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酸化エチレン

酸化エチレン 化学構造式
75-21-8
CAS番号.
75-21-8
化学名:
酸化エチレン
别名:
エチレンオキシド (約0.8mol/Lヘキサン溶液);エチレンオキシド (約1.0mol/Lテトラヒドロフラン溶液);エチレンオキシド (約1.0mol/Lトルエン溶液);エチレンオキシド (約1mol/Lエチルエーテル溶液);エチレンオキシド (約1mol/Lジクロロメタン溶液);オキシラン;ステリガス;エチレンオキシド;オキサン;フミゲート;エルナックH;アンプロレン;1,2-エポキシエタン;酸化エチレン;アセプトン-C;エチレンオキサイド;エポキシエタン;オキシラン (約0.8mol/Lヘキサン溶液);オキシラン (約1.0mol/Lテトラヒドロフラン溶液);オキシラン (約1.0mol/Lトルエン溶液)
英語化学名:
ETHYLENE OXIDE
英語别名:
eo;ETO;E.O.;Oxane;12/88;C2H4O;T-Gas;Merpol;Oxiran;Oxiraan
CBNumber:
CB2709651
化学式:
C2H4O
分子量:
44.05
MOL File:
75-21-8.mol

酸化エチレン 物理性質

融点 :
−111 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
10.7 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) :
0.882 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
蒸気圧:
1095 mmHg at 20 °C
屈折率 :
n20/D 1.3597(lit.)
闪点 :
<-17.7℃
貯蔵温度 :
Refrigerator
臭い (Odor):
Sweet odor detectable at 257 to 690 ppm
Merck :
3802
BRN :
102378
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA 1.8 mg/m3 (1 ppm) (ACGIH), 0.18 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm), 5 ppm/10 min (NIOSH).
InChIKey:
IAYPIBMASNFSPL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS データベース:
75-21-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  F+,T,F
Rフレーズ  45-46-12-23-36/37/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-67-20-36/37-19-6
Sフレーズ  53-45-36/37-16-24/25-23-26
RIDADR  UN 2037 2.3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS 番号 KX2450000
4.5-31
自然発火温度 429 °C
国連危険物分類  2.3
HSコード  29101000
毒性 LD50 oral (rat) 72 mg/kg
LC50 inhal (rat) 800 ppm (1600 mg/m3)
PEL (OSHA) 1 ppm (2 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 1 ppm (2 mg/m3)
消防法 危-4-特-I
化審法 (2)-218 優先評価化学物質
安衛法 有機則 第二種有機溶剤等 特化則 特定化学物質(特定第2類) 変異原性物質
PRTR法 特定第一種指定化学物質
毒劇物取締法 劇物
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H220 極めて可燃性/引火性の高いガス 可燃性/引火性ガス 1 危険 P210, P377, P381, P403
H225 引火性の高い液体および蒸気 引火性液体 2 危険 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H280 加圧ガス;熱すると爆発のおそれ 高圧ガス 高圧ガス
液化ガス
溶解ガス
警告 P410+P403
H315 皮膚刺激 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 2 警告 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 吸入すると有毒 急性毒性、吸入 3 危険 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H335 呼吸器への刺激のおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 気道刺激性 3 警告
H336 眠気やめまいのおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 麻酔作用 3 警告 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H340 遺伝性疾患のおそれ 生殖細胞変異原性 1A, 1B 危険
H350 発がんのおそれ 発がん性 1A, 1B 危険
H370 臓器の障害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
注意書き
P201 使用前に取扱説明書を入手すること。
P210 熱/火花/裸火/高温のもののような着火源から遠ざ けること。-禁煙。
P260 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーを吸入しないこ と。
P261 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーの吸入を避ける こと。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P301+P310 飲み込んだ場合:直ちに医師に連絡すること。
P305+P351+P338 眼に入った場合:水で数分間注意深く洗うこと。次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。その後も洗浄を続けること。
P308+P313 暴露または暴露の懸念がある場合:医師の診断/手当てを 受けること。
P311 医師に連絡すること。
P370+P378 火災の場合:消火に...を使用すること。
P403+P235 換気の良い場所で保管すること。涼しいところに 置くこと。
P410+P403 日光から遮断し、換気の良い場所で保管するこ と。

酸化エチレン 価格 もっと(10)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
東京化成工業 E0647 エチレンオキシド (約0.8mol/Lヘキサン溶液)
Ethylene Oxide (ca. 0.8mol/L in Hexane)
75-21-8 25mL ¥9800 2018-12-04 購入
東京化成工業 E0689 エチレンオキシド (約1mol/Lジクロロメタン溶液)
Ethylene Oxide (ca. 1mol/L in Dichloromethane)
75-21-8 25mL ¥9800 2018-12-04 購入
Sigma-Aldrich Japan 779202 エチレンオキシド 溶液 2.5-3.3?M in THF
Ethylene oxide solution 2.5-3.3?M in THF
75-21-8 25ml ¥19700 2018-12-25 購入
Sigma-Aldrich Japan 779202 エチレンオキシド 溶液 2.5-3.3?M in THF
Ethylene oxide solution 2.5-3.3?M in THF
75-21-8 100ml ¥61600 2018-12-25 購入
東京化成工業 E0690 エチレンオキシド (約1mol/Lエチルエーテル溶液)
Ethylene Oxide (ca. 1mol/L in Ethyl Ether)
75-21-8 25mL ¥9800 2018-12-04 購入

酸化エチレン 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

用途

種々の有機化合物の誘導体(ポリオキシエチレン系界面活性剤、エチレングリコール、エタノールアミンなど)の合成反応に用いる。また、強力な殺菌剤として薫蒸消毒に用いられる。

効能

殺菌消毒薬

特徴

沸点が低く、無色液体もしくは気体。特徴のあるエーテル臭がある。
水と任意に混和

特徴

界面活性剤、グリコールエーテル、エトキシレート、エタノールアミン
きわめて反応性が高いため、他の有機物質を合成する時の中間体として用いられる。また、殺菌力が強く、医療機器、精密機器の殺菌剤としても用いられる。

商品名

エキテック (日本液炭); エポン (日本液炭); エルナック (和歌山酸素); エルナック (和歌山酸素); カポックス (日本液炭); ステリガス (スリーエムジャパン); ダイサイド (エア・ウォーター); ダイサイド (エア・ウォーター); フミゲート (住友精化)

説明

Ethylene oxide (C2H4O) is a kind of cyclic ether with important industrial applications. Although it is highly toxic and dangerous for household application and consumers to use, it can be used for the manufacture of many important industrial and commercialized products as well as some chemicals and intermediates. For example, it is very useful in the production of detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and many kinds of organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. It is also a commonly sterilization methods used in the healthcare industry. In addition, it can be used as an accelerator of maturation of tobacco leaves and fungicide, as well as the main component of thermobaric weapons (fuel-air explosives). In industry, it is generally manufactured through direct oxidation of ethylene. In low doses, it can be used as a pesticide and a sterilizing agent owing to its effect of causing DNA damage. However, this property also make it a potential carcinogen.
ethylene oxide structure
ethylene oxide structure

化学的特性

Ethylene oxide is the simplest cyclic ether. It is a colorless gas or liquid and has a sweet, etheric odor. Ethylene oxide is a flammable, very reactive and explosive chemical substance. On decomposition, vapors of pure ethylene oxide mix with air or inert gases and become highly explosive. Ethylene oxide, is used in large scale as an intermediate in the production of monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, poly(ethylene) glycols, ethylene glycol ethers, ethanolamine, ethoxylation products of fatty alcohols, fatty amines, alkyl phenols, cellulose, and poly(propylene glycol). It is also used as a fumigant for food and cosmetics, and in hospital sterilization of surgical equipment and heat sensitive materials.

天然物の起源

Reported found in Bantu beer.

使用

Ethylene oxide is widely used as a sterilizingagent; as a fumigant; as a propellant; in theproduction of explosives; in the manufactureof ethylene glycol, polyethylene oxide, gly-col ethers, crown ethers, ethanolamines, andother derivatives; and in organic synthesis.

使用

Fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles; to sterilize surgical instruments; agricultural fungicide. In organic syntheses, especially in the production of ethylene glycol. Starting material for the manufacture of acrylonitrile and nonionic surfactants.

定義

ChEBI: A saturated organic heteromonocyclic parent that is a three-membered heterocycle of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

製造方法

By catalytic oxidation of ethylene.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 260 ppm; recognition: 500 ppm

空気と水の反応

Highly flammable. Flammable over a wide vapor-air concentration range. Must be diluted on the order of 24 to 1 with water to lose flammability. Soluble in water.

反応プロフィール

Colorless gas at room temperature (b.p. 11°C), confirmed carcinogen. Highly flammable, severe explosion hazard when exposed to flame. The autoignition temperature may be as low as 140° C in presence of rust. Rapid compression of the vapor with air causes explosion. ETHYLENE OXIDE vapor may be initiated into explosive decomposition in absence of air [Hess, L. G., et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 1950, 42, p. 1251]. Metal fittings containing magnesium, copper or silver should be avoided, since traces of acetylene in ETHYLENE OXIDE may produce metal acetylides capable of detonating the vapor [MCA SD-38, 1971]. Violent polymerization occurs on contact with strong bases (alkali hydroxides, ammonia) or acids, amines, metallic potassium, oxides (aluminum oxide, iron oxide, rust), covalent halides (aluminum chloride, ferric chloride, tin(IV) chloride) [Gupta, A. K., J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1949, 68, p. 179]. Violent reaction with m-nitroaniline, magnesium perchlorate, mercaptans, thiols, triethylamine [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 316]. ETHYLENE OXIDE and SO2 can react violently in pyridine solution with pressurization if ETHYLENE OXIDE is in excess (Nolan, 1983, Case History 51).

危険性

Irritant to eyes and skin. Confirmed carcinogen. Highly flammable, dangerous fire and explosion risk, flammable limits in air 3–100%.

健康ハザード

Ethylene oxide is a severe irritant, as well asa toxic and carcinogenic compound. Inhala-tion can cause severe irritation in the eyes,respiratory tract, and skin. In humans, thedelayed symptoms may be nausea, vomit-ing, headache, dyspnea, pulmonary edema,weakness, and drowsiness. Exposure to highconcentrations can cause central nervous sys-tem depression.
Contact with an aqueous solution of ethy-lene oxide on skin can produce severe burnsafter a delay period of a few hours. It maybe absorbed by plastic, leather, and rubbermaterials if not handled properly, and cancause severe skin irritation.
Exposure of test animals to a high con-centration of ethylene oxide resulted inthe watering of eyes, nasal discharge, and labored breathing. The toxic effects observedafter a few days were vomiting, diarrhea,pulmonary edema, dyspnea, and convulsion,followed by death.
Ethylene oxide is a teratogen, causingbirth defects. Laboratory tests on animalsindicated that exposure could cause fetaldeaths, specific developmental abnormalities,and paternal effects related to testes andsperm ducts.
Ethylene oxide showed positive carcino-genicity in test animals. Inhalation, ingestion,and subcutaneous application over a periodof time developed tumors of all kinds in ratsand mice. It caused brain, liver, gastroin-testinal, and blood cancers in test subjects.Ethylene oxide and 1,2- propylene oxideeach mixed with salad oil induced squamous-cell carcinomas of the forestomach whenadministered intra-gastrically by gavage tofemale Sprague-Dawley rats (Dunkelberg1982). The study was carried out for a periodof 3 years and the first tumor occurred inthe 79th week for both compounds. Nei-ther compound, however, induced tumors atsites away from the point of administration.Experimental studies on rodents indicatedthat subacute exposures to ethylene oxideat a concentration of 1 ppm caused DNAdamage producing the DNA adduct, 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (Thier and Bolt 2000).Although the evidence of its carcinogenicityin humans is inadequate, it is suspected to becancer causing to humans.
Ethylene oxide is a mutagen in animalsand humans. It causes chromosomal aber-rations (Thiess et al. 1981), errors in DNAsynthesis (Cumming et al. 1981), and alky-lation of hemoglobin (Calleman et al. 1978).
Repeated brief exposures to ethylene oxideat 800 and 1200 ppm caused fetal toxicityindicated by reduced fetal weight in rats(Saillenfait et al. 1996).

燃焼性と爆発性

Ethylene oxide is an extremely flammable substance (NFPA rating = 4). Ethylene oxide vapor may be ignited by hot surfaces such as hot plates and static electricity discharges, and since the vapor is heavier than air, it may travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and flash back. Ethylene oxide vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 3 to 100% (by volume). Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ethylene oxide fires. Ethylene oxide may explode when heated in a closed vessel.

农业用途

Fungicide and fumigant: Ethylene oxide is used as a fumigant for spices, seasonings, and foodstuffs and as an agricultural fungicide. When used directly in the gaseous form or in nonexplosive gaseous mixtures with nitrogen or carbon dioxide, ethylene oxide can act as a disinfectant, fumigant, sterilizing agent, and insecticide. It is a man-made chemical used as an intermediate in organic synthesis for ethylene glycol, polyglycols, glycol ethers, esters, ethanolamines, acrylonitrile, plastics, and surface-active agents. It is also used as a fumigant for textiles and for sterilization, especially for surgical instruments. It is used in drug synthesis and as a pesticide intermediate. Not approved for use in EU countries. Actively registered in the U.S.

製品名

AMPROLENE®; ANPROLENE®; ANPROLINE®; BIODAC®; MERPOL®; OXYFUME®; OXYFUME 12®; T-GAS®; STERILIZING GAS ETHYLENE OXIDE 100%®

接触アレルゲン

Ethylene oxide is a very strong irritant widely used in the chemical industry, and as a sterilizer of medical supplies, pharmaceutical products, and food. It can produce immediate (urticaria, asthma, anaphylaxis) or delayed reactions (irritant rather than allergic contact dermatitis). For example, residues in masks or dressings can produce irritant contact dermatitis.In delayed contact allergy, it seems that cross-reaction can be observed to epichlorhydrin or epoxypropane

安全性プロファイル

Confirmed human carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, tumorigenic, neoplastigenic, and teratogenic data. Poison by ingestion, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes. Moderately toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: convulsions, nausea, vomiting, olfactory and pulmonary changes. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. A skin and eye irritant. An irritant to mucous membranes of respiratory tract. High concentrations can cause pulmonary edema. Highly flammable liquid or gas. Severe explosion hazard when exposed to flame. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. Violent polymerization occurs on contact with ammonia, alkali hydroxides, amines, metalllc potassium, acids, covalent halides (e.g., aluminum chloride, iron(Ⅲ) chloride, tin(rv> chloride, aluminum oxide, iron oxide, rust). Explosive reaction with glycerol at 200℃. Rapid compression of the vapor with air causes explosions. Incompatible with bases, alcohols, air, m-nitroanlline, trimethyl amine, copper, iron chlorides, iron oxides, magnesium perchlorate, mercaptans, potassium, tin chlorides, contaminants, alkane thols, bromoethane. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

職業ばく露

Ethylene oxide is a man-made chemical used in the production of glycols (ethylene glycol, polyglycols, glycol ethers, esters), nontonic surface-active agent; ethanolamines, acrylonitrile, plastics. It is also used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles; an agricultural fungicide; and for sterilization, especially for surgical instruments. It is used in drug synthesis and as a pesticide intermediate

Carcinogenicity

Ethylene oxide is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans, including epidemiological studies and studies on mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Ethylene oxide was first listed in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens in 1985 as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humansand sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals. The listing was revised to known to be a human carcinogen in the Ninth Report on Carcinogens in 2000.
An increased risk of cancer has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies of workers using ethylene oxide as a sterilant for medical devices and spices and in chemical synthesis and production.Evidence for a common mechanism of carcinogenesis in humans and experimental animals comes from studies that have found similar genetic damage in cells of animals and workers exposed to ethylene oxide. The DNA-damaging activity of ethylene oxide explains its effectiveness as a sterilant, and this same property accounts for its carcinogenic risk to humans.

貯蔵

work with ethylene oxide should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and appropriate impermeable gloves and splash goggles should be worn at all times to prevent skin and eye contact. Ethylene oxide should be used only in areas free of ignition sources and should be stored in the cold in tightly sealed containers placed within a secondary container.

輸送方法

UN1040 Ethylene oxide or Ethylene oxide with nitrogen up to a total pressure of 1 MPa (10 bar) at 50℃, Hazard Class: 2.3; Labels: 2.3-Poisonous gas, 2.1- Flammable gas, Inhalation Hazard Zone D. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a wellventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner

純化方法

Dry oxirane with CaSO4, then distil it from crushed NaOH. It has also been purified by passage, as a gas, through towers containing solid NaOH. [Beilstein 17/1 V 3.]

不和合性

May form explosive mixture with air. Chemically unstable. Dangerously reactive; may rearrange chemically and/or polymerize violently with evolution of heat; when in contact with highly active catalytic surfaces, such as anhydrous chlorides of iron, tin and aluminum; pure oxides of iron and aluminum; and alkali metal hydroxides. Even small amounts of strong acids; alkalis, or oxidizers can cause a reaction. Avoid contact with copper. Protect container from physical damage, sun and heat. Attacks some plastics, rubber or coatings.

廃棄物の処理

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Concentrated waste containing no peroxides-discharge liquid at a controlled rate near a pilot flame. Concentrated waste containing peroxides-perforation of a container of the waste from a safe distance followed by open burning

予防処置

Ethylene oxide is dangerously explosive under fi re condition; it is flammable over an extremely large range of concentrations in air and burns in the absence of oxygen.

法令条例

Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security
Minimum requirements have been established for safe transport of ethylene oxide on ships and barges.
Department of Transportation (DOT)
Ethylene oxide mixtures are considered hazardous materials, and special requirements have been set for marking, labeling, and transporting these materials.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Clean Air Act
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Listed as a hazardous air pollutant.
New Source Performance Standards: Manufacture of ethylene oxide is subject to certain provisions for the control of volatile organic compound emissions. Prevention of Accidental Release: Threshold quantity (TQ) = 10,000 lb. Urban Air Toxics Strategy: Identified as one of 33 hazardous air pollutants that present the greatest threat to public health in urban areas.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
Reportable quantity (RQ) = 1 lb.
Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act
Toxics Release Inventory: Listed substance subject to reporting requirements.
Threshold planning quantity (TPQ) = 1,000 lb.
Reportable quantity (RQ) = 10 lb.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
The tolerance for residues of ethylene oxide when used as a fumigant on coconut, walnuts, and spices = 50 ppm.

参考文献

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethylene_oxide
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/ethylene-oxide

酸化エチレン 上流と下流の製品情報

原材料

準備製品


酸化エチレン 生産企業

Global( 123)Suppliers
名前 電話番号 ファックス番号 電子メール 国籍 製品カタログ 優位度
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Mainchem Co., Ltd.
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Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD 021-20337333/400-620-6333
021-50323701 sale@aladdin-e.com China 24986 65

75-21-8(酸化エチレン)キーワード:


  • 75-21-8
  • ETHYLENE OXIDE, 99.5+%
  • ETHYLENE OXIDE CYLINDER WITH 2 L (NET ~1 .5 KG)
  • ETHYLENE OXIDE, 1X1ML, MEOH, 50000UG/ML
  • ETHYLENE OXIDE 1X1ML, CH2CL2, 2000UG/ML
  • ETHYLENE OXIDE, CYLINDER WITH 27 L (NET ~20 KG)
  • ETHYLENE OXIDE, 1X1ML, CH2CL2, 50000UG/M L
  • ETHYLENE OXIDE, PRESSURE TIN WITH 250 ML (NET ~225 G)
  • ethylene oxide solution
  • etylenutlenek(polish)
  • FEMA No. 2433
  • femano.2433
  • femano2433
  • Merpol
  • NCI-C50088
  • Oxacyclopropane
  • Oxane
  • Oxidoethane
  • Oxiraan
  • Oxiran
  • Oxirene, Dihydro-
  • oxyded’ethylene
  • Oxyfume
  • Oxyfume 12
  • oxyfume12
  • Qazi-ketcham
  • Rcra waste number U115
  • rcrawastenumberu115
  • Sterilizing gas ethylene oxide 100%
  • Ethylene oxide solution 2.5-3.3 M in THF
  • 12/88
  • エチレンオキシド (約0.8mol/Lヘキサン溶液)
  • エチレンオキシド (約1.0mol/Lテトラヒドロフラン溶液)
  • エチレンオキシド (約1.0mol/Lトルエン溶液)
  • エチレンオキシド (約1mol/Lエチルエーテル溶液)
  • エチレンオキシド (約1mol/Lジクロロメタン溶液)
  • オキシラン
  • ステリガス
  • エチレンオキシド
  • オキサン
  • フミゲート
  • エルナックH
  • アンプロレン
  • 1,2-エポキシエタン
  • 酸化エチレン
  • アセプトン-C
  • エチレンオキサイド
  • エポキシエタン
  • オキシラン (約0.8mol/Lヘキサン溶液)
  • オキシラン (約1.0mol/Lテトラヒドロフラン溶液)
  • オキシラン (約1.0mol/Lトルエン溶液)
  • オキシラン (約1mol/Lエチルエーテル溶液)
  • オキシラン (約1mol/Lジクロロメタン溶液)
  • エチレンオキシド 溶液
  • オキシラン
  • 構造分類
  • 三員環化合物
  • 殺虫剤
  • 燻蒸剤
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