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Non-linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Molecular Structure Chemical properties Uses Preparation
Chemical Name:
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Phenanthrene Properties

Melting point:
98-100 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
340 °C(lit.)
1.063 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
refractive index 
Flash point:
storage temp. 
Soluble in alcohol, benzene, toluene, and glacial acetic acid
platelets (fine)
Water Solubility 
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS DataBase Reference
85-01-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
EPA Substance Registry System
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn,N,F,T
Risk Statements  22-36/37/38-50-50/53-40-67-65-38-11-52/53-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-63-43-45-20/21/22-20
Safety Statements  26-60-61-36/37-29-62-45-16-7-24/25-23-53-37/39-22-33-25-9
RIDADR  UN 3077 9/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  SF7175000
HazardClass  9
PackingGroup  III
Hazardous Substances Data 85-01-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 i.p. in mice: 700 mg/kg (IARC)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways Aspiration hazard Category 1 Danger
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 2
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P281 Use personal protective equipment as required.
P311 Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P330 Rinse mouth.
P331 Do NOT induce vomiting.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

Phenanthrene price More Price(27)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 40079 Phenanthrene solution certified reference material, 5000μg/mL in methanol 85-01-8 1EA $42 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 31304 Phenanthrene solution 100μg/mL in cyclohexane, analytical standard 85-01-8 2ml $50 2018-11-20 Buy
TCI Chemical P0079 Phenanthrene >97.0%(GC) 85-01-8 25g $24 2017-12-01 Buy
TCI Chemical P0079 Phenanthrene >97.0%(GC) 85-01-8 500g $240 2017-12-01 Buy
Alfa Aesar A19646 Phenanthrene, tech. 90% 85-01-8 500g $183 2018-11-13 Buy

Phenanthrene Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Non-linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Phenanthrene is the simplest non-linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with three benzene ring structure, being the isomer of the anthracene. In 1872 E. Ostermayer et al has identified the phenanthrene in the anthracene oil fraction in coal tar distillate, being one of coal tar processing products. In the high-temperature coal tar, the phenanthrene content is secondary only to naphthalene, being about 4~6%, mainly concentrated in the anthracene oil fractions. The chemical activity of phenanthrene is stronger than that of naphthalene, but it is weaker than that of anthracene, and the oxidation and addition reactions can also occur at 9 and 10 positions.
The phenanthrene is a colorless crystal with luster, and the phenanthrene precipitated from ethanol is a colorless monoclinic crystal. The phenanthrene is a leaf-like crystal with a relative density of 1.179 (25/4 ℃) and a refractive index of 1.6450, melting point of 101 °C and boiling point of 340 °C. It can subject to sublimation, being insoluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, soluble in ether, benzene, acetic acid, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide. The solution exhibits blue fluorescence. The 1, 4, 5, 8-positions are the same, known as α-position; the 2, 3, 6, 7-position are also the same, known as β-position; the 9, 10-positions are the same, known as the ?-position. Its chemical property is between naphthalene and anthracene. It can also have addition reaction in the 9, 10-position, but not as easy as anthracene. Oxidation also occurs at the 9, 10-position with oxidization giving phenanthrenequinone. Substitution reactions may also occur. It can also be obtained through separation from the anthracene oil fraction of coal tar oil. Phenanthrene can be used in the manufacture of pesticides and dyes, but also be used as the stabilizer of the high efficiency & low toxicity pesticides and smokeless powder explosives.
Phenanthrene can be used to produce dyes, drugs and resins after conversion processing. The oxidation products phenanthrenequinone can be used as dyes, fungicides and polymerization inhibitors; 9, 10-biphenyl dicarboxylic acid is used to manufacture polyester and alkyd resin; 9, 10-dihydro-9-phenathroic acid is a plant growth-stimulating hormone; Perhydrophenanthrene made through hydrogenation of phenanthrene can be used in the production of jet fuel; its sulfonated product, phenanthrene sulfonic acid can be used as binder and tanning.
The phenanthrene-containing mother liquor during the production of refined anthracene using solvent method, after recovery of solvent and further crystallization filtration, can give crude phenanthrene containing 40% phenanthrene.
The crude phenanthrene, after removing of residue solvents in the melting kettle and then rectified in the rectifying tower with 20 theoretical plates, the fractions of 335 to 340 °C are cut out, followed by cooling, crystallization and filtering to obtain the industrial phenanthrene with the phenanthrene content of more than 70%. .
The above information is compiled by Tongtong from Chemicalbook.

Molecular Structure

The molecular structure of phenanthrene and anthracene are similar with each other with all the atoms located in the same plane, but not in the same line, being a closed conjugate system with aromatic property. The 1, 2, 3, 4, 10 positions and 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 positions inside the molecules correspond to each other, respectively, but there were differences in activity at the 5 positions, among which 9 and 10 had higher activity with substitution, oxidation and addition occurring in 9 and 10 positions:
9 and 10 positions
Phenanthrenequinone is a pesticide used as germicide seed dressing, being able to prevent wheat scab, hard smut and sweet potato black spot.
Industrial Phenanthrene is derived from distillation of anthracene oil derived from coal tar distillate. Many kinds of natural products (such as sterols) contain this ring system. Phenanthrene is mainly used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, high efficiency and low toxicity of pesticides, and can be used as scintillants, smokeless powder stabilizer. Many of the phenanthrene derivatives have carcinogenic physiological effects. Such as:
carcinogenic physiological effects

The molecular structure of 2-methyl-3, 4-benzophenanthrene and 1, 2, 3, 4-dibenzophene

Chemical properties

It appears as white luster and fluorescent flake crystals. It is not soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, soluble in ether, acetic acid, benzene, carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide.


It can be used for the manufacturing of phenanthrenequinone, synthetic resin, pesticides and preservatives and so on.
Phenanthrene, through the oxidation, can give phenanthrenequinone, to be used to replace the organic mercurial pesticides ceresin and gallotox. The biphenyl acid obtained from its oxidation can be used to prepare alkyd resin. Phenanthrene oxidation can also give anhydride, cyclohexanone and phenol. The chlorination products of phenanthrene can be used to make non-flammable electrical insulators and impregnants. The sulfonated phenanthrene sulfonic acid can be made of binder, tanning and so on. But in fact most of these applications have yet to be developed. In the paper industry, the Phenanthrene can be used as pulp antifogging agent; can also be used for nitroglycerine explosives and nitrocellulose stabilizer and for the manufacture of smoke bomb; the solid oxide of phenanthrene can be made of excellent flame resistant electrical insulating materials and fillers. In medicine, phenanthrene can be used for synthesizing alkaloids-morphine and caffeine, dimethyl morphine as well as drugs with special physiological effects on many reproductive organs. In the dye industry, the Phenanthrene can be made of 2-aminophenanthrene quinone, benzanthrone, sulfide reduction dye (blue BO, black BB and brown) and so on. In addition, the plastic industry, synthetic tanning agents and phenanthrene, under high temperature and high pressure, can undergo hydrogenation to get hydrophenanthrene, being the fuel of senior jet aircraft.
For the determination of molecular weight and the synthesis of organic compounds.


Phenanthrene is a relatively high content of coal tar, accounting for 5% of coal tar, second only to naphthalene content. The anthracene oil in the 300-360 ℃ fraction range of Coal tar has the highest content of Phenanthrene, followed by anthracene and carbazole and so on. The phenanthrene extraction method is usually send anthracene oil for cooling, crystallization, and then vacuum filtration or centrifugal separation for oil separation. The relatively high amount of soluble phenols in oils can be recovered using precision distillation method. The obtained crystal is called crude anthracene, which contains 25-30% anthracene, 22-25% carbazole and 30% phenanthrene. Crude anthracene can be subject to heavy benzene extraction, cooling, filtration with the filtrate steamed out of solvent before recrystallization and filtration. Take filtrate for distillation so we can get industrial phenanthrene with sulfonation to get fine phenanthrene.

Chemical Properties

white crystals


Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an environmental pollutant.


Labelled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as micropollutants.


ChEBI: A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings which takes its name from the two terms 'phenyl' and 'anthracene.'

General Description

Colorless monoclinic crystals with a faint aromatic odor. Solutions exhibit a blue fluorescence.

Air & Water Reactions

Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Phenanthrene may react with oxidizing materials .

Fire Hazard

Phenanthrene is combustible.

Purification Methods

Likely contaminants include anthracene, carbazole, fluorene and other polycyclic hydrocarbons. Purify it by distillation from sodium under vacuum, boiling with maleic anhydride in xylene, crystallisation from acetic acid, sublimation and zone melting. It has also been recrystallised repeatedly from EtOH, *benzene or pet ether (b 60-70o), with subsequent drying under vacuum over P2O5 in an Abderhalden pistol. Feldman, Pantages and Orchin [J Am Chem Soc 73 4341 1951] separated most of the anthracene impurity by refluxing phenanthrene (671g) with maleic anhydride (194g) in xylene (1.25L) under nitrogen for 22hours, then filtered. The filtrate was extracted with aqueous 10% NaOH, the organic phase was separated, and the solvent was evaporated. The residue, after stirring for 2hours with 7g of sodium, was distilled in a vacuum, then recrystallised twice from 30% *benzene in EtOH. It was then dissolved in hot acetic acid (2.2mL/g), and to it was slowly added an aqueous solution of CrO3 (60g in 72mL H2O plus 2.2L of acetic acid), followed by slow addition of conc H2SO4 (30mL). The mixture was refluxed for 15minutes, diluted with an equal volume of water and cooled. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water, dried and distilled, then recrystallised twice from EtOH. Further purification is possible by chromatography from a CHCl3 solution on activated alumina, with *benzene as eluent, and by zone refining. The picrate (1:1) forms golden yellow needles with m 146o, and the styphnate (1:1) has m 138-139o (plates or needles from EtOH or EtOH/H2O respectively). [Dornfeld et al. Org Synth Coll Vol III 134 1955, Beilstein 5 H 667, 5 I 327, 5 II 579, 5 III 2136, 5 IV 2297.]

Phenanthrene Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Phenanthrene Suppliers

Global( 204)Suppliers
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Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
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