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アセトニトリル

アセトニトリル 化学構造式
75-05-8
CAS番号.
75-05-8
化学名:
アセトニトリル
别名:
アセトニトリル [高速液体クロマトグラフィー用];メチルシアニド;シアン化メチル;シアノメタン;エタンニトリル;アセトニトリル(脱水);アセトニトリル [吸光分析用];アセトニトリル ‐PLUS‐;アセトニトリル(脱水) ‐SUPER‐;アセトニトリル, ACROSEALR;アセトニトリル ACS REAGENT,≥99.5%;アセトニトリル AMD クロマソルブ,≥99.9%;アセトニトリル LC-MS ULTRA クロマソルブ,TESTED FOR UHPLC-MS;アセトニトリル LC-MS クロマソルブ;アセトニトリル NMR クロマソルブ,FOR LC-NMR,≥99.9% (GC);アセトニトリル REAGENTPLUS,99%;アセトニトリル SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC GRADE,≥99.5%;アセトニトリル TRACESELECT,FOR METAL SPECIATION ANALYSIS,≥99.9%;アセトニトリル クロマソルブ (GRADIENT GRADE +),SUITABLE FOR PAH ANALYSIS,≥99.9% (GC);アセトニトリル クロマソルブ FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUE ANALYSIS
英語化学名:
Acetonitrile
英語别名:
AN;ACN;AN2;MGDA;CH3CN;48484;ACY1L;NA 1648;C18orf14;CCDC102B
CBNumber:
CB2127174
化学式:
C2H3N
分子量:
41.05
MOL File:
75-05-8.mol

アセトニトリル 物理性質

融点 :
−48 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
81-82 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) :
0.982 g/mL at 20 °C
蒸気密度:
1.41 (vs air)
蒸気圧:
72.8 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
屈折率 :
n20/D 1.344(lit.)
闪点 :
48 °F
貯蔵温度 :
2-8°C
溶解性:
organic solvents: soluble(lit.)
酸解離定数(Pka):
25(at 25℃)
外見 :
liquid
色:
<10(APHA)
比重:
approximate 0.78(20/20℃)
臭い (Odor):
Aromatic ether-like odor detectable at 40 ppm
Relative polarity:
0.46
爆発限界(explosive limit):
3.0-17%(V)
水溶解度 :
miscible
極大吸収波長 (λmax):
λ: 195 nm Amax: ≤0.12
λ: 200 nm Amax: ≤0.032
λ: 230 nm Amax: ≤0.0044
λ: 235 nm Amax: ≤0.0044
λ: 250 nm Amax: ≤0.0044
λ: 400 nm Amax: ≤0.0044
Merck :
14,70
BRN :
741857
Henry's Law Constant:
7.30 at 5 °C, 8.90 at 10 °C, 11.6 at 15 °C, 14.6 at 20 °C, 17.6 at 25 °C (headspace-GC, Ji and Evans, 2007)
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA 70 mg/m3 (40 ppm) (ACGIH and OSHA); STEL 105 mg/m3 (60 ppm) (ACGIH); IDLH 4000 ppm (NIOSH).
安定性::
Stability Unstable. Incompatible with alkali metals, acids, bases, reducing agents and oxidizing agents. Highly flammable.
CAS データベース:
75-05-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Acetonitrile(75-05-8)
EPAの化学物質情報:
Acetonitrile(75-05-8)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  F,Xi,Xn,T
Rフレーズ  11-36-20/21/22-10-36/37/38-23/24/25-41-24-20/22
Sフレーズ  16-36/37-45-36/37/39-27-26-36
RIDADR  UN 1993 3/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS 番号 AL7700000
9
自然発火温度 524 °C
Hazard Note  Highly Flammable/Harmful/Irritant
TSCA  Yes
国連危険物分類  3
容器等級  II
HSコード  29269095
有毒物質データの 75-05-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LD50 orally in rats: 3800 mg/kg (Smyth)
消防法 危険物第4類第一石油類(水溶性)
化審法 (2)-1508 優先評価化学物質
安衛法 57,57-2
PRTR法 第一種指定化学物質
毒劇物取締法 劇物
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H225 引火性の高い液体および蒸気 引火性液体 2 危険 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 飲み込むと有害 急性毒性、経口 4 警告 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H311 皮膚に接触すると有毒 急性毒性、経皮 3 危険 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H312 皮膚に接触すると有害 急性毒性、経皮 4 警告 P280,P302+P352, P312, P322, P363,P501
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 吸入すると有害 急性毒性、吸入 4 警告 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H336 眠気やめまいのおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 麻酔作用 3 警告 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H341 遺伝性疾患のおそれの疑い 生殖細胞変異原性 2 警告 P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 臓器の障害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H373 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害のおそれ 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 2 警告 P260, P314, P501
注意書き
P201 使用前に取扱説明書を入手すること。
P202 全ての安全注意を読み理解するまで取り扱わないこ と。
P233 容器を密閉しておくこと。
P240 容器を接地すること/アースをとること。
P260 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーを吸入しないこ と。
P264 取扱い後は皮膚をよく洗うこと。
P264 取扱い後は手や顔をよく洗うこと。
P270 この製品を使用する時に、飲食または喫煙をしないこ と。
P271 屋外または換気の良い場所でのみ使用すること。

アセトニトリル 価格 もっと(230)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01T02NX27 アセトニトリル
Acetonitrile
75-05-8 100mL ¥5400 2018-12-26 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01T02NX27 アセトニトリル
Acetonitrile
75-05-8 500mL ¥14600 2018-12-26 購入
東京化成工業 A0060 アセトニトリル >99.5%(GC)
Acetonitrile >99.5%(GC)
75-05-8 25mL ¥1600 2018-12-04 購入
東京化成工業 A0060 アセトニトリル >99.5%(GC)
Acetonitrile >99.5%(GC)
75-05-8 500mL ¥2200 2018-12-04 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 01030-08 アセトニトリル >99.5%(GC)
Acetonitrile >99.5%(GC)
75-05-8 500mL ¥6500 2018-12-13 購入

アセトニトリル MSDS


Cyanomethane

アセトニトリル 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

無色澄明の液体

溶解性

水及びほとんどの有機溶媒と任意の割合で混和する。水及びエタノールに極めて溶けやすい。

用途

有機合成の溶媒として、医薬、農薬、精密化学など幅広く使用されています。

用途

ビタミン B 1 等の原料、有機合成原料

用途

汎用試薬、溶剤、有機合成原料。

用途

環境ホルモンの分析に使用します。

用途

高速液体クロマトグラフ分析におけるチウラム定量用の溶媒及び溶離液。

用途

汎用試薬、高純度を要する溶剤等。

用途

農薬?医薬?香料?染料有機合成用原料、抗生物質抽出剤、クロマト分離のキャリアー液等の抽出?分離用溶剤、カラーフィルム処理用溶剤、反応溶剤、精製溶剤、リチウム電池用有機電解液、ビタミンB1、サルファ剤の製造原料、ブタジエン抽出溶剤

特長

1.各ロットごとにLC/MS分析適合性試験を実施2.m/z150~2,000でのノイズレベルを保証3.アルミキヤツプを採用し品質の長期安定化を実現

特長

・本品で調製したチウラム10ppm溶液は、25℃で3日間は安定。   (保存安定性の向上)・標準液は繰り返し使用が可能となり調液操作が短縮できる。   (測定の効率化)・濃度変動に対する補正の必要がない。   (再現性の向上)

使用上の注意

不活性ガス封入

化学的特性

Acetonitrile is a colorless liquid with an ether-like odor and a polar solvent. It is the simplest organic nitrile and is widely used. It is a by-product of the manufacture of acrylonitrile, and acetonitrile has, in fact, replaced acrylonitrile. It is used as a starting material for the produc- tion of acetophenone, alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, thiamine, and acetamidine. It has been used as a solvent and in making pesticides, pharmaceuticals, batteries, and rubber products, and formulations for nail polish remover, despite its low but signifi cant toxicity. Acetonitrile has been banned in cosmetic products in the European Economic Area (EEA) since early 2000 and acetone and ethyl are often preferred as safer for domestic use. Acetonitrile has a number of uses, primarily as an extraction solvent for butadiene; as a chemical interme- diate in pesticide manufacturing; as a solvent for both inorganic and organic compounds; to remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons not soluble in acetonitrile; in the production of acrylic fi bers; in pharmaceuticals, perfumes, nitrile rubber, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resins; in high-performance liquid and gas chro- matographic analysis; and in extraction and refi ning of copper.

物理的性質

Colorless liquid with an ether-like or pungent odor of vinegar. A detection odor threshold concentration of 1,950 mg/m3 (1,161 ppmv) was experimentally determined by Dravnieks (1974). An odor threshold concentration of 13 ppmv was reported by Nagata and Takeuchi (1990).

使用

Acetonitrile is used as a solvent for polymers, spinning fibers, casting and molding plastics, and HPLC analyses; for extraction of butadiene and other olefins from hydrocarbon streams; in dyeing and coating textiles; and as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents. It occurs in coal tar and forms as a by-product when acrylonitrile is made.

使用

In organic synthesis as starting material for acetophenone, a-naphthaleneacetic acid, thiamine, acetamidine. To remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons which are not soluble in acetonitrile. To extract fatty acids from fish liver oils and other animal and vegetable oils. Can be used to recrystallize steroids. As an indifferent medium in physicochemical investigations. Wherever a polar solvent having a rather high dielectric constant is required. As medium for promoting reactions involving ionization. As a solvent in non-aqueous titrations. As a non-aqueous solvent for inorganic salts.

調製方法

Acetonitrile is mainly prepared by dehydration of acetamide (CH3CONH2) with glacial acetic acid (Turner 1950) or by reacting acetic acid with ammonia at 400-500°C in the presence of a dehydration catalyst (Anon 1978).

一般的な説明

A colorless limpid liquid with an aromatic odor. Flash point 42°F. Density 0.783 c / cm3. Toxic by skin absorption. Less dense than water. Vapors are denser than air.

空気と水の反応

Highly flammable. Water soluble.

反応プロフィール

Acetonitrile decomposes when heated to produce deadly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas and oxides of nitrogen. Strongly reactive [Hawley]. May react vigorously with strong oxidizing reagents, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, perchlorates, nitrating reagents, and nitric acid. [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 20]. Potentially explosive in contact with nitrogen-fluorine compounds (e.g., tetrafluorourea) [Fraser, G. W. et al., Chem. Comm., 1966, p. 532].

健康ハザード

The toxicity of acetonitrile to human and test animals is considerably lower than that of some other nitriles. However, at high concentrations, this compound could produce severe adverse effects. The target organs are the kidney, liver, central nervous system, lungs, cardiovascular system, skin, and eyes. In humans, inhalation of its vapors can cause asphyxia, nausea, vomiting, and tightness of the chest. Such effects can probably be manifested at several hours exposure to concentration in air above 400–500 ppm. At a lower concentration of 100 ppm, only a slight adverse effect may be noted. It is excreted in the urine as cyanate. The blood cyanide concentration does not show any significant increase in cyanide at low concentrations.
The acute oral toxicity of acetonitrile is generally of low order. The toxic symptoms associated with oral intake can be gastrointestinal pain, nausea, vomiting, stupor, convulsion, and weakness. These effects may become highly marked in humans from ingestion of 40–50 mL of acetonitrile. Freeman and Hayes (1985) observed toxicological interaction between acetone and acetonitrile when administered in rats by oral dose. There was a delay in the onset of toxicity (due to acetonitrile) and an elevation of blood cyanide concentration when the dose consisted of a mixture of acetone and acetonitrile. Acetone inhibited the cyanide formation. The toxicity of both the solvents were prevented by administering sodium thiosulfate. Sodium nitrite also provided protection against mortality from lethal concentrations (Willhite 1981). Intraperitoneal administration of acetonitrile resulted in damage to cornea, ataxia, and dyspnea in mice. It is an eye and skin irritant.
LD50 value, oral (mice): 269 mg/kg
LD50 value, intraperitoneal (mice): 175 mg/kg
Ahmed et al. (1992) studied kinetics of acetonitrile distribution in mice by autoradiography. The study revealed heavy localization of acetonitrile metabolites in the gastrointestinal tissues and bile. Initially, the highest levels of radioactivity were detected in the liver and kidney which declined over time. At 24- and 48 hours after exposure the radioactivity was detected in gastrointestine, thymus, liver, and male reproductive organs. The study also indicated that 40 to 50% of total radioactivity was present in the liver, covalently bound to the macromolecular fractions of the tissues while the remaining radioactivity in the other organs were present in the lipid fraction of the tissue.
Acetonitrile is a teratomer. Pregnant hamsters were exposed to this compound by inhalation, ingestion, or injection during the early stage of embryogenesis. Severe axial skeletal disorders resulted in the offspring at a high concentration of 5000–8000 ppm (inhalation) or 100–400 mg/kg (oral dose) (Willhite 1983). Teratogenic effects were attributed to the release of cyanide, which was detected in high concentrations along with thiocyanate in all tissues after an oral or intraperitoneal dose. Sodium thiosulfatetreated hamsters did not display a teratogenic response to acetonitrile.
A 2-year inhalation studies (NTP 1996) showed a marginally increased incidence of hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma in male rats exposed to 100, 200, or 400 ppm acetonitrile for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week. However, there was no incidence of carcinogenic activity in female rats and male and female mice.

健康ハザード

Acetonitrile liquid or vapor is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Acetonitrile has only a modest toxicity, but it can be metabolized in the body to hydrogen cyanide and thiocyanate. Acetonitrile causes delayed symptoms of poisoning (several hours after the exposure) that include, but are not limited to, salivation, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, confusion, hyperpnea, dyspnea, respiratory distress, disturbed pulse rate, unconscious- ness, convulsions, and coma. Cases of acetonitrile poisoning in humans (or, more strictly, of cyanide poisoning after exposure to acetonitrile) are rare but not unknown, by inha- lation, ingestion, and (possibly) by skin absorption. Repeated exposure to acetonitrile may cause headache, anorexia, dizziness, weakness, and macular, papular, or vesicular dermatitis.

火災危険

Flammable liquid; flash point (open cup) 5.5°C (42°F); vapor pressure 73 torr at 20°C (68°F); vapor density at 38°C (100°F) 1.1 (air = 1); the vapor is heavier than air and can travel some distance to a source of ignition and flash back; ignition temperature 524°C (975°F); fire-extinguishing agent: dry chemical, CO2, or “alcohol” foam; use a water spray to flush and dilute the spill and keep fire-exposed containers cool.
Muraki et al. (2001) have reported a case of systemic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in a 35-year old man after acetonitrile exposure. The symptoms were vomiting, convulsion, and loss of consciousness 15 hours after exposure. Initial therapy against cyanide poisoning was only partially effective.
Acetonitrile vapors form an explosive mixture with air; the LEL and UEL values are 4.4% and 16.0% by volume of air, respectively. It reacts with strong oxidizers and acids, liberating heat along with pressure increase. Thus contact in a close container can result in rupture of the container. Erbium perchlorate tetrasolvated with acetonitrile when dried to disolvate exploded violently on light friction (Wolsey 1973). Neodymium perchlorate showed similar heat and shock sensitivity when dried down to lower levels of solvation (Chemical & Engineering News, Dec. 5, 1983). Bretherick (1990) proposed that the tendency for oxygen balance to shift toward zero for maximum energy release, with diminishing solvent content, decreased the stability of solvated metal perchlorates at lower levels of solvation. Such a zero balance for maximum exotherm should occur at 2.18 mol of acetonitrile solvated to metal perchlorate. Metals such as lithium react exothermically with acetonitrile at ambient temperature (Dey and Holmes 1979).

燃焼性と爆発性

Acetonitrile is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Acetonitrile vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4 to 16% (by volume).
Hazardous gases produced in a fire include hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for acetonitrile fires.

工業用途

Acetonitrile is used as a solvent both in industry and in the laboratory, as a rodenticide, and in the denaturation of alcohol. Because of both its solvent properties and volatility, it is useful for extracting vegetable and animal oils and dissolving hydrocarbons, oils, and greases. Acetonitrile is used for the purification of acetylene and artificial textile fibers, and as an antioxidant for rubber (Dequidt et al 1974). It has also been used to extract herbicide residues from soils (Smith 1980), to remove tars and other compounds from petroleum hydrocarbons, and to extract fatty acids from vegetable and fish liver oil. Acetonitrile is now a standard solvent component in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. It is the starting point for the syntheses of a number of organic compounds such as carboxylic acids and various nitrogen derivatives (Smiley 1981).

安全性プロファイル

Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by several routes. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. A skin and severe eye irritant. Human systemic effects by ingestion: convulsions, nausea or vomiting, and metabolic acidosis. Human respiratory system effects by inhalation. Mutation data reported. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers. Explosion Hazard: See also CYANIDE and NITRILES. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of CNand NOx,. Potentially explosive reaction with lanthanide perchlorates and nitrogen-fluorine compounds. Exothermic reaction with sulfuric acid at 53°C. Will react with water, steam, acids to produce toxic and flammable vapors. Incompatible with oleum, chlorosulfonic acid, perchlorates, nitrating agents, inchum, dinitrogen tetraoxide, N-fluoro compounds (e.g., perfluorourea + acetonitrile), HNO3, so3. To fight fire, use foam, Con, dry chemical

職業ばく露

Acetonitrile is used as an extractant for animal and vegetable oils, as a solvent; particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, and as a chemical intermediate in pesticide manufacture; making batteries and rubber products. It is present in cigarette smoke

環境運命予測

Biological. Resting cell suspensions of the soil methylotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB- 3b rapidly metabolized acetonitrile via oxygen insertion into the C-H bond generating the intermediate formaldehyde cyanohydrin. The latter compound loses hydrogen cyanide yielding formaldehyde which is then oxidized to formate (HCO2H) and bicarbonate ion (Castro et al., 1996).
Photolytic. A rate constant of 4.94 x 10-14 cm3/molecule?sec at 24 °C was reported for the vaporphase reaction of acetonitrile and OH radicals in air (Harris et al., 1981). Reported rate constants for the reaction of acetonitrile and OH radicals in the atmosphere and in water are 1.90 x 10-14 and 3.70 x 10-14 cm3/molecule?sec, respectively (Kurylo and Knable, 1984). The estimated lifetime of acetonitrile in the atmosphere is estimated to range from 6 to 17 months (Arijs and Brasseur, 1986).
Chemical/Physical. The estimated hydrolysis half-life of acetonitrile at 25 °C and pH 7 is >150,000 yr (Ellington et al., 1988). No measurable hydrolysis was observed at 85 °C at pH values 3.26 and 6.99. At 66.0 °C (pH 10.42) and 85.5 °C (pH 10.13), the hydrolysis half-lives based on first-order rate constants were 32.2 and 5.5 d, respectively (Ellington et al., 1987). The presence of hydroxide or hydronium ions facilitates hydrolysis transforming acetonitrile to the intermediate acetamide which undergoes hydrolysis forming acetic acid and ammonia (Kollig, 1993). Acetic acid and ammonia formed react quickly forming ammonium acetate. At an influent concentration of 1,000 mg/L, treatment with GAC resulted in an effluent concentration of 28 mg/L. The adsorbability of the carbon used was 194 mg/g carbon (Guisti et al., 1974).
Burns with a luminous flame (Windholz et al., 1983), releasing toxic fumes of hydrogen cyanide.

代謝

Acetonitrile metabolism in dogs was demonstrated by Lang (1894), who reported that about 20% of the nitrile administered was converted to thio-cyanate in the urine, while guinea pigs metabolized acetonitrile to a greater extent (50% of dose excreted as thiocyanate). When the animals were pre-treated with ethanol, acetonitrile metabolism was induced (Tanii and Hashimoto 1986). In rats, acetone was found to potentiate acetonitrile toxicity and elevate cyanide concentrations in the blood (Freeman and Hays 1985). Baumann et al (1933) found that rabbits injected with acetonitrile excreted 27-35% of the dose as thiocyanate, while in thyroidectomized rabbits, the excretion decreased significantly (3-5% of the dose). Thiocyanate excretion was increased notably upon feeding dessicated thyroid to these animals. Hunt (1923) found that powdered sheep thyroid protected mice against acetonitrile toxicity. However, the role played by the thyroid in the detoxication of cyanide to thiocyanate is unclear. It has been suggested that the thyroid may have a role in the microsomal cleavage of cyanide from acetonitrile other than its direct effect on sulphation of cyanide to thiocyanate.
The nature of oxidizing enzymes for nitriles in general, including acetonitrile have been studied by Ahmed and Patel (1979). The enzymes were localized in the hepatic microsomal fraction and required NADPH as a cofactor in the presence of oxygen. In recent studies on the mammalian metabolism of acetonitrile, the mechanisms of cyanide liberation, and the enzymes involved, have also been reported by Tanii and Hashimoto (1984, 1986) and Freeman and Hays (1988). These studies confirmed the role of microsomal mixed function oxidase in the metabolism of acetonitrile.
Firmin and Gray (1976) studied the fate of acetonitrile in the bacterium Pseudomonas. They found that [14C]-acetonitrile is metabolized to citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, glutamate, pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, and asparate. They reported that this species of bacteria metabolized acetonitrile by direct hydrolysis of the cyanide moiety to acetamide. Although it is possible that a similar reaction may occur in mammalian systems, it has not yet been reported.

貯蔵

Acetonitrile should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

輸送方法

UN1648 Acetonitrile, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid

純化方法

Commercial acetonitrile is a by-product of the reaction of propylene and ammonia to acrylonitrile. The following procedure that significantly reduces the levels of acrylonitrile, allyl alcohol, acetone and *benzene was used by Kiesel [Anal Chem 52 2230 1988]. Methanol (300mL) is added to 3L of acetonitrile fractionated at high reflux ratio until the boiling temperature rises from 64o to 80o, and the distillate becomes optically clear down to = 240nm. Add sodium hydride (1g) free from paraffin, to the liquid, reflux for 10minutes, and then distil rapidly until about 100mL of residue remains. Immediately pass the distillate through a column of acidic alumina, discarding the first 150mL of percolate. Add 5g of CaH2 and distil the first 50mL at a high reflux ratio. Discard this fraction, and collect the following main fraction. The best way of detecting impurities is by gas chromatography. Usual contaminants in commercial acetonitrile include H2O, acetamide, NH4OAc and NH3. Anhydrous CaSO4 and CaCl2 are inefficient drying agents. Preliminary treatment of acetonitrile with cold, saturated aqueous KOH is undesirable because of base-catalysed hydrolysis and the introduction of water. Drying by shaking with silica gel or Linde 4A molecular sieves removes most of the water in acetonitrile. Subsequent stirring with CaH2 until no further hydrogen is evolved leaves only traces of water and removes acetic acid. The acetonitrile is then fractionally distilled at high reflux, taking precaution to exclude moisture by refluxing over CaH2 [Coetzee Pure Appl Chem 13 429 1966]. Alternatively, 0.5-1% (w/v) P2O5 is often added to the distilling flask to remove most of the remaining water. Excess P2O5 should be avoided because it leads to the formation of an orange polymer. Traces of P2O5 can be removed by distilling from anhydrous K2CO3. Kolthoff, Bruckenstein and Chantooni [J Am Chem Soc 83 3297 1961] removed acetic acid from 3L of acetonitrile by shaking for 24hours with 200g of freshly activated alumina (which had been reactivated by heating at 250o for 4hours). The decanted solvent was again shaken with activated alumina, followed by five batches of 100-150g of anhydrous CaCl2. (Water content of the solvent was then less than 0.2%.) It was shaken for 1hour with 10g of P2O5, twice, and distilled in a 1m x 2cm column, packed with stainless steel wool and protected from atmospheric moisture by CaCl2 tubes. The middle fraction had a water content of 0.7 to 2mM. Traces of unsaturated nitriles can be removed by initially refluxing with a small amount of aqueous KOH (1mL of 1% solution per L). Acetonitrile can be dried by azeotropic distillation with dichloromethane, *benzene or trichloroethylene. Isonitrile impurities can be removed by treatment with conc HCl until the odour of isonitrile has gone, followed by drying with K2CO3 and distilling. Acetonitrile is refluxed with, and distilled from alkaline KMnO4 and KHSO4, followed by fractional distillation from CaH2. (This is better than fractionation from molecular sieves or passage through a type H activated alumina column, or refluxing with KBH4 for 24hours and fractional distillation)[Bell et al. J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans 1 73 315 1977, Moore et al. J Am Chem Soc 108 2257 1986]. Material suitable for polarography is obtained by refluxing over anhydrous AlCl3 (15g/L) for 1hour, distilling, refluxing over Li2CO3 (10g/L) for 1hour and redistilling. It is then refluxed over CaH2 (2g/L) for 1hour and fractionally distilled, retaining the middle portion. The product is not suitable for UV spectroscopy use. A better purification procedure uses refluxing over anhydrous AlCl3 (15g/L) for 1hour, distilling, refluxing over alkaline KMnO4 (10g KMnO4, 10g Li2CO3/L) for 15minutes, and distilling. A further reflux for 1hour over KHSO4 (15g/L), then distillation, is followed by refluxing over CaH2 (2g/L) for 1hour, and fractional distillation. The product is protected from atmospheric moisture and stored under nitrogen [Walter & Ramalay Anal Chem 45 165 1973]. Purificaton of "General Purity Reagent" for this purpose is not usually satisfactory because very large losses occur at the KMnO4/LiCO3 step. For electrochemical work involving high oxidation fluorides, further reflux over P2O5 (1g/mL for 0.5hours) and distilling (discarding 3% of first and last fractions) and repeating this step is necessary. The distillate is kept over molecular sieves in vacuo after degassing, for 24hours and distilling in a vacuum onto freshly activated 3A molecular sieves. The MeCN should have absorption at 200nm of <0.05 (H2O reference) and UV cutoff at ca 175nm. Also the working potential range of purified Et4N+ BF4 (0.1mol.dcm-3 in the MeCN) should be +3.0 to -2.7V vs Ag+/Ago. If these criteria are not realised then further impurities can be removed by treatment with activated neutral alumina (60 mesh) in vacuo before final molecular sieves treatment [Winfield J Fluorine Chem 25 91 1984]. Acetonitrile has been distilled from AgNO3, collecting the middle fraction over freshly activated Al2O3. After standing for two days, the liquid is distilled from the activated Al2O3. The specific conductivity should be 0.8-1.0 x 10-8 mhos [Harkness & Daggett Can J Chem 43 1215 1965]. Acetonitrile 14C is best purified by gas chromatography and is water free and distils at 81o. [Beilstein 2 H 183, 2 IV 419.]

不和合性

Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, epoxides. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors. Nitriles may polymerize in the presence of metals and some metal compounds. They are incompatible with acids; mixing nitriles with strong oxidizing acids can lead to extremely violent reactions. Nitriles are generally incompatible with other oxidizing agents such as peroxides and epoxides. The combination of bases and nitriles can produce hydrogen cyanide. Nitriles are hydrolyzed in both aqueous acid and base to give carboxylic acids (or salts of carboxylic acids). These reactions generate heat. Peroxides convert nitriles to amides. Nitriles can react vigorously with reducing agents. Acetonitrile and propionitrile are soluble in water, but nitriles higher than propionitrile have low aqueous solubility. They are also insoluble in aqueous acids

廃棄物の処理

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration with nitrogen oxide removal from effluent gases by scrubbers or incinerators

アセトニトリル 上流と下流の製品情報

原材料

準備製品

2-テノイルアセトニトリル CIS-2-アミノシクロヘキサノール塩酸塩 3-(ピロリジン-1-イルメチル)安息香酸メチル [1,1'-ビス(ジフェニルホスフィノ)フェロセン]パラジウム(II)ジクロリド ジクロロメタン付加物 ビス(ジイソプロピルアミノ)クロロホスフィン 2-ニトロ-4-メトキシトルエン 2-アミノ-5-クロロベンゾニトリル 3-(4-ブロモフェニル)アクリル酸メチル 1,4-ジクロロ-2,5-ジメトキシベンゼン イソプロピルスルホニルクロリド 5-ブロモ-2-ヒドロキシピリジン 6-クロロ-1,2,4-トリアゾロ[4,3-b]ピリダジン 1-フェニル-1H-イミダゾール 3-フェニル-3-ヒドロキシプロピルアミン 1-ナフタレンスルホニルクロリド 2-キノリンカルボニトリル (6-ブロモヘキシル)カルバミン酸TERT-ブチル 3-(トリフルオロメチル)けい皮酸メチルエステル ビス(2,4-ペンタンジオナト)パラジウム(II) (9Z)-9-テトラデセン-1-オール 1-ピペラジンカルボン酸tert-ブチル [1,2-ビス(ジフェニルホスフィノ)エタン]パラジウム(II)ジクロリド ジクロロ(1,5-シクロオクタジエン)パラジウム(II) 1-(ベンジル)-1H-イミダゾール-2-カルボン酸 ベンゾイルアセトニトリル (2-オキソプロピル)ホスホン酸ジメチル 4-(2-ヒドロキシエトキシ)ベンズアルデヒド 1-ピペリジン-1-プロパンアミン 1-ピペリジンペンタノール 6-ブロモ-1H-プリン ヘキサデシルトリメチルアンモニウムヒドロキシド (25%メタノール溶液) 5-ブロモ-2-(ピロリジン-1-イル)ピリミジン ビス(アセトニトリル)パラジウム(II)ジクロリド 4-アミノブタン-2-オール 1-フェニル-5-(トリフルオロメチル)ピラゾール [[[2,2',2”-ニトリロトリス[エタノラト]](3-)-N,O,O',O”]-ホウ素

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75-05-8(アセトニトリル)キーワード:


  • 75-05-8
  • ACETONITRILE, LC-MS (VERITAS ULTIMATE)ACETONITRILE, LC-MS (VERITAS ULTIMATE)ACETONITRILE, LC-MS (VERITAS ULTIMATE)ACETONITRILE, LC-MS (VERITAS ULTIMATE)ACETONITRILE, LC-MS (VERITAS ULTIMATE)
  • ACETONITRILE, REAGENT (ACS)ACETONITRILE, REAGENT (ACS)ACETONITRILE, REAGENT (ACS)
  • MOBILE PHASE ACETONITRILE
  • R5, ACETONITRILE
  • S4B, ACETONITRILE
  • SOLVENT B, ACETONITRILE
  • Acetonitril
  • acetonitril(german,dutch)
  • CH3CN
  • Cyanomethan
  • cyano-methan
  • Cyanure de methyl
  • cyanuredemethyl
  • cyanuredemethyl(french)
  • cyanuredemethyle
  • Ethanemitrile
  • Ethanonitrile
  • Methane, cyano-
  • Methane,cyano-
  • Methanecarbonitrile
  • Methylcyanid
  • Methylcyanide(MeCN)
  • Methylkyanid
  • methylnitrile
  • NA 1648
  • NCI-C60822
  • Rcra waste number U003
  • rcrawastenumberu003
  • USAF ek-488
  • usafek-488
  • アセトニトリル [高速液体クロマトグラフィー用]
  • メチルシアニド
  • シアン化メチル
  • シアノメタン
  • エタンニトリル
  • アセトニトリル(脱水)
  • アセトニトリル [吸光分析用]
  • アセトニトリル ‐PLUS‐
  • アセトニトリル(脱水) ‐SUPER‐
  • アセトニトリル, ACROSEALR
  • アセトニトリル ACS REAGENT,≥99.5%
  • アセトニトリル AMD クロマソルブ,≥99.9%
  • アセトニトリル LC-MS ULTRA クロマソルブ,TESTED FOR UHPLC-MS
  • アセトニトリル LC-MS クロマソルブ
  • アセトニトリル NMR クロマソルブ,FOR LC-NMR,≥99.9% (GC)
  • アセトニトリル REAGENTPLUS,99%
  • アセトニトリル SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC GRADE,≥99.5%
  • アセトニトリル TRACESELECT,FOR METAL SPECIATION ANALYSIS,≥99.9%
  • アセトニトリル クロマソルブ (GRADIENT GRADE +),SUITABLE FOR PAH ANALYSIS,≥99.9% (GC)
  • アセトニトリル クロマソルブ FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUE ANALYSIS
  • アセトニトリル クロマソルブ,FOR LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY,≥99.8% (GC)
  • アセトニトリルE クロマソルブ,FOR HPLC,FOR UV,≥99.9% (GC)
  • アセトニトリル 5000
  • アセトニトリル (超脱水)
  • ACETONITRILE GRADIENT GRADE LICHROSOLV
  • ACETONITRILE HYPERGRADE LICHROSOLV
  • アセトニトリル 溶液
  • 分析化学
  • 高速液体クロマトグラフィー用溶剤
  • 溶剤 (HPLC用/吸収スペクトル測定用)
  • 吸収スペクトル測定用溶剤
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