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ニッケル触媒

ニッケル触媒 化学構造式
7440-02-0
CAS番号.
7440-02-0
化学名:
ニッケル触媒
别名:
ニッケル触媒;ニッケル;ニッケル粉末;ラネーニッケル;ニッケル(粉末);ニッケル(粒状);◎ニッケル;ニッケル(金属);ニッケル,スポンジ;ニッケル,板状;ニッケル,粉末;ニッケル,粒状;ニッケル,球状;ニッケル,線状;ニッケルおよびその化合物 ;ニッケル粉;ニッケル化合物(人体接触部分への使用が対象。SUS等の合金成分は除外);ニッケル及びその化合物;ニッケル鉱;ニッケル(キューブ),5N
英語化学名:
Nickel
英語别名:
Ni;NP 2;(1WT%);Nickel;Ni 270;Nichel;NI-5249P;NI000525;NI000110;NI007965
CBNumber:
CB4854179
化学式:
Ni
分子量:
58.69
MOL File:
7440-02-0.mol

ニッケル触媒 物理性質

融点 :
1453 °C (lit.)
沸点 :
2732 °C (lit.)
比重(密度) :
8.9 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
蒸気密度:
5.8 (vs air)
貯蔵温度 :
no restrictions.
外見 :
wire
色:
White to gray-white
比重:
8.9
臭い (Odor):
Odorless
酸塩基指示薬変色域(pH):
9 - 11 at 20 °C
PH:
8.5-12.0
電気抵抗率 (resistivity):
6.97 μΩ-cm, 20°C
水溶解度 :
It is insoluble in water.
Sensitive :
air sensitive
Merck :
14,8107
暴露限界値:
TLA-TWA (metal) 1 mg/m3 (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA); (soluble inorganic compounds) 0.1 mg(Ni)/m3 (ACGIH) 0.015 mg (Ni)/m3 (NIOSH); (insoluble inorganic compounds) 1 mg/m3 (ACGIH).
安定性::
Stable in massive form. Powder is pyrophoric - can ignite spontaneously. May react violently with titanium, ammonium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, hydrazoic acid. Incompatible with acids, oxidizing agents, sulfur.
InChIKey:
PXHVJJICTQNCMI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS データベース:
7440-02-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Nickel(7440-02-0)
IARC:
2B (Vol. Sup 7, 49) 1990
EPAの化学物質情報:
Nickel (7440-02-0)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  C,Xi,Xn,F,T
Rフレーズ  34-50/53-43-40-10-17-52/53-48/23
Sフレーズ  26-45-60-61-36-22-36/37-16-15-5-36/37/39-43-28
RIDADR  UN 1493 5.1/PG 2
WGK Germany  3
RTECS 番号 VW4725000
8
自然発火温度 87 °C
TSCA  Yes
国連危険物分類  4.1
容器等級  II
HSコード  38151100
有毒物質データの 7440-02-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
安衛法 特化則 特定化学物質(管理第2類)
PRTR法 第一種指定化学物質
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H228 可燃性固体 可燃性固体 1
2
危険
警告
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H250 空気に触れると自然発火 自然発火性液体;自然発火性固体 1 危険 P210, P222, P280, P302+P334,P370+P378, P422
H301 飲み込むと有毒 急性毒性、経口 3 危険 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H311 皮膚に接触すると有毒 急性毒性、経皮 3 危険 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H315 皮膚刺激 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 2 警告 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 アレルギー性皮膚反応を起こすおそれ 感作性、皮膚 1 警告 P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 吸入すると有害 急性毒性、吸入 4 警告 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H334 吸入するとアレルギー、喘息または、呼吸困難 を起こすおそれ 感作性、呼吸器 1 危険 P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H335 呼吸器への刺激のおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 気道刺激性 3 警告
H350 発がんのおそれ 発がん性 1A, 1B 危険
H351 発がんのおそれの疑い 発がん性 2 警告 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H372 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害のおそれ 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 2 警告 P260, P314, P501
H412 長期的影響により水生生物に有害 水生環境有害性、慢性毒性 3 P273, P501
H413 長期的影響により水生生物に有害のおそれ 水生環境有害性、慢性毒性 4
注意書き
P210 熱/火花/裸火/高温のもののような着火源から遠ざ けること。-禁煙。
P231 不活性ガスで取り扱うこと。
P260 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーを吸入しないこ と。
P273 環境への放出を避けること。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P285 換気が十分でない場合には、呼吸用保護具を着用する こと。
P302+P334 皮膚に付着した場合:冷たい水に浸すこと/湿った 包帯で覆うこと。
P302+P352 皮膚に付着した場合:多量の水と石鹸で洗うこと。
P305+P351+P338 眼に入った場合:水で数分間注意深く洗うこと。次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。その後も洗浄を続けること。
P314 気分が悪い時は、医師の診断/手当てを受けること。
P321 特別な処置が必要である(このラベルの... を見よ)。
P333+P313 皮膚刺激または発疹が生じた場合:医師の診断/手当てを 受けること。
P370+P378 火災の場合:消火に...を使用すること。
P422 内容物を...中で保管すること。

ニッケル触媒 価格 もっと(174)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01SRM93-2876
Nickel tubing (99.5%)
7440-02-0 30cm ¥8800 2021-03-23 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01SRM93-2876
Nickel tubing (99.5%)
7440-02-0 120cm ¥28900 2021-03-23 購入
東京化成工業 S0487 ニッケル触媒
Skeletal Nickel Catalyst slurry in Water [Active catalyst for Hydrogenation]
7440-02-0 50g ¥7200 2021-03-23 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 19361-2A ニッケル(粉末)
Nickel, powder
7440-02-0 100g ¥5600 2020-09-21 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 19361-1A ニッケル(粉末)
Nickel, powder
7440-02-0 25g ¥2000 2020-09-21 購入

ニッケル触媒 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

銀灰色の球状

溶解性

希鉱酸(塩酸、硫酸、硝酸等)に溶け、水及び水酸化アルカリ溶液に溶けない。うすい硝酸に溶ける。

主な性質

  1. ニッケル単体は銀白色の金属で、合金は耐熱材料と磁性材として利用
  2. ニッケルは空気及び水に対して常温で極めて安定(メッキ材として多用される)
  3. ニッケルの耐酸性は鉄と銅との中間(pH5以下でないと腐食しない。アルカリにはほとんど侵されない)
  4. 高熱下塩素酸と臭素とは、火を発して反応する
  5. 微粉状のニッケルは発火性があり、かなりの水素を溶かし水素化触媒となる
  6. 単体のニッケルは延展性に富む
  7. ニッケルはコバルトと共に鉄に添加して耐熱合金を作る(ニオブ、タンタル、モリブデン、タングステン等耐火金属より融点の低いニッケルやコバルトが耐熱合金としてのベースに使用されるのは、生成酸化物が緻密で蒸気圧が小さいため、耐酸化性や耐クリープ性が良好であるため)

解説

Ni.原子番号28の元素.電子配置[Ar]3d84s2の周期表10族遷移金属元素.原子量58.6934(2).安定同位体核種の質量数58(68.0769(89)%),60(26.2231(77)%),61(1.1399(6)%),62(3.6345(17)%),64(0.9256(9)%).質量数48~78の放射性同位体核種が知られている.1751年スウェーデンのAxel F.Cronstedtにより発見された.元素名は,かれがニッケルを分離したヒ(砒)ニッケル鉱Kupfernickelに由来.Nickelは“小悪魔”の意味で,銅鉱石に似ているにもかかわらず,銅が得られないのは小悪魔のいたずらによるとして鉱石名がついた.宇田川榕菴は天保8年(1837年)出版の「舎密開宗」で,暱古律母(ニッコリュム)と記載している.おもな鉱石はケイニッケル鉱H2(Ni,Mg)SiO4・nH2O,硫鉄ニッケル鉱(ペントランド鉱)(Fe,Ni)9S8,針ニッケル鉱NiS,ラテライト(Fe,Ni)O(OH)・nH2Oなど.確認埋蔵量(150000百万t)はオーストラリア18%,キューバ15%,カナダ,ニューカレドニア各10%,インドネシア9% の順である.地球の中心部はNiFe合金が主体であるが,地殻中の存在度は105 ppm.ほとんどのいん石に含まれる.従来の工業的精錬法は,ニッケル鉱石を酸化物NiOにかえて炭素で還元していたが,硫黄酸化物発生の環境問題から,現在は,酸化物・硫化物鉱石をアンモニアや塩素で浸出処理して,または高圧硫酸浸出法により塩化物,硫酸塩溶液などにかえて電解精錬する方法,水素による還元法などが行われている.ニッケルカルボニル[Ni(CO)4]を250 ℃ 以上で熱分解すると高純度のニッケル金属が得られる(モンド法).銀白色,通常は面心立方格子.密度8.902 g cm-3(25 ℃).融点1453 ℃,沸点2732 ℃.標準電極電位 Ni2+/Ni-0.257 V.第一イオン化エネルギー7.635 eV.鍛造,鍛接ができ,展延性に富む.立方格子のものは強磁性だが,鉄よりは弱い.キュリー温度は358 ℃.金属結合半径0.125 nm.Ni2+(六配位)0.083 nm.塊状のものは常温で水や空気,酸,アルカリ,ハロゲンガスに対してすぐれた耐食性を示すため,腐食防止用にニッケルめっきが利用される.酸素中で加熱すると火花を発して燃える.空気中で加熱すると表面が酸化される.希酸には鉄よりもゆっくり侵される.希硝酸には容易に溶け,濃硝酸では不動態を生じる.アルカリには侵されない.通常の酸化数1~4.COとは直接反応して[Ni(CO)4]をつくる.130 ℃ で反応速度が最大となる.粉末は水素をかなり吸収するので,水素化の触媒に使われる.ニッケルの合金にはステンレス鋼,耐熱鋼,耐食合金,コンスタンタン,ニッケルクロム鋼,パーマロイ,ハステロイ,磁石鋼など数多くある.日本のニッケル需要の90% はステンレス鋼用.各種電子材料,ニッケル-カドミウム電池,ニッケル-水素電池材料などの原料としても重要である.国家備蓄対象鉱種の一つ.アメリカの5セント硬貨は25重量% Ni,75重量% Cuである.1920年代から使われている有機合成のラネーニッケル触媒は90重量% Ni,10重量% Al.ニッケル化合物の毒性については多数の報告があり,金属ニッケルも「おそらくヒトに発がん性をもつ」という評価がなされている(日本産業衛生学会).化学物質排出把握管理促進法(MSDS制度対象)・第一種指定.「ニッケル及びその化合物」は労働安全衛生法の名称等を通知すべき危険物及び有害物指定.大気汚染防止法の有害大気汚染物質/優先取組22物質の一つに指定されている.[CAS 7440-02-0]
森北出版「化学辞典(第2版)

用途

ラネーニッケル触媒の原料。

用途

高純度金属、合金材料。

用途

ステンレス鋼、めっき、長時間皮膚接触の適用 (長時間皮膚に接触する部品)

主な用途

  1. ステンレス鋼、特殊鋼の添加成分(耐熱材部品、ヘリコプター、航空機部品、ジェットエンジン、鉄道車輌、建材、日用品)
  2. メッキ(自動車用鋼板、自転車部材、家電部材、リードフレーム等電子部材)
  3. 触媒(石油精製、油脂加工の反応剤)
  4. 磁性材料(ラジオ、ステレオのスピーカー、ロボット、モーター、パソコン用部品、情報記録部品)
  5. 非鉄材料(アンバー、42アロイなど電子部品、通信機用部品)
  6. エネルギー機器(ニッケル?水素電池、燃料電池、熱交換機)
  7. その他(フェライト、磁気カード、ガラス部品)

生体とニッケル

体内ニッケル総含量は正常人で6~10mgとされる。臓器では、肺、肋骨、皮膚、小腸に多いが、特異的にニッケルを大量蓄積する臓器はない。ただし、ニッケルカルボニル中毒者では、肺に蓄積傾向がみられる。
血清、尿中ニッケル濃度は曝露の指標となることが示されている。すなわち、ニッケル鉱山地区のニッケル職業性曝露者と対照との報告があり、対照が血清中ニッケル濃度2.6±0.9 (0.8~5.2)μg/lに対し、4.6±1.4(2.0~7.3)μg/lと増加がみられている。このときの尿でも、対照の 2.6±1.4(0.5~6.4)μg/日に対し、7.9±3.7(2.3~15.7)μg/日と増加がみられている。
ニッケルの毒性は化学形態とその物性で異なる。経口毒性は比較的低く、銅、コバルト、亜鉛など必須金属と同程度である。しかし、吸入ではニッケルカルボニルの毒性が大で、ヒトにとっての致死量は30ppm30分と推定されている。0.001ppm8時間曝露でも肺炎がみられる。一般には曝露24時間ぐらいで症状が出現し、病理学的には、肺うっ血?浮腫、間質性肺炎、肝変性および中心静脈周辺の壊死、腎?膵の変性がもっとも特徴的である。

使用上の注意

粉末にした場合は、強力な還元剤であり、酸化剤と反応。酸素と激しく反応し、火災や爆発の危険をもたらす。

説明

Nickel is a hard, silvery white, malleable metal chunk or grey powder. Nickel powder is pyrophoric – can ignite spontaneously. It may react violently with titanium, ammonium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, and hydrazoic acid. It is incompatible with acids, oxidising agents, and sulphur. The industrially important nickel compounds are nickel oxide (NiO), nickel acetate (Ni(C2H3O2), nickel carbonate (NiCO3), nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4), nickel subsulphide (NiS2), nickelocene (C5H5)2Ni, and nickel sulphate hexahydrate (NiSO4 · 6H2O).
Nickel metal
Nickel compounds have been well established as human carcinogens. Investigations into the molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis have revealed that not all nickel compounds are equally carcinogenic: certain water-insoluble nickel compounds exhibit potent carcinogenic activity, whereas highly water-soluble nickel compounds exhibit less potency. The reason for the high carcinogenic activity of certain water-insoluble nickel compounds relates to their bioavailability and the ability of the nickel ions to enter cells and reach chromatin. The water-insoluble nickel compounds enter cells quite efficiently via phagocytic processes and subsequent intracellular dissolution. Nickel is classified as a borderline metal ion because it has both soft and hard metal properties and it can bind to sulphur, nitrogen, and oxygen groups. Nickel ions are very similar in structure and coordination properties to magnesium.

化学的特性

silver white, hard, malleable metal chunks or grey powder

化学的特性

RANEY NICKEL is a hard, ductile, magnetic metal with a silver-white color.

物理的性質

Nickel metal does not exist freely in nature. Rather, it is located as compounds in ores ofvarying colors, ranging from reddish-brown rocks to greenish and yellowish deposits, andin copper ores. Once refined from its ore, the metallic nickel is a silver-white and hard butmalleable and ductile metal that can be worked hot or cold to fabricate many items. Nickel,located in group 10, and its close neighbor, copper, just to its right in group 11 of the periodictable, have two major differences. Nickel is a poor conductor of electricity, and copper is anexcellent conductor, and although copper is not magnetic, nickel is. Nickel’s melting point is1,455°C, its boiling point is 2,913°C, and its density is 8.912 g/cm3.

同位体

There are 31 isotopes of nickel, ranging from Ni-48 to Ni-78. Five of these arestable, and the percentage of their contribution to the element’s natural existence onEarth are as follows: Ni-58 = 68.077%, Ni-60 = 26.223%, Ni-61 = 1.140%, Ni-62 =3.634%, and Ni 64 = 0.926%. All of the other 26 isotopes of nickel are artificially madeand radioactive with half-lives ranging from a few nanoseconds to 7.6×104 years.

名前の由来

The name is derived from the ore niccolite, meaning “Old Nick,” referred to as the devil by German miners. The niccolite mineral ore was also called “kupfernickel,” which in German stands for two things; first, it is the name of a gnome (similar to Cobalt), and second, it refers to “Old Nick’s false copper.”

天然物の起源

Nickel is the 23rd most abundant element found in the Earth’s crust. It is somewhat plentiful but scattered and makes up one-hundredth of 1% of igneous rocks. Nickel metal is foundin meteorites (as are some other elements). It is believed that molten nickel, along with iron,makes up the central sphere that forms the core of the Earth.There are several types of nickel ores. One is the major ore for nickel called pentlandite(NiS ? 2FeS), which is iron/nickel sulfide. Another is a mineral called niccolite (NiAs), discovered in 1751 and first found in a mining area of Sweden. By far, the largest mining area fornickel is located in Ontario, Canada, where it is recovered from what is thought to be a verylarge meteorite that crashed into the Earth eons ago. This large nickel deposit is one reasonfor the theory of the Earth’s core being molten nickel and iron, given that both the Earth andmeteorites were formed during the early stages of the solar system. Some nickel ores are alsofound in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Scandinavia. Traces of nickel exist in soils, coal,plants, and animals.

特性

As mentioned, nickel is located in group 10 (VIII) and is the third element in the specialtriad (Fe, Co, Ni) of the first series of the transition elements. Nickel’s chemical and physicalproperties, particularly its magnetic peculiarity, are similar to iron and cobalt.Some acids will attack nickel, but it offers excellent protection from corrosion from air andseawater. This quality makes it excellent for electroplating other metals to form a protectivecoating. Nickel is also an excellent alloy metal, particularly with iron, for making stainless steelas well as a protective armor for military vehicles. It is malleable and can be drawn throughdies to form wires. About one pound of nickel metal can be drawn to about 200 miles of thinwire.

来歴

Discovered by Cronstedt in 1751 in kupfernickel (niccolite). Nickel is found as a constituent in most meteorites and often serves as one of the criteria for distinguishing a meteorite from other minerals. Iron meteorites, or siderites, may contain iron alloyed with from 5 to nearly 20% nickel. Nickel is obtained commercially from pentlandite and pyrrhotite of the Sudbury region of Ontario, a district that produces much of the world’s nickel. It is now thought that the Sudbury deposit is the result of an ancient meteorite impact. Large deposits of nickel, cobalt, and copper have recently been developed at Voisey’s Bay, Labrador. Other deposits of nickel are found in Russia, New Caledonia, Australia, Cuba, Indonesia, and elsewhere. Nickel is silvery white and takes on a high polish. It is hard, malleable, ductile, somewhat ferromagnetic, and a fair conductor of heat and electricity. It belongs to the iron-cobalt group of metals and is chiefly valuable for the alloys it forms. It is extensively used for making stainless steel and other corrosion- resistant alloys such as Invar?, Monel?, Inconel?, and the Hastelloys?. Tubing made of a copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. Nickel is also now used extensively in coinage and in making nickel steel for armor plate and burglar-proof vaults, and is a component in Nichrome?, Permalloy?, and constantan. Nickel added to glass gives a green color. Nickel plating is often used to provide a protective coating for other metals, and finely divided nickel is a catalyst for hydrogenating vegetable oils. It is also used in ceramics, in the manufacture of Alnico magnets, and in batteries. The sulfate and the oxides are important compounds. Natural nickel is a mixture of five stable isotopes; twenty-five other unstable isotopes are known. Nickel sulfide fume and dust, as well as other nickel compounds, are carcinogens. Nickel metal (99.9%) is priced at about $2/g or less in larger quantities.

使用

The most common use of nickel is as an alloy metal with iron and steel to make stainlesssteel, which contains from 5% to 15% nickel. The higher the percentage of nickel in stainlesssteel, the greater the steel’s resistance to corrosion—particularly when exposed to seawater.Nickel is also alloyed with copper to make Monel metal, which was widely used before stainless steel became more economical and practical. It was used for many purposes as varied ashousehold appliances and general manufacturing. Nickel is also used to electroplate othermetals to provide a noncorrosive protective and attractive finish.

使用

Nickel is used in various alloys, such asGerman silver, Monel, and nickel–chrome;for coins; in storage batteries; in spark plugs;and as a hydrogenation catalyst.

使用

Nickel-plating; for various alloys such as new silver, Chinese silver, German silver; for coins, electrotypes, storage batteries; magnets, lightning-rod tips, electrical contacts and electrodes, spark plugs, machinery parts; catalyst for hydrogenation of oils and other organic substances. See also Raney nickel. manufacture of Monel metal, stainless steels, heat resistant steels, heat and corrosion resistant alloys, nickel-chrome resistance wire; in alloys for electronic and space applications.

定義

A transition metal that occurs naturally as the sulfide and silicate. It is extracted by the Mond process, which involves reduction of nickel oxide using carbon monoxide followed by the formation and subsequent decomposition of volatile nickel carbonyl. Nickel is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of alkenes, e.g. margarine manufacture, and in coinage alloys. Its main oxidation state is +2 and these compounds are usually green. Symbol: Ni; m.p. 1453°C; b.p. 2732°C; r.d. 8.902 (25°C); p.n. 28; r.a.m. 58.6934.

定義

nickel: Symbol Ni. A malleable ductilesilvery metallic transition element;a.n. 28; r.a.m. 58.70; r.d. 8.9;m.p. 1450°C; b.p. 2732°C. It is foundin the minerals pentlandite (NiS),pyrrhoite ((Fe,Ni)S), and garnierite((Ni,Mg)6(OH)6Si4O11.H2O). Nickel isalso present in certain iron meteorites(up to 20%). The metal isextracted by roasting the ore to givethe oxide, followed by reductionwith carbon monoxide and purificationby the Mond process. Alternativelyelectolysis is used. Nickel metalis used in special steels, in Invar, and,being ferromagnetic, in magnetic alloys,such as Mumetal. It is also aneffective catalyst, particularly for hydrogenation reactions (see also raneynickel). The main compounds areformed with nickel in the +2 oxidationstate; the +3 state also exists (e.g.the black oxide, Ni2O3). Nickel wasdiscovered by Axel Cronstedt(1722–65) in 1751.

定義

ChEBI: Chemical element (nickel group element atom) with atomic number 28.

調製方法

Nickel is obtained by processing sulfide and laterite ore concentrates using pyrometallurgic and hydrometallurgic processes. The resultant nickel matte obtained by roasting and smelting is subjected to further cleaning by electro-, vapo-, and hydrometallurgic refining methods. Some portion of the matte is roasted to obtain commercial nickel oxide agglomerate. Pure, 99.9% nickel can be obtained by electrolytic refining process.
The most pure, 99.97%, nickel is obtained by vapometallurgy. In this process, known also as the Mond method,nickel and copper sulfide blend is converted to oxides and then reduced by heating with water gas at 350–400°C. The resultant active form of nickel is treated with carbon monoxide to give volatile nickel carbonyl [Ni(CO)4]. The latter reaction is reversible; heating results in pure nickel and carbon monoxide.

製造方法

The carbonyl process is most commonly employed when very pure nickel is required. The impure metal is reacted with pure carbon monoxide at 50° and the carbonyl produced fractionated several times prior to pyrolysis at around 200°. The nickel thus obtained has a purity of 99.90-99.99% depending upon the materials used.
Electrolytic methods for producing high purity nickel depend upon the production of high purity nickel salts. The nickel obtained by the electrolysis of pure nickel chloride solution with inert platinum-iridium anodes is 99.99% pure.

一般的な説明

Nickel catalyst, is extremely fine powdered nickel. Nickel is grayish colored. Insoluble in water. Nickel catalyst is used to promote the chemical action in manufacturing synthetics and to process vegetable oil and petroleum. If exposed to air or moisture, Nickel may become hot enough to ignite. Nickel is insoluble in water and does not react with larger volumes of water.

空気と水の反応

Pyrophoric, Ignites spontaneously in the presence of air; during storage, H2 escapes with fire and explosion hazards; reacts violently with acids forming H2. [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 807].

反応プロフィール

Metals, such as METAL CATALYST, are reducing agents and tend to react with oxidizing agents. Their reactivity is strongly influenced by their state of subdivision: in bulk they often resist chemical combination; in powdered form they may react very rapidly. Thus, as a bulk metal Nickel is somewhat unreactive, but finely divided material may be pyrophoric. The metal reacts exothermically with compounds having active hydrogen atoms (such as acids and water) to form flammable hydrogen gas and caustic products. The reactions are less vigorous than the similar reactions of alkali metals, but the released heat can still ignite the released hydrogen. Materials in this group may react with azo/diazo compounds to form explosive products. These metals and the products of their corrosion by air and water can catalyze polymerization reactions in several classes of organic compounds; these polymerizations sometimes proceed rapidly or even explosively. Some metals in this group form explosive products with halogenated hydrocarbons. Can react explosively with oxidizing materials.

危険性

Nickel dust and powder are flammable. Most nickel compounds, particularly the salts, aretoxic. NiSO4 is a known carcinogen.
Although nickel is not easily absorbed in the digestive system, it can cause toxic reactionsand is a confirmed carcinogen in high concentration in the body. Nickel workers can receivesevere skin rashes and lung cancer from exposure to nickel dust and vapors.
Nickel is stored in the brain, spinal cord, lungs, and heart. It can cause coughs, shortnessof breath, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and general weakness.

健康ハザード

Ingestion of nickel can cause hyperglycemia,depression of the central nervous system,myocardial weakness, and kidney damage.A subcutaneous lethal dose in rabbits isin the range 10 mg/kg. The oral toxicityof the metal, however, is very low. Skincontact can lead to dermatitis and “nickelitch,” a chronic eczema, caused by dermalhypersensitivity reactions. Nickel itch mayresult from wearing pierced earrings. Inhalationof metal dusts can produce irritation ofthe nose and respiratory tract. Nickel andsome of its compounds have been reportedto cause lung cancer in experimental animals.It may also induce cancer in nose,stomach, and possibly the kidney. The experimentaldata on the latter, are not fully confirmative.Nickel refinery flue dust, nickelsulfide (Ni3S2) , and nickeloxide (NiO) produced localizedtumors in experimental animals wheninjected intramuscularly. IARC has classifiednickel and its compounds as carcinogenicto humans (IARC 1990). Inhalation ofmetal dusts can produce lung and sinus cancersin humans, with a latent period of about25 years.
Nickel is susceptible to cross human placentaand produce teratogenesis and embroytoxicity. In vitro study on lipid peroxidationindicated that nickel induced peroxidativedamage to placental membrane causing decreased placental viability, altered permeabilityand subsequent embroy toxicity (Chenand Lin 1998). In a latter study, Chen et al.(2003) evaluated nickel-induced oxidativestress and effects of antioxidants in humanlymphocytes. The levels of intracellular reactiveoxygen species, lipid peroxidation andhydroxyl radicals were examined for one hourfollowing acute treatment with Nicl2. Thestudy showed that glutathione, catalase andmannitol each provided protection against theoxidative stress induced by Ni.
The efficacy of organic chelating ligandsin cleaning human skin contaminated withnickel has been investigated (Healy et al.1998). Commercial liquid soap added withL-histidine was found to be more effectivethan the untreated soap. Similarly sodiumethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)salt or L-histidine added to phosphate buffersaline solution was more effective in cleaningnickel contaminated human skin than thephosphate saline alone.

火災危険

Flammable/combustible material. May ignite on contact with moist air or moisture. May burn rapidly with flare-burning effect. Some react vigorously or explosively on contact with water. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated.

农业用途

Nickel (Ni) is a silver-white, ductile, malleable, yet tough metallic element of Group 10 (formerly Group VIII) of the Periodic Table. Mostly, nickel goes into the making of steel and other corrosion resistant alloys. Finely divided nickel is used as a hydrogenation catalyst. Nickel is a beneficial trace element for plants.
Its presence in the urease enzyme underlines its importance as a functional element. It is essential for grain viability, in barley and at concentrations less than 100 μg/kg, the grain level and the germination frequency decrease progressively. The quantity of Ni in a few fertilizers is as given: 2 ppm in nitrochalk, 13 ppm in superphosphate and 10 ppm in FYM.
Nickel is the metal component of urease that hydrolyzes urea to give ammonia and carbon dioxide. Compounds that react with nickel in the urease molecule inhibit the hydrolysis of urea.
Nickel enhances the nodule weight and the seed yield of soybeans, chickpeas and temperate cereals. It is present in plants in the range of 0.1 to 1O ppm of the dry weight.
High levels of Ni may induce Zn or Fe deficiency because of cation competition, and may create nickel toxicity. The browning and necrosis of the leaf tips and margins are the toxicity symptoms on the plant. High Ni content also causes the distortion of young leaves and the death of the terminal shoots of the plant. The emerging leaves may fail to unroll and become necrotic, with the necrosis starting from near the base and spreading toward the leaf tip. Nickel toxicity in cereals and grasses varies in the intensity of chlorosis along the length of the leaf with a series of transverse bands.
Sewage sludge contains heavy metals like Ni, Cd, etc. that are absorbed by plants grown in soils contaminated with these heavy metals. The toxicity caused by these metals is in turn, passed on to animals that feed on such plants. Any regulation for sludge use should ensure that the soil pH is not lower than 6.5, as heavy metals are insoluble at pH greater than 6.5.

安全性プロファイル

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, and tumorigenic data. Poison by ingestion, intratracheal, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes. An experimental teratogen. Ingestion of soluble salts causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Mutation data reported. Hypersensitivity to nickel is common and can cause allergic contact dermatitis, pulmonary asthma, conjunctivitis, and inflammatory reactions around nickel-containing medcal implants and prostheses. Powders may ignite spontaneously in air. Reacts violently with F2, NH4NO3, hydrazine, NH3, (H2 + dioxane), performic acid, P, Se, S, (Ti + KCLO3). Incompatible with oxidants (e.g., bromine pentafluoride, peroxyformic acid, potassium perchlorate, chlorine, nitryl fluoride, ammonium nitrate), Raney-nickel catalysts may initiate hazardous reactions with ethylene + aluminum chloride, pdioxane, hydrogen, hydrogen + oxygen, magnesium silicate, methanol, organic solvents + heat, sulfur compounds. Nickel catalysts have caused many industrial accidents.

職業ばく露

Nickel is used as an alloy additive in steel manufacture; in the production of coins and other utensils. Nickel forms alloys with copper, manganese, zinc, chromium, iron, molybdenum, etc. Stainless steel is the most widely used nickel alloy. An important nickel copper alloy is Monel metal, which contains 66% nickel and 32% copper and has excellent corrosion resistance properties. Permanent magnets are alloys chiefly of nickel, cobalt, aluminum, and iron. Elemental nickel is used in electroplating, anodizing aluminum casting operations for machine parts; and in coinage; in the manufacture of acid-resisting and magnetic alloys; magnetic tapes; surgical and dental instruments; nickel cadmium batteries; nickel soaps in crankcase oil; in ground-coat enamels; colored ceramics; and glass. It is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation synthesis of acrylic esters for plastics. Exposure to nickel may also occur during mining, smelting, and refining operations. The route by which most people in the general population receive the largest portion of daily nickel intake is through food. Based on the available data from composite diet analysis, between 300 and 600 μg nickel per day are ingested. Fecal nickel analysis, a more accurate measure of dietary nickel intake, suggests about 300 μg per day. The highest level of nickel observed in water was 75 μg/L. Average drinking water levels are about 5 μg/L. A typical consumption of 2 L daily would yield an additional 10 μg of nickel, of which up to 1 μg would be absorbed.

Carcinogenicity

Metallic nickel is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogenbased on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.

環境運命予測

Nickel and its compounds are naturally present in the Earth’s crust, and nickel can be released into the atmosphere via natural discharges such as windblown dust and volcanic eruptions. It is estimated that 8.5 million kilograms of nickel are emitted into the atmosphere from natural sources such as windblown dust, volcanoes, and vegetation each year. Anthropogenic activities constitute significant discharge into the environment, particularly in the form of particulate matter and nickel compounds not normally found naturally; these sources comprise five times the quantity estimated to come from natural sources.
Nickel releases are mainly in the form of aerosols that cover a broad spectrum of sizes. Particulates from power plants tend to be associated with smaller particles than those from smelters. Atmospheric aerosols are removed by gravitational settling and dry and wet deposition. Submicrometer particles may have atmospheric half-lives as long as 30 days. Monitoring data confirm that nickel can be transported far from its source, and that the form of nickel emitted to the atmosphere will vary according to the type of source. Species associated with combustion, incineration, and metals smelting and refining are often complex nickel oxides, nickel sulfate, metallic nickel, and in more specialized industries, nickel silicate, nickel subsulfide, and nickel chloride.
Nickel may be transported into streams and waterways from the natural weathering of soil as well as from anthropogenic discharges and runoff. This nickel can accumulate in sediment, with the adsorption of the metal to the soil depending on pH, redox potential, ionic strength of the water, concentration of complexing ions, and the metal concentration and type. Soluble nickel compounds such as nickel chloride would be expected to release divalent nickel into moist environments. Since these compounds quickly dissolve upon exposure to water, and partially due to the ubiquity of nickel in soil, water, and air, tracking the course of these compounds through the environment is difficult. This is particularly due to nickel’s ability to complex with anionic species other than chloride to form nickel oxide, sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, or acetate, among others.
Industrial uses of nickel result in nickel being distributed mainly at soil surfaces and through surrounding waterways and water tables. Once distributed to the soil, nickel(II) ions can potentially form inorganic crystalline minerals or precipitates, can complex or adsorb onto organic and inorganic surfaces, can participate in cation exchange, and can exist as free-ion or chelated metal complexes in soil solution.

輸送方法

UN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Toxicity evaluation

Skin sensitization is believed to occur as a result of nickel binding to proteins (particularly on the cell surface) and hapten formation. The nickel–protein complex is recognized as foreign and an immune reaction follows. For example, sweat may react with the nickel in plated jewelry that comes in direct contact with skin; dissolved metal may penetrate and react with proteins in the skin, leading to immune sensitization. Nickel may substitute for certain other metals (especially zinc) in metal-dependent enzymes, leading to altered protein function. High nickel content in serum and tissue may interfere with both copper and zinc metabolism. It also readily crosses the cell membrane via calcium channels and competes with calcium for specific receptors.
Nickel can alter the sodium balance and lipid metabolism and can induce metallothionein synthesis. Dissolved nickel also affects the T-cell system and suppresses the activity of natural killer cells. If given orally or by inhalation, nickel chloride has been reported to decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. The lipid peroxidation properties of nickel can introduce potential malignancies in humans, as DNA strand gaps and breaks in DNA–protein cross-links can form. The down-regulation of glycoprotein metabolism by nickel ions may produce nephrotoxicity in humans as well. Nickel carbonyl can cross-link amino acids to DNA and lead to formation of reactive oxygen species. Nickel carbonyl can also suppress natural killer cell activity and production of some interferons.
Responses in many of these assays were weak and occurred at toxic doses, and were affected by tissue culture conditions modifying uptake by the cell. The mechanism of nickel carcinogenesis is controversial, and is likely to vary with the form of nickel. The nickel ion (Ni2+) alone does not form premutagenic DNA lesions, suggesting that nickel causes indirect DNA damage, perhaps due to oxidative stress or blocking DNA repair mechanisms.
Nickel is an essential trace nutrient in plants and certain animal species (e.g., rat and chick); however, it has not been shown to be essential in humans.

不和合性

Nickel dust is a spontaneously flammable solid and a dangerous fire hazard.

廃棄物の処理

Nickel compoundsencapsulation followed by disposal in a chemical waste landfill. However, nickel from various industrial wastes may also be recovered and recycled as described in the literature.

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7440-02-0(ニッケル触媒)キーワード:


  • 7440-02-0
  • ACTIMET 8040P
  • ACTIMET C
  • Nickel wire, 0.01mm (0.0004 in.) dia., Hard, Temper: as drawn
  • Nickel tubing, OD: 1.59mm (0.0626 in.) ID: 0.51mm (0.02 in.)
  • Nickel wire, 1.0mm (0.04 in.) dia., Annealed
  • Nickel, p.a.
  • Nickel, Hard
  • Silver Nitrate Solution, 0.25N
  • Silver Nitrate Solution, 1N
  • Nickel tubing (99.5%)
  • Nickel wire (99%)
  • Nickel wire (99.995%)
  • Nickel wire (99+%)
  • NickelfoilNmmthick
  • NickelfoilNmmthickxcmwidecagxcm
  • NickelfoilNmmthickxmmwide
  • NickelpelletsNmm
  • Nickelpowderfine
  • NickelpowderNmesh
  • NickelpowderNmicron
  • NickelrodNmmdia
  • NickeltubingNmmODxmmwall
  • Nickelwireclothxmeshmmwirediaxmmwide
  • NickelwireNmmdia
  • Raney Nickel®
  • raney-nickel ready for use
  • CHLORIDE TITRANT
  • BETZ 0207
  • ARGENTI NITRAS
  • SILVER(I) NITRATE
  • ニッケル触媒
  • ニッケル
  • ニッケル粉末
  • ラネーニッケル
  • ニッケル(粉末)
  • ニッケル(粒状)
  • ◎ニッケル
  • ニッケル(金属)
  • ニッケル,スポンジ
  • ニッケル,板状
  • ニッケル,粉末
  • ニッケル,粒状
  • ニッケル,球状
  • ニッケル,線状
  • ニッケルおよびその化合物
  • ニッケル粉
  • ニッケル化合物(人体接触部分への使用が対象。SUS等の合金成分は除外)
  • ニッケル及びその化合物
  • ニッケル鉱
  • ニッケル(キューブ),5N
  • ニッケル(板状)(60×50×0.3 MM)
  • ラネーニッケル(未活性)
  • ニッケル.板状
  • ニッケル.粉末
  • ニッケル.粉末(3~7Μ)
  • ニッケル.球状
  • ニッケル, ホイル, 熱処理済
  • ラネーニッケル, 約50%
  • ニッケル, 球状, 99.9%
  • ニッケル, ホイル
  • ニッケル, ワイヤー
  • ニッケル foil (99%)
  • ニッケル tubing (99.5%)
  • ニッケル触媒 (鈴木宮浦クロスカップリング)
  • ニッケル化合物
  • 不均一系金属触媒
  • 構造分類
  • 金属別化合物
  • 鈴木―宮浦クロスカップリング反応
  • 遷移金属化合物
  • 有機合成化学
  • 有機合成用触媒
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