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Lactic acid

Lactic acid
Lactic acid structure
Chemical Name:
Lactic acid
Purac;sy-83;E 270;propel;Lactic;Biolac;MILK ACID;Patlac LA;FEMA 2611;Chem-Cast
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Lactic acid Properties

Melting point:
Boiling point:
122 °C15 mm Hg(lit.)
-0.05 º (c= neat 25 ºC)
1.209 g/mL at 25 °C
refractive index 
n20/D 1.4262
Flash point:
>230 °F
storage temp. 
Miscible with water and with ethanol (96 per cent).
3.08(at 100℃)
Colorless to yellow
Specific Gravity
Water Solubility 
JECFA Number
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS DataBase Reference
50-21-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-(50-21-5)
EPA Substance Registry System
Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-(50-21-5)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xi,C
Risk Statements  38-41-34-37/38
Safety Statements  26-39-45-36/37/39
RIDADR  3265
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  OD2800000
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29181100
HS Code  29181100
Hazardous Substances Data 50-21-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H290 May be corrosive to metals Corrosive to Metals Category 1 Warning P234, P390, P404
H303 May be harmfulif swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 5 P312
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
Precautionary statements:
P234 Keep only in original container.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P321 Specific treatment (see … on this label).
P390 Absorb spillage to prevent material damage.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P332+P313 IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P405 Store locked up.
P406 Store in corrosive resistant/… container with a resistant inner liner.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

Lactic acid price More Price(30)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 252476 Lactic acid solution ACS reagent, ≥85% 50-21-5 1kg $116 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1356734 Lactic acid United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 50-21-5 3x1.5ml $424 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical L0226 DL-Lactic Acid >85.0%(T) 50-21-5 25g $22 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical L0226 DL-Lactic Acid >85.0%(T) 50-21-5 500g $39 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar 035628 Lactic acid, 1.0N Standardized Solution 50-21-5 500ml $59.6 2018-11-16 Buy

Lactic acid Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid, CH3-CHOH-COOH) is the most widely occurring organic acid in nature. Due to its chiral a-carbon atom, lactic acid (LA) has two enantiomeric forms. Of these, L-(+)-lactic acid is more important in food and pharmaceutical industries because humans have only L-lactate dehydrogenase. The chemical behavior of lactic acid is mostly determined by the two functional groups. Besides the acidic character in aqueous medium, the bifunctionality (a terminal carboxylic acid and a hydroxyl group) allows lactic acid molecules to form ‘‘interesters’’ such as the cyclic dimers, the trimers, or longer lactic acid oligomers.
After its first isolation by the Swedish chemist Scheel in 1780 from sour milk, lactic acid has been produced commercially since the 1880s in the United States and later in Europe. Worldwide, lactic acid production was approximately 250,000 metric tons per year in 2012 and is expected to reach 330,000 metric tons by the year 2015, with an average price of 1.25 US$ per kilogram in 2013 (food grade, 80–85 % purity).
Approximately 85 % of the demand for LA is from the food industry. The primary use of lactic acid is as a pH-adjusting agent in the beverage sector and as a preservative in the food industry. It is included in the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration [158] as a food ingredient and was deemed safe by the European Food Safety Authority as well [159]. The acceptable daily intake for LA was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives as ‘‘not limited,’’ and it is also supported by the Scientific Committee of Food.
In recent decades, the consumption of lactic acid due to its novel applications has grown quite rapidly, by 19 % per year. Nonfood use of lactic acid for polymer production contributes to this growth. Biodegradable polylactic acid is considered to be an environmentally friendly alternative to other plastics from petroleum. It is used in various fields, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, fibers, and packaging materials.
Lactic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis or carbohydrate fermentation. The chemical route has various issues, including toxic raw materials, low conversion rates, and especially the inability to produce the optically pure isomer. Therefore, approximately 90 % of lactic acid worldwide is produced by biotechnological processes, namely fermentations using renewable resources, which is relatively fast, economical, and able to supply selectively one or two stereoisomers of lactic acid.

Chemical Properties

Lactic acid consists of a mixture of 2-hydroxypropionic acid, its condensation products, such as lactoyllactic acid and other polylactic acids, and water. It is usually in the form of the racemate, (RS)-lactic acid, but in some cases the (S)-(+)-isomer is predominant.
Lactic acid is a practically odorless, colorless or slightly yellowcolored, viscous, hygroscopic, nonvolatile liquid.

Chemical Properties

Lactic acid, CH3CHOHCOOH, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a hygroscopic liquid that exists in three isometric forms. I-lactic acid is found in blood and animal tissue as a product of glucose and glycogen metabolism. d-Iactic acid is obtained by fermentation of sucrose (corn refining), The racemic mixture is present in foods prepared by bacterial fermentation or prepared synthetically. Lactic acid is soluble in water,alcohol,and ether. It is used as a solvent, in manufacturing confectionery, and in medicine.


Prostaglandin E1 analogue


lactic acid (sodium lactate) is a multi-purpose ingredient used as a preservative, exfoliant, moisturizer, and to provide acidity to a formulation. In the body, lactic acid is found in the blood and muscle tissue as a product of the metabolism of glucose and glycogen. It is also a component of the skin’s natural moisturizing factor. Lactic acid has better water intake than glycerin. Studies indicate an ability to increase the water-retention capacity of the stratum corneum. They also show that the pliability of the stratum corneum layer is closely related to the absorption of lactic acid; that is, the greater the amount of absorbed lactic acid, the more pliable the stratum corneum layer. Researchers report that continuous use of preparations formulated with lactic acid in concentrations ranging between 5 and 12 percent provided a mild to moderate improvement in fine wrinkling and promote softer, smoother skin. Its exfoliating properties can help in the process of removing excess pigment from the surface of the skin, as well as improving skin texture and feel. Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid occurring in sour milk and other lesser-known sources, such as beer, pickles, and foods made through a process of bacterial fermentation. It is caustic when applied to the skin in highly concentrated solutions.


Lactic Acid is an acidulant that is a natural organic acid present in milk, meat, and beer, but is normally associated with milk. it is a syrupy liquid available as 50 and 88% aqueous solutions, and is mis- cible in water and alcohol. it is heat stable, nonvolatile, and has a smooth, milk acid taste. it functions as a flavor agent, preservative, and acidity adjuster in foods. it is used in spanish olives to prevent spoilage and provide flavor, in dry egg powder to improve disper- sion and whipping properties, in cheese spreads, and in salad dress- ing mixes.


ChEBI: A 2-hydroxy monocarboxylic acid that is propanoic acid in which one of the alpha-hydrogens is replaced by a hydroxy group.

Production Methods

Lactic acid is prepared by the fermentation of carbohydrates, such as glucose, sucrose, and lactose, with Bacillus acidi lacti or related microorganisms. On a commercial scale, whey, corn starch, potatoes, or molasses are used as a source of carbohydrate. Lactic acid may also be prepared synthetically by the reaction between acetaldehyde and carbon monoxide at 130–200°C under high pressure, or by the hydrolysis of hexoses with sodium hydroxide.
Lactic acid prepared by the fermentation of sugars is levorotatory; lactic acid prepared synthetically is racemic. However, lactic acid prepared by fermentation becomes dextrorotatory on dilution with water owing to the hydrolysis of (R)-lactic acid lactate to (S)- lactic acid.

Biotechnological Production

Lactic acid is produced biotechnologically in general by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria. More information about this process and new trends are described later in this chapter.

General Description

A colorless to yellow odorless syrupy liquid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used to make cultured dairy products, as a food preservative, and to make chemicals.

Air & Water Reactions

Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Lactic acid is a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acids donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. Their reactions with bases, called "neutralizations", are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. Carboxylic acids with six or fewer carbon atoms are freely or moderately soluble in water; those with more than six carbons are slightly soluble in water. Soluble carboxylic acid dissociate to an extent in water to yield hydrogen ions. The pH of solutions of carboxylic acids is therefore less than 7.0. Many insoluble carboxylic acids react rapidly with aqueous solutions containing a chemical base and dissolve as the neutralization generates a soluble salt. Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Such reactions occur in principle for solid carboxylic acids as well, but are slow if the solid acid remains dry. Even "insoluble" carboxylic acids may absorb enough water from the air and dissolve sufficiently in Lactic acid to corrode or dissolve iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. Carboxylic acids, like other acids, react with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. The reaction is slower for dry, solid carboxylic acids. Insoluble carboxylic acids react with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by the reaction of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. Carboxylic acids, especially in aqueous solution, also react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. Their reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates generates a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. Like other organic compounds, carboxylic acids can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. A wide variety of products is possible. Like other acids, carboxylic acids may initiate polymerization reactions; like other acids, they often catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions. Slowly corrodes most metals [USCG, 1999].

Health Hazard

Inhalation of mist causes coughing and irritation of mucous membranes. Ingestion, even of diluted preparations, has a corrosive effect on the esophagus and stomach. Contact with more concentrated solutions can cause severe burns of skin or eye.

Fire Hazard

Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Lactic acid is used in beverages, foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals as an acidifying agent and acidulant.
In topical formulations, particularly cosmetics, it is used for its softening and conditioning effect on the skin. Lactic acid may also be used in the production of biodegradable polymers and microspheres, such as poly(D-lactic acid), used in drug delivery systems.
Lactic acid is also used as a food preservative. Therapeutically, lactic acid is used in injections, in the form of lactate, as a source of bicarbonate for the treatment of metabolic acidosis; as a spermicidal agent; in pessaries for the treatment of leukorrhea; in infant feeds; and in topical formulations for the treatment of warts.


Lactic acid occurs in appreciable quantities in the body as an end product of the anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrates and, while harmful in the concentrated form , can be considered nontoxic at the levels at which it is used as an excipient. A 1% v/v solution, for example, is harmless when applied to the skin.
There is evidence that neonates have difficulty in metabolizing (R)-lactic acid, and this isomer and the racemate should therefore not be used in foods intended for infants aged less than 3 months old.
There is no evidence that lactic acid is carcinogenic, teratogenic, or mutagenic.
LD50 (guinea pig, oral): 1.81 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 4.88 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, SC): 4.5 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 3.73 g/kg


Lactic acid is hygroscopic and will form condensation products such as polylactic acids on contact with water. The equilibrium between the polylactic acids and lactic acid is dependent on concentration and temperature. At elevated temperatures lactic acid will form lactide, which is readily hydrolyzed back to lactic acid.
Lactic acid should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.


Incompatible with oxidizing agents, iodides, and albumin. Reacts violently with hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM, IV, and SC injections; oral syrups and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). Included in medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Lactic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Lactic acid Suppliers

Global( 318)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Zhonglan Industry Co., Ltd.
(86) 531-82956570
(86) 531-82956571 CHINA 748 58
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-55531817 CHINA 21990 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20680 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733 CHINA 32457 55
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
86-0551-65418684 18949823763
86-0551-65418684 China 1730 55
Xiamen AmoyChem Co., Ltd
+86 (0)592-605 1114 CHINA 6374 58
Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
86-21-51861608;;; CHINA 24001 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-188-71490254 CHINA 20095 58
Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd
+86 531 8582 1093 CHINA 4669 58
Hebei Guanlang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
+8619930501651 CHINA 923 58

View Lastest Price from Lactic acid manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2019-04-02 Lactic acid Manufacturer; In stock GMP Factory
US $1.00 / KG 1KG High quality manufacturer TOP 3 largest production factory in China Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
2018-12-17 Lactic acid
US $1.00 / kg 1kg 99% 100KG career henan chemical co
2018-11-05 Factory 80% lactic acid for food grade
US $1.00 / KG 1KG 99% 20tons Hebei Chisure Biotechnology Co., Ltd.

Lactic acid Spectrum

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