Streptococcus faecalis. However, for most Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacterium, Rickettsia genus, Chlamydia or fungi, it is invalid. It is clinically applicable to the treatment of infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria: sepsis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, burns injury, surgical trauma and other superficial secondary infection, pneumonia, lung abscess, empyema, peritonitis, meningitis, pseudomembranous colitis, and skin and soft tissue infections. It is the primary choice for patients who are allergic to penicillin and suffer from the enterococcal endocarditis and Corynebacterium (class diphtheria sp) endocarditis.

Vancomycin

Vancomycin belongs to ploy-peptide antibiotics. It is a kind of glycopeptide antibiotics originate from the Streptomyces Orientalis or Amycolatopsis Orientalis. At the late 1950s, the drug had emerged due to its excellent efficacy in treating penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus and because a strong “trump card” antibiotics of anti-G + bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and so on. Subsequently, owing to the discovery of its relative high toxicity, together with the marketing of less-toxic anti-staphylococcal semi-synthetic penicillin and cephalosporin in 1960s and then not very sharp issue of drug resistance, its application was limited. In recent years, because of the increases in cases of infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as the demonstration of Clostridium difficile (CD) as the major reason causing antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis, the application cases of vancomycin have been increasing which re-establish the special status of vancomycin in clinical practice. Since 1990s, vancomycin has been always regarded by international experts of antibiotics as "the last line of defense against human intractable drug-resistant strains".
From the results of some literature and the distribution of current clinical drug-resistant strains, vancomycin is the primary choice of drug for treating diseases caused by the infection of the MRSA and MRSE. The efficacy of vancomycin in treating CD-associated diarrhea or pseudomembranous colitis is also quite positive, especially for severely sick patients; in addition, for the severe infection caused by the rare penicillin-resistant pneumococcal infections G and penicillin-resistant Corynebacterium JK strain, vancomycin is also a top-grade drug for treating it.
Owing to the good efficacy of vancomycin in treating various kinds of diseases caused by drug-resistant bacteria, its marketing sales in nearly 10 years has kept increasing year by year. A few years ago, the increasing rate of international market of vancomycin was maintained at 3-4%, and has risen to 5-6% in the recent two years. According to the estimation of antibiotic expert, the global output in the middle of 1990 s of averaged 20-25 tons per year, and this value had risen to 30 tons in 1999.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.

Pharmacokinetics

It is poor absorbed through oral administration. Intravenous administration can make it be widely distributed in most body tissues and fluids. Intravenous infusion of 500 mg and 1g yields a peak plasma concentration being 10-30mg/L and 25-50mg/L, respectively.
The volume of distribution of the drug is 0.43-1.25L/kg. Its effective antimicrobial concentrations can be achieved in the serum, pericardium, pleura, peritoneum, ascites, and synovial fluid but not in the bile. Vancomycin hydrochloride can penetrate through the placenta but not be able to quickly penetrate through the normal blood-brain barrier and can be introduced into cerebrospinal fluid to reach effective antimicrobial concentration only upon meninges inflammation.
The protein binding rate of this drug is about 55%. Its elimination half-life in adults is 6 hours (4-11 hours) in average and can extend to 7.5 day in patients with severe renal insufficiency; for children, it is about 2-3 hours. The drug is metabolized through the liver with about 80%-90% being excreted through renal within 24 hours in its prototype and a small amount being excreted through milk and bile. Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is not able to effectively remove the drug; however, it has been reported that blood perfusion or blood filtration can improve the clearance rate.

Dosing instructions

1. this drug has a strong irritation effect on the tissue is not suitable for intramuscular or intravenous injection; intravenous infusion should try to avoid liquid leakage.
2. In order to reduce the incidence of adverse reactions (such as "red neck syndrome", thrombophlebitis), the intravenous infusion rate should not be too fast with each infusion time beinng at least 1 hour or more.
3. for the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis, the treatment period should be not less than 28 days.
4. vancomycin hydrochloride is incompatible for being used in combination with chloramphenicol, heparin, aminophylline, sodium bicarbonate, steroid hormones, methicillin, medicines containing heavy metals, and other alkaline solution.
5. overdose treatment: excessive administration of vancomycin hydrochloride can cause oliguria and renal failure. Treatment process comprising: (1) symptomatic and supportive treatment. (2) Conventional hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is ineffective in clearing the drugs; but blood perfusion or blood filtration can increase the drug clearance rate.
6. preparation of the solution: (1) Preparation of oral solution: every bottle containing 500 mg of vancomycin should be diluted with distilled water to prepare 500mg/6ml solution for oral administration, the oral solution can be stored for 14 days at 4 °C refrigerator. (2) Preparation of intravenous fluid infusion: ① intermittent infusion, the solution is prepared with 500mg drugs and 10 ml water, and then add it to a 5% glucose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection for dilution to less than 5mg/ml before the infusion. The infusion time of a dose of 500mg should be at least 60 minutes and should be at least 100 minutes for a dose of 1000 mg. For patients who is necessary to subject to restricted liquid amount, the highest concentrations can be up to 10mg/ml. ② Upon continuous intravenous infusion, 1~2g dose needs to be added to a sufficient amount of 5% glucose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection.
7. the maintenance dose for patients of renal dysfunction can be calculated as follows: the maintenance dose (md/d) = 150 + (15 × creatinine clearance rate of the patient ml/min).
8. plasma concentration should be monitored during treatment; the peak concentration should not exceed 25~40μg/ml, trough concentration should not exceed 5~10μg/ml. Concentration higher than 60μg/ml is within the range of poisoning. If you can’t monitor the blood concentration, adjust the dose according to the creatinine clearance rate.

Side effects

The main adverse reactions in clinical application of vancomycin hydrochloride as follows:
Ototoxicity: there may be a sense of fullness or tinnitus ear, hearing loss or absence, damage of auditory nerve. In large doses, long time application, the elderly or patients of renal insufficient, it is especially prone to get these symptoms.
Renal toxicity: The main damage is on renal tubules. At early stage, there may be proteinuria, urinary tube, followed by hematuria, oliguria, etc; in severe cases, there may be kidney failure. In high dose (plasma concentrations exceed 60~100mg/L), long time application, the elderly or patients of renal insufficient, it is especially prone to get these symptoms.
Allergy: upon fast, high-dose of intravenous administration, a small number of patients can get "red neck syndrome." Manifested as chills or fever, fainting, itching, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, rash or facial flushing; redness or tingling(caused by the release of histamine) in root neck, upper body, back, arm, etc; there may be also occasionally low blood pressure and shock-like symptoms happening. The incidence is higher than norvancomycin and teicoplanin.
Local reactions: intramuscular injection or intravenous administration may cause severe pain at the injection site pain with causing thrombophlebitis in severe cases.
Gastrointestinal: Oral administration may cause nausea, vomiting, bad smell of mouth and so on.

Uses

It has a narrow antimicrobial spectrum which is mainly against Gram-positive bacteria.
It is a kind of narrow-spectrum antibiotics only effective in treating gram-positive bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and enterococci; etc which are all sensitive to this drug. Staphylococcus aureus is particularly sensitive to this product. Its mechanism of action is inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis; it mainly binds to the bacterial cell wall and leaving some kinds of amino acids being unable to enter into the glycopeptides of the cell wall.

Chemical Properties

off white powder

Uses

Amphoteric glycopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces orientalis discovered in soil. Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to peptidoglycan. Antibacterial.

Uses

Vancomycin hydrochloride is the salt of a glycopeptide antibiotic isolated from Amycolatopsis orientalis in 1956. Vancomycin exhibits potent activity against Gram positive bacteria and is highly effective against MRSA in vitro and in vivo. Vancomycin interferes with cell wall synthesis by binding to D-alanine-D-alanine residues.

brand name

Vancocin Hydrochloride (ViroPharma); Vancoled (Baxter Healthcare); Vancor (Pharmacia & Upjohn).

General Description

The isolation of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin(Vancocin, Vancoled) from Streptomyces orientalis (renamedA. orientalis) was described in 1956 by McCormick et al.232The organism originally was obtained from cultures of anIndonesian soil sample and subsequently has been obtainedfrom Indian soil. Vancomycin was introduced in 1958 as anantibiotic active against Gram-positive cocci, particularlystreptococci, staphylococci, and pneumococci. It is not activeagainst Gram-negative bacteria, with the exception ofNeisseria spp. Vancomycin is recommended for use wheninfections fail to respond to treatment with the more commonantibiotics or when the infection is known to be caused by aresistant organism. It is particularly effective for the treatmentof endocarditis caused by Gram-positive bacteria.
Vancomycin hydrochloride is a free-flowing, tan tobrown powder that is relatively stable in the dry state. It isvery soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents. Vancomycin inhibits cell wall synthesis by preventingthe synthesis of cell wall mucopeptide polymer. It does soby binding with the D-alanine-D-alanine terminus of theuridine diphosphate-N-acetylmuramyl peptides requiredfor mucopeptide polymerization.236 Details of the bindingwere elucidated by the elegant NMR studies of Williamson.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

Vancomycin should only be used to treat infections that are documented resistant to other antibiotics and susceptible to vancomycin, usually methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (MRSA) or multidrug-resistant Enterococcus spp. It potentially is useful for oral treatment of pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridia difficile.

Vancomycin hydrochloride Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Vancomycin hydrochloride Suppliers

Global( 291)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Shenzhen Sendi Biotechnology Co.Ltd.
0755-23311925 18102838259
0755-23311925 Abel@chembj.com CHINA 3202 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32451 55
Shanghai Yingrui Biopharma Co., Ltd.
+86-21-33585366 E-mail:sales03@shyrchem.com
+86-21-34979012 sales03@shyrchem.com CHINA 661 60
Hubei XinRunde Chemical Co., Ltd.
+8615102730682; +8618874586545
02783214688 bruce@xrdchem.cn CHINA 539 55
ATK CHEMICAL COMPANY LIMITED
+86 21 5161 9050/ 5187 7795
+86 21 5161 9052/ 5187 7796 ivan@atkchemical.com CHINA 24195 60
Xiamen AmoyChem Co., Ltd
+86 (0)592-605 1114
sales@amoychem.com CHINA 6373 58
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258
sales@coreychem.com CHINA 25795 58
Biochempartner
0086-13720134139
candy@biochempartner.com CHINA 955 58
Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
86-21-51086038
86-21-51861608 chemwill_asia@126.com;sales@chemwill.com;chemwill@hotmail.com;chemwill@gmail.com CHINA 23958 58
QUALITY CONTROL CHEMICALS INC.
(323) 306-3136
(626) 453-0409 orders@qcchemical.com United States 8407 58

View Lastest Price from Vancomycin hydrochloride manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2018-08-20 Vancomycin hydrochloride
1404-93-9
US $1.00 / KG 1G 98% 100KG career henan chemical co

Vancomycin hydrochloride Spectrum


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