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臭素

臭素 化学構造式
CAS番号.
化学名:
臭素
别名:
臭素;臭素分子;臭素水;二臭素;臭素(臭化メチル);0.05MOL/L(N/10) 臭素溶液;臭素濃縮物 FOR 1L STANDARD SOLUTION,0.05 M BR2;0.05MOL/L 臭素溶液(N/10);0.05MOL/L 臭素溶液
英語化学名:
Government regulation
英語别名:
Br2;Brom;Brome;Bromo;Broom;BROMINE;Dibromine;BromineGr;BROMINE TS;BROMINE,CP
CBNumber:
CB7714553
化学式:
分子量:
159.81
MOL File:
Mol file

臭素 物理性質

融点 :
−7.2 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
58.8 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) :
3.119 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
蒸気密度:
7.14 (vs air)
蒸気圧:
175 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
闪点 :
113 °C
貯蔵温度 :
2-8°C
溶解性:
35g/l
外見 :
Liquid
色:
Red-brown
比重:
3.119
臭い (Odor):
Odor can be detected at concentrations as low as 0.05 ppm; exposure to concentrations below 1 ppm causes lacrimation.
電気抵抗率 (resistivity):
7.8E18 μΩ-cm, 20°C
水溶解度 :
35 g/L (20 ºC)
Merck :
13,1378
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, NIOSH, and OSHA); TLV-STEL 0.3 ppm (ACGIH); IDLH 10 ppm (NIOSH).
安定性::
Stable. Incompatible with reducing agents, alkali metals, powdered metals, steel, iron, copper, organic materials.
CAS データベース:
7726-95-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Bromine(7726-95-6)
EPAの化学物質情報:
Bromine(7726-95-6)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  T+,C,N,T
Rフレーズ  26-35-50-40-22-46-45
Sフレーズ  26-45-61-7/9-36/37/39-28-53
RIDADR  UN 1744 8/PG 1
WGK Germany  2
RTECS 番号 EF9100000
TSCA  Yes
HSコード  2801 30 90
国連危険物分類  8
容器等級  I
有毒物質データの 7726-95-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LD50 oral (rat) 2600 mg/kg
LC50 inhal (rat) 2700 mg/m3
PEL (OSHA) 0.1 ppm
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH) 0.3 ppm (2 mg/m3)
安衛法 57,57-2
PRTR法 第1種指定化学物質
毒劇物取締法 I
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H302 飲み込むと有害 急性毒性、経口 4 警告 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H314 重篤な皮膚の薬傷?眼の損傷 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 1A, B, C 危険 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H330 吸入すると生命に危険 急性毒性、吸入 1, 2 危険 P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H331 吸入すると有毒 急性毒性、吸入 3 危険 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H340 遺伝性疾患のおそれ 生殖細胞変異原性 1A, 1B 危険
H351 発がんのおそれの疑い 発がん性 2 警告 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H400 水生生物に強い毒性 水生環境有害性、急性毒性 1 警告 P273, P391, P501
注意書き
P201 使用前に取扱説明書を入手すること。
P260 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーを吸入しないこ と。
P261 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーの吸入を避ける こと。
P273 環境への放出を避けること。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P284 呼吸用保護具を着用すること。
P303+P361+P353 皮膚(または髪)に付着した場合:直ちに汚染された衣 類をすべて脱ぐこと/取り除くこと。皮膚を流水/シャワー で洗うこと。
P304+P340 吸入した場合:空気の新鮮な場所に移し、呼吸しやすい 姿勢で休息させること。
P305+P351+P338 眼に入った場合:水で数分間注意深く洗うこと。次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。その後も洗浄を続けること。
P310 ただちに医師に連絡すること。
P320 特別な治療が緊急に必要である(このラベ ルの...を見よ)。
P405 施錠して保管すること。

臭素 価格

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入

臭素 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

無色澄明の液体

溶解性

水及びエタノール、アセトン等の有機溶媒と任意の割合で混和する。

用途

酸化剤、合成原料。

用途

容量分析用標準液。

用途

分析における酸化剤、有機・無機合成用。

用途

分析における酸化剤及び付加剤(硫黄、りん化合物、有機不飽和化合物等)。

用途

農薬(土壌及び植物のくん蒸剤,メチルブロマイド,その他臭素配合剤)プラスチック(テレビ?電卓などの家庭電器類器具)化学合成繊維の難燃剤及び工業薬品(臭化物)

農薬用途

殺虫剤

化学的特性

Butane, CH3(CH2)2CH3, also known as n-butane and methyl-ethyl methane,is a colorless gas that occurs in natural gas and is obtained by cracking petroleum. It is used as a refrigerant and as a fuel.

化学的特性

Bromine is a fuming red to dark reddishbrown, nonflammable, volatile liquid with a suffocating odor. Soluble in water and alcohol.

物理的性質

Bromine is a thick, dark-red liquid with a high density. It is the only nonmetallic elementthat is a liquid at normal room temperatures. (The other element that is liquid at room temperaturesis the metal mercury.) Bromine’s density is 3.12g/cm3, which is three times the density ofwater. Its vapor is much denser than air, and when it is poured into a beaker, the fumes hug thebottom of the container. Bromine’s melting point is –72°C, and its boiling point is 58.8°C.

同位体

There are a total of 40 isotopes of bromine. Of these, only two are stable: Br-79constitutes 50.69% of the stable bromine found on Earth, and Br-81 makes up 49.31%of the naturally occurring abundance. All the other isotopes of bromine are radioactivewith half-lives ranging from 1.2 nanoseconds to 16.2 hours.

名前の由来

Named for the Greek word bromos, which means “stench.”

天然物の起源

Bromine is the 62nd most abundant element found on Earth. Although it is not founduncombined in nature, it is widely distributed over the Earth in low concentrations. It isfound in seawater at a concentration of 65 ppm. This concentration is too low for the bromineto be extracted directly, so the salt water must be concentrated, along with chlorine and othersalts, by solar evaporation, distillation, or both.
Most of the commercial bromine that is recovered comes from underground salt minesand deep brine wells. A major source is the deep brine wells found in the state of Arkansas and Great Salt Lake of Utah in the United States. This brine contains about one-half percentbromine. Chlorine gas is added to hot brine that oxidizes the bromine ions in solution, whichis then collected as elemental bromine. It is also commercially produced, along with potash,from evaporation of the high-salt-content water of the Dead Sea, which is 1290 feet below sealevel and is located on the borders of the Middle Eastern countries of Israel and Jordan.

特性

Bromine is a very reactive nonmetallic element, located between chlorine and iodine in theperiodic table. Bromine gas fumes are very irritating and toxic and will cause severe burns ifspilled on the skin.
Bromine is soluble in most organic solvents and only slightly soluble in H2O. Liquid brominewill attack most metals, even platinum.

来歴

Bromine was discovered by Balard in 1826, but not prepared in quantity until 1860. A member of the halogen group of elements, it is obtained from natural brines from wells in Michigan and Arkansas. Little bromine is extracted today from seawater, which contains only about 85 ppm. Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element. Bromine is a heavy, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, volatilizing readily at room temperature to a red vapor with a strong disagreeable odor, resembling chlorine, and having a very irritating effect on the eyes and throat; it is readily soluble in water or carbon disulfide, forming a red solution, is less active than chlorine but more so than iodine; it unites readily with many elements and has a bleaching action; when spilled on the skin it produces painful sores. Bromine presents a serious health hazard, and maximum safety precautions should be taken when handling it. Much of the bromine output in the U.S. was used in the production of ethylene dibromide, a lead scavenger used in making gasoline antiknock compounds. Lead in gasoline, however, has been drastically reduced, due to environmental considerations. This will greatly affect future production of bromine. Bromine is also used in making fumigants, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, dyes, medicinals, sanitizers, inorganic bromides for photography, etc. Organic bromides are also important. Natural bromine is made of two isotopes, 79Br and 81Br. Thirty-four isotopes and isomers are known. Bromine (99.8%) costs about $70/kg.

使用

manufacture of organic and inorganic chemicals, such as fuel additives, fire retardants, pesticides, oil well drilling fluids, pharmaceuticals, dyestuffs. In water disinfection; as bleaching agent, surface disinfectant.

使用

A major use is as a gasoline additive called ethylene dibromide, an antiknock agent thatremoves lead additives from automobile engines after the combustion of leaded gasoline, thuspreventing the lead from forming deposits in the engine. The lead prevents premature burningof the gas/air mixture in the engine’s cylinders that causes the “knocking” sound in the engine.The lead combines with the bromine to form lead bromide, a volatile gas, which is expelledthrough the car’s exhaust system. Ethylene dibromide is a potent carcinogen. Since the introductionof lead free gasoline, this use has declined in importance; recently, other chemicalshave been substituted for the lead as an additive in gasoline.
Methyl bromide is used as a pesticide, which is very effective against parasitic nematodes(e.g., hookworms). Silver bromide is used in photography. Compounds of bromide are usedas flame-retardants, water purifiers, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Bromine has many applicationswhen it is combined with organic compounds. For example, it is used as a reagent tostudy the organic reactions of many other compounds. It is also used as a disinfectant, afumigant, and a sedative. In the nineteenth century, many people took a “bromide” to easetension.

使用

Bromine is used for bleaching fibers and silk,as a disinfectant for purifying water, in themanufacture of bromo compounds for dyesand pharmaceutical uses, as an analyticalreagent, and in organic synthesis. It occursin igneous rock and seawater.

定義

A deep red, moderately reactive element belonging to the halogens; i.e. group 17 (formerly VIIA) of the periodic table. Bromine is a liquid at room temperature (mercury is the only other element with this property). It occurs in small amounts in seawater, salt lakes, and salt deposits but is much less abundant than chlorine. Bromine reacts with most metals but generally with less vigor than chlorine. It has less oxidizing power than chlorine and consequently can be released from solutions of bromides by reaction with chlorine gas. The laboratory method is the more convenient oxidation by manganese dioxide. Industrial methods of production utilize oxidation by chlorine or electrolysis with removal from the solution by purging with air. Bromine and its compounds are used in pharmaceuticals, photography, chemical synthesis, fumigants, and in significantly large quantities as 1,2- dibromoethane (which is added to gasoline to combine with lead produced from the decomposition of the antiknock agent lead tetraethyl).
The electropositive elements form ionic bromides and the non-metals form fully covalent bromides. Like chlorine, bromine forms oxides, Br2O and BrO2, both of which are unstable. The related oxo-acid anions hypobromite (BrO) and bromate (BrO3) are formed by the reaction of bromine with cold aqueous alkali and hot aqueous alkali respectively, but the bromine analogs of chlorite and perchlorate are not known.
Bromine and the interhalogens are highly toxic. Liquid bromine and bromine solutions are also very corrosive and goggles and gloves should always be worn when handling such compounds.

定義

Bromine water: A pale yellow liquid made by reacting mercury(II) oxide with bromine water. It has strong bleaching powers. Bromic(I) acid will donate protons to only a small extent and hence is a weak acid in aqueous solution. It is a strong oxidizing agent.

定義

bromine: Symbol Br. A halogen element;a.n. 35; r.a.m. 79.909; r.d.3.13; m.p. –7.2°C; b.p. 58.78°C. It is ared volatile liquid at room temperature,having a red-brown vapour.Bromine is obtained from brines inthe USA (displacement with chlorine);a small amount is obtainedfrom sea water in Anglesey. Largequantities are used to make 1,2-dibromoethaneas a petrol additive. Itis also used in the manufacture ofmany other compounds. Chemically,it is intermediate in reactivity betweenchlorine and iodine. It formscompounds in which it has oxidationstates of 1, 3, 5, or 7. The liquid isharmful to human tissue and thevapour irritates the eyes and throat.The element was discovered in 1826by Antoine Balard.

定義

Nonmetallic halogen element of atomic number 35, group VIIA of the periodic table. Valences 1, 3, 5 (valence of 7 also reported). There are two stable isotopes.

一般的な説明

A reddish-brown aqueous solution. The solubility of bromine in water equals 0.33 mg/ mL.

空気と水の反応

Slightly soluble in water.

反応プロフィール

BROMINE SOLUTION is an oxidizing agent. Bromine disproportionates rapidly in basic water to give bromide ion and bromate ion. The latter is also an oxidizing agent. Dissolution lowers reactivity compared to pure bromine. Reacts with reducing reagents. Reacts with hydrogen, diethylzinc, dimethylformamide, ammonia, trimethylamine, nitromethane, metal azides (silver or sodium azide). Can react with Mg, Sr, B, Al, Hg, Ti, Sn, Sb in powder or sheet form, to form bromides. Can react with methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, diethyl ether, carbonyl compounds, tetrahydrofuran, acrylonitrile, ozone, phosphorus, natural rubber. Reactions with red phosphorus, metal azides, nitromethane, silane and its homologues may be vigorous.[Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 109].

危険性

Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, severe skin irritant. Strong oxidizing agent, may ignite combustible materials on contact. Upper and lower respiratory tract irritant, and lung damage.

危険性

Bromine and many bromine compounds in liquid form are very difficult to remove fromthe skin and produce deep burns that take a long time to heal.
Almost all bromine compounds are toxic if inhaled or ingested. Many are extremely explosive.When working with bromine, it is important to avoid breathing the vapors, as well as toavoid contact with the skin.

健康ハザード

Bromine is a corrosive liquid and a moder ately toxic substance. The target organs arethe respiratory system, eyes, and the centralnervous system; the routes of exposure areinhalation of its vapors, ingestion of the liq uid, and skin contact. Bromine is an irritantto respiratory passages and can cause injuryto the lungs. A concentration in the rangeof 50 ppm of bromine vapor in air is highlyirritating to humans, and a short exposure to1000 ppm for 15 minutes can be fatal. Othersymptoms are dizziness, headache, coughing,and lacrimation, manifested at a short expo sure to 10–20 ppm of vapor. Ingestion of theliquid can cause nausea, abdominal pain, anddiarrhea. It is corrosive to the skin and eyes,causing burns. Its odor can be detected at alevel of 3 ppm in air.

健康ハザード

Bromine is highly corrosive to the skin, causing irritation and destruction with blister formation. If bromine is not removed from the skin immediately, deep-seated ulcers develop, which heal slowly. Severely painful and destructive eye burns may result from contact with either liquid or concentrated vapors of bromine. Bromine is a moderately toxic substance via inhalation. There are good warning properties for bromine: lacrimation begins at ~1 ppm, and 50 ppm is highly irritating to humans. A short exposure (minutes) to 1000 ppm would likely be fatal for humans. Vapor exposures can cause irritation and damage to the upper and lower respiratory tract (nose, throat, and lungs) to varying degrees depending on the concentration. If exposure is sufficiently high, it will cause pulmonary edema, which could lead to death. Other reported symptoms of overexposure include coughing, tightness of chest, nosebleed, headache, and dizziness, followed after some hours by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and a measles-like rash on the trunk and extremities. Animal studies on the chronic toxicity of bromine revealed disturbances in the respiratory, nervous, and endocrine systems after exposure to 0.2 ppm for 4 months; similar exposure to 0.02 ppm did not produce any adverse effects

健康ハザード

TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.

火災危険

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

火災危険

Bromine alone is a noncombustible substance (NFPA rating = 0)

燃焼性と爆発性

Bromine alone is a noncombustible substance (NFPA rating = 0).

職業ばく露

Bromine is primarily used in the manufacture of gasoline antiknock compounds (1,2-dibromoethane). Other uses are for gold extraction; in brominating hydrocarbons; in bleaching fibers and silk; in the manufacture of military gas, dyestuffs; and as an oxidizing agent. It is used in the manufacture of many pharmaceuticals and pesticides.

貯蔵

work with bromine should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn at all times when handling this corrosive substance. Containers of bromine should be stored at room temperature in a secondary container separately from readily oxidizable substances.

輸送方法

Bromine UN1744 Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8— Corrosive material; 6.1—Poison Inhalation Hazard, Inhalation Hazard Zone A. Bromine solutions, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8—Corrosives materials; 6.1—Poison Inhalation Hazard, Inhalation Hazard Zone A; Bromine solutions, Hazard class: 8 Labels: 8—Corrosive material; 6.1—Poison Inhalation Hazard, Inhalation Hazard Zone B.

純化方法

Reflux the brown liquid with solid KBr and distil, then dry the distillate by shaking it with an equal volume of conc H2SO4, then redistil it. The H2SO4 treatment can be replaced by direct distillation from BaO or P2O5 A more extensive purification [Hildenbrand et al. J Am Chem Soc 80 4129 1958] is to reflux about 1L of bromine for 1hour with a mixture of 16g of CrO3 in 200mL of conc H2SO4 (to remove organic material). The bromine is distilled into a clean, dry, glass-stoppered bottle, and chlorine is removed by dissolving ca 25g of freshly fused CsBr in 500mL of the bromine and standing overnight. To remove HBr and water, the bromine is then distilled back and forth through a train containing alternate tubes of MgO and P2O5. [Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 275 1963.] HIGHLY TOXIC.

不和合性

A powerful oxidizer. May cause fire and explosions in contact with organic or other readily oxidizable materials. Contact with aqueous ammonia, acetaldehyde, acetylene, acrylonitrile, or with metals, may cause violent reactions. Anhydrous Br2 reacts with aluminum, titanium, mercury, potassium; wet Br2 with other metals. Also incompatible with alcohols, antimony, alkali hydroxides, arsenites, boron, calcium nitrite, cesium monoxide, carbonyls, dimethyl formamide, ethyl phosphine, fluorine, ferrous and mercurous salts; germanium, hypophosphites, iron carbide, isobutyronphenone, magnesium phosphide, methanol, nickel carbonyl, olefins, ozone, sodium and many other substances. Attacks some coatings, and some forms of plastic and rubber. Corrodes iron, steel, stainless steel; and copper.

廃棄物の処理

Large volumes of concentrated solutions of reducing agents (bisulfites or ferrous salts) may be added. The mixture is neutralized with soda ash or dilute HCl and flushed to the sewer with large volumes of water.

臭素 上流と下流の製品情報

原材料

準備製品

テトラブロモエタン 2-アミノ-5-ブロモ-4-メチルピリジン ピリジニウムブロミドペルブロミド ペンタブロモジフェニルエーテル 臭化マグネシウム六水和物 3,5-ジブロモ-1H-1,2,4-トリアゾール 2,4-ジブロモ-6-メチルアニリン 2-ニトロベンジル アルコール マンガン(II)ジブロミド イソキノリン-4-カルバルデヒド 4-ビニルベンゼンスルホン酸ナトリウム 5-ブロモシトシン 臭素化ポリスチレン 6-ブロモ-1,4-ベンゾジオキサン 4-ブロモ-N,N-ジメチルアニリン 2-ブロモ-1-インダノン 臭化物 3-(ブロモアセチル)ピリジン臭素酸塩 臭化物 2-ヒドロキシ-3-メトキシ-5-ブロモベンズアルデヒド 2-ブロモプロピオニル ブロミド 5-ブロモ-4,6-ジヒドロキシピリミジン 3,5-ジブロモサリチル酸 3-フルオロ-4-メトキシ安息香酸 rac-(R*)-2,3-ジブロモプロピオノニトリル 1,1,3,3-テトラブロモアセトン 2-ブロモ-2'-ヒドロキシアセトフェノン 臭化物 2-アミノ-3-ブロモ-5-ニトロピリジン 臭化物 3-ブロモ-1-ベンゾフラン 1,2,3,4-テトラブロモブタン 2-ブロモ酪酸 2,4,6-トリブロモアニソール 2,2-ビス[3,5-ジブロモ-4-(2,3-ジブロモプロポキシ)フェニル]プロパン 3-(トリフルオロメチル)フェナシルブロミド 2,4,6-トリブロモ-3-ヒドロキシ安息香酸 2-ブロモ-n-オクタン酸 (+)-3-ブロモカンファー 4-ブロモ-1H-ピラゾール-3-カルボン酸 3-アミノ-4-ブロモピラゾール

臭素 生産企業

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(臭素)キーワード:


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