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メタノール

メタノール 化学構造式
67-56-1
CAS番号.
67-56-1
化学名:
メタノール
别名:
メチルアルコール;ヒドロキシメタン;カルビノール;木精;メタノール(脱水);メタノル;メタノール [高速液体クロマトグラフィー用];メタノール [吸光分析用];メタノール ‐PLUS‐;メタノール(脱水) ‐SUPER‐;メタノール, ACROSEALR;3W/V% メタノール;ハイドラナール-標準水?メタノール (力価 5 MG H2O/ML) (商品コード34802500に変更);ハイドラナール-水?メタノール5.0 FOR VOLUMETRIC BACK TITRATION ACCORDING TO KARL FISCHER,5.00 MG/ML±0.05 MG/ML IN メタノール;メタノール (メチルアルコール);メタノール ABSOLUTE - アセトン FREE;メタノール ACS REAGENT,≥99.8%;メタノール ACS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC GRADE,≥99.9%;メタノール LC-MS ULTRA クロマソルブ,TESTED FOR UHPLC-MS;メタノール LC-MS クロマソルブ
英語化学名:
Methanol
英語别名:
CH3OH;metanol;S NO 250;Metanolo;Carbinol;Methanol;ACID RED;Methylol;ai3-00409;coat-b1400
CBNumber:
CB7854099
化学式:
CH4O
分子量:
32.04
MOL File:
67-56-1.mol

メタノール 物理性質

融点 :
-98 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
65.4 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) :
0.791 g/mL at 25 °C
蒸気密度:
1.11 (vs air)
蒸気圧:
410 mm Hg ( 50 °C)
屈折率 :
n20/D 1.329(lit.)
闪点 :
52 °F
貯蔵温度 :
Store at RT.
溶解性:
benzene: miscible(lit.)
酸解離定数(Pka):
15.2(at 25℃)
外見 :
Liquid Free From Particulates
色:
<10(APHA)
比重:
0.793 (20/20℃)
Relative polarity:
0.762
臭い (Odor):
Faint alcohol odor detectable at 4 to 6000 ppm (mean = 160 ppm)
爆発限界(explosive limit):
5.5-44%(V)
水溶解度 :
miscible
極大吸収波長 (λmax):
λ: 210 nm Amax: 0.50
λ: 220 nm Amax: 0.30
λ: 230 nm Amax: 0.15
λ: 235 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 240 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 400 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck :
14,5957
BRN :
1098229
Henry's Law Constant:
4.99 at 25 °C (headspace-GC, Gupta et al., 2000)
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA (200 ppm) (ACGIH), 260mg/m3, 1040mg/m3 (800 ppm) 15minutes (NIOSH); STEL 310mg/m3 (250 ppm); IDLH 25,000 ppm (NIOSH).
CAS データベース:
67-56-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Methyl alcohol(67-56-1)
EPAの化学物質情報:
Methanol(67-56-1)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  Xn,T,F
Rフレーズ  10-20/21/22-68/20/21/22-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-40-36-36/38-23/25
Sフレーズ  36/37-7-45-16-24/25-23-24-26
RIDADR  UN 1170 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  1
RTECS 番号 PC1400000
3-10
自然発火温度 385 °C
TSCA  Yes
HSCode  2905 11 00
国連危険物分類  3
容器等級  II
有毒物質データの 67-56-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LD50 oral (rat)
5628 mg/kg
LD50 skin (rabbit)
15,840 mg/kg
LC50 inhal (rat)
>145,000 ppm (1 h)
PEL (OSHA)
200 ppm (260 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH)
200 ppm (260 mg/m3)—skin
STEL (ACGIH)
250 ppm (328 mg/m3)
消防法 危険物第4類アルコール類
化審法 (2)-201 優先評価化学物質
安衛法 有機則 第二種有機溶剤等
毒劇物取締法 劇物
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H225 引火性の高い液体および蒸気 引火性液体 2 危険 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H301 飲み込むと有毒 急性毒性、経口 3 危険 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H311 皮膚に接触すると有毒 急性毒性、経皮 3 危険 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 吸入すると有毒 急性毒性、吸入 3 危険 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H335 呼吸器への刺激のおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 気道刺激性 3 警告
H336 眠気やめまいのおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 麻酔作用 3 警告 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H360 生殖能または胎児への悪影響のおそれ 生殖毒性 1A, 1B 危険
H370 臓器の障害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
注意書き
P201 使用前に取扱説明書を入手すること。
P202 全ての安全注意を読み理解するまで取り扱わないこ と。
P233 容器を密閉しておくこと。
P240 容器を接地すること/アースをとること。
P264 取扱い後は皮膚をよく洗うこと。
P264 取扱い後は手や顔をよく洗うこと。
P270 この製品を使用する時に、飲食または喫煙をしないこ と。
P271 屋外または換気の良い場所でのみ使用すること。
P303+P361+P353 皮膚(または髪)に付着した場合:直ちに汚染された衣 類をすべて脱ぐこと/取り除くこと。皮膚を流水/シャワー で洗うこと。

メタノール 価格 もっと(223)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01W0113-0182 メタノール 質量分率99.8+% (CH3OH)(GC)
Methanol 質量分率99.8+% (CH3OH)(GC)
67-56-1 500mL ¥800 2018-12-26 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01ACSM-8015B-5031-17 メタノール
Methanol, 10 mg/mL in Water
67-56-1 1mL ¥7400 2018-12-26 購入
東京化成工業 M0628 メタノール [高速液体クロマトグラフィー用] >99.8%(GC)
Methanol [for HPLC Solvent] >99.8%(GC)
67-56-1 500mL ¥2100 2018-12-04 購入
東京化成工業 M0097 メタノール [吸光分析用] >99.8%(GC)
Methanol [for Spectrophotometry] >99.8%(GC)
67-56-1 500mL ¥2400 2018-12-04 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 17684-2A メタノール
Methanol
67-56-1 2.5L ¥6800 2018-12-13 購入

メタノール MSDS


Carbinol

メタノール 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

無色澄明の液体

溶解性

水及びエタノールに極めて溶けやすい。

用途

金属等の比色及び原子吸光分析、紫外吸光分析等の溶媒。

用途

精密分析、超高純度溶剤として個人専用試薬等。

用途

ヘッドスペースGC分析によるトリハロメタン分析の溶媒。

用途

汎用試薬、溶剤、試液調製原料、有機合成原料。

用途

生体試料中等のダイオキシン類の分析における溶媒。

用途

ホルマリン?酢酸?メチルメタクリレート?DMT?MTBE?クロロメタン類などの原料、塗料?電子工業用などの溶剤

用途

汎用試薬、溶剤、試液調製用原料等。

用途

鉄鋼中等のほう素定量における分離濃縮用。

効能

溶解剤

特長

1.各ロットごとにLC/MS分析適合性試験を実施2.m/z150~2,000でのノイズレベルを保証3.アルミキヤツプを採用し品質の長期安定化を実現

主な用途/役割

業務用の溶剤型接着剤、水性型接着剤に使用される。

使用上の注意

不活性ガス封入

説明

Methyl alcohol, also known as methanol or wood alcohol, is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid that is the simplest alcohol.
World production of methanol is approximately 8.5 billion gallons annually. Methanol is produced industrially, starting with the production of synthesis gas or syngas. Syngas used in the production of methyl alcohol is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formed when natural gas reacts with steam or oxygen. Methyl alcohol is then synthesized from carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Methyl alcohol is poisonous and is commonly used to denature ethyl alcohol. Methanol poisoning results from ingestion, inhalation of methanol vapors, or absorption through the skin. Methanol is transformed in the body to formaldehyde (H2CO) by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase.The formaldehyde is then metabolized to formic acid (HCOOH)by aldehyde dehydrogenase.

化学的特性

Clear, colourless, volatile, hygroscopic liquid.

化学的特性

Methyl alcohol is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild odor.

物理的性質

Clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic alcoholic odor. Odor threshold concentrations ranged from 8.5 ppbv (Nagata and Takeuchi, 1990) to 100.0 ppmv (Leonardos et al., 1969). Experimentally determined detection and recognition odor threshold concentrations were 5.5 mg/m3 (4.2 ppmv) and 69 mg/m3 (53 ppmv), respectively (Hellman and Small, 1974).

来歴

It was first isolated in 1661 by the Irish chemist Robert Boyle (1627–1691) who prepared it by the destructive distillation of boxwood, giving it the name spirit of box, and the name wood alcohol is still used for methyl alcohol. Methyl alcohol is also called pyroxylic spirit; pyroxylic is a general term meaning distilled from wood and indicates that methyl alcohol is formed during pyrolysis of wood. The common name was derived in the mid-1800s. The name methyl denotes the single carbon alkane methane in which a hydrogen atom has been removed to give the methyl radical. The word alcohol is derived from Arabic al kuhul.

使用

Methanol has numerous uses. Its main use is in the production of formaldehyde, whichconsumes approximately 40% of methanol supplies. Methanolis a common organic solvent found in many products including deicers (windshield wiperfl uid), antifreezes, correction fl uid, fuel additives, paints, and other coatings. A number ofindustrial chemicals use methanol in their production. Among these are methyl methacrylateand dimethyl terephthalate. Methanol is used to convert methylacrylamide sulfate to methylmethacrylate and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4):
Methanol is used in making the ester dimethyl terephthalate from mixtures ofxylene of toluene. Dimethyl terephthalate is used in the manufacture of polyesters and plastics.
Methanol is used as a fuel additive. The common gasoline additive HEET is pure methanoland is used as a gas-line antifreeze and water remover. Methanol is used as a fuel in camp stoves and small heating devices. It is used to fuel the small engines used in models (airplanes,boats). In the early history of automobiles,methanol was a common fuel. The availability of cheap gasoline replaced methanol in the1920s, but it is receiving renewed interest as an alternative fuel as the demand and cost of oilincrease and oil supplies become uncertain. Methanol can be produced from coal and biomass.Methanol has a higher octane rating and generally lower pollutant emissions compared togasoline. The relatively low flame temperature means that fewer nitrogen oxides are producedby methanol than by ethanol. One large disadvantage of methanol is that it has a lower energydensity than gasoline. Using equivalent volumes of gasoline and methanol, methanol givesabout half the mileage of gasoline. Another problem with methanol is its low vapor pressure,resulting in starting problems on cold days. This problem can be mitigated by using a blendof 85% methanol and 15% gasoline. This mixture is called M85 and is similar to E85 ethanol(see Ethyl Alcohol).

使用

Methanol is used in the production offormaldehyde, acetic acid, methyl tert-butylether, and many chemical intermediates; asan octane improver (in oxinol); and as apossible alternative to diesel fuel; being anexcellent polar solvent, it is widely used as acommon laboratory chemical and as a methylating reagent.

使用

Industrial solvent. Raw material for making formaldehyde and methyl esters of organic and inorganic acids. Antifreeze for automotive radiators and air brakes; ingredient of gasoline and diesel oil antifreezes. Octane booster in gasoline. As fuel for picnic stoves and soldering torches. Extractant for animal and vegetable oils. To denature ethanol. Softening agent for pyroxylin plastics. Solvent and solvent adjuvant for polymers. Solvent in the manufacture of cholesterol, streptomycin, vitamins, hormones, and other pharmaceuticals.

使用

Meets ACS specifications

使用

Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, and some LC-MS applications

使用

high purity grade for ICP-MS detection

使用

Methylalcohol, CH30H, also known as methanol or wood alcohol, is a colorless, toxic, flammable liquid with a boiling point of 64.6 °C(147 °F). The principal toxic effect is on the nervous system,particularly the retinae. Methyl alcoholis miscible in all proportions with water,ethyl alcohol, and ether. It burns with a light blue flame producing water and carbon dioxide. This vapor forms an explosive mixture(6.0 to 36.5% by volume) with air. Methyl alcohol is an important inexpensive raw material that is synthetically produced for the organic chemical industry. Nearly half of the methyl alcohol manufactured is used in the production of formaldehyde. Other uses of methyl alcohol are as an antifreeze and fuel for automobiles and as an intermediate in the production of synthetic protein.

定義

ChEBI: The primary alcohol that is the simplest aliphatic alcohol, comprising a methyl and an alcohol group.

定義

A colorless liquid alcohol, which is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of methanal (formaldehyde) for the plastics and drugs industries. Methanol was originally produced from the distillation of wood. Now it is manufactured by the catalytic oxidation of methane from natural gas.

世界保健機関(WHO)

Methanol has been subjected to abuse by consumption as a substitute for ethanol. Its toxic metabolites cause irreversible blindness and severe metabolic acidosis, and are ultimately fatal. Methanol continues to be used as an industrial solvent.

一般的な説明

A colorless fairly volatile liquid with a faintly sweet pungent odor like that of ethyl alcohol. Completely mixes with water. The vapors are slightly heavier than air and may travel some distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Any accumulation of vapors in confined spaces, such as buildings or sewers, may explode if ignited. Used to make chemicals, to remove water from automotive and aviation fuels, as a solvent for paints and plastics, and as an ingredient in a wide variety of products.

反応プロフィール

Methanol reacts violently with acetyl bromide [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Mixtures with concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated hydrogen peroxide can cause explosions. Reacts with hypochlorous acid either in water solution or mixed water/carbon tetrachloride solution to give methyl hypochlorite, which decomposes in the cold and may explode on exposure to sunlight or heat. Gives the same product with chlorine. Can react explosively with isocyanates under basic conditions. The presence of an inert solvent mitigates this reaction [Wischmeyer 1969]. A violent exothermic reaction occurred between methyl alcohol and bromine in a mixing cylinder [MCA Case History 1863. 1972]. A flask of anhydrous lead perchlorate dissolved in Methanol exploded when Methanol was disturbed [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 52:2391. 1930]. P4O6 reacts violently with Methanol. (Thorpe, T. E. et al., J. Chem. Soc., 1890, 57, 569-573). Ethanol or Methanol can ignite on contact with a platinum-black catalyst. (Urben 1794).

危険性

Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Explosive limits in air 6–36.5% by volume. Toxic by ingestion (causes blindness). Headache, eye damage, dizziness, and nausea.

健康ハザード

The acute toxicity of methanol by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact is low. Ingestion of methanol or inhalation of high concentrations can produce headache, drowsiness, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, blindness, and death. In humans, 60 to 250 mL is reported to be a lethal dose. Prolonged or repeated skin contact can cause irritation and inflammation; methanol can be absorbed through the skin in toxic amounts. Contact of methanol with the eyes can cause irritation and burns. Methanol is not considered to have adequate warning properties.
Methanol has not been found to be carcinogenic in humans. Information available is insufficient to characterize the reproductive hazard presented by methanol. In animal tests, the compound produced developmental effects only at levels that were maternally toxic; hence, it is not considered to be a highly significant hazard to the fetus. Tests in bacterial or mammalian cell cultures demonstrate no mutagenic activity

健康ハザード

Exposure to excessive vapor causes eye irritation, head- ache, fatigue and drowsiness. High concentrations can produce central nervous system depression and optic nerve damage. 50,000 ppm will probably cause death in 1 to 2 hrs. Can be absorbed through skin. Swallowing may cause death or eye damage.

健康ハザード

Ingestion of adulterated alcoholic beveragescontaining methanol has resulted in innumerable loss of human lives throughout theworld. It is highly toxic, causing acidosis andblindness. The symptoms of poisoning arenausea, abdominal pain, headache, blurredvision, shortness of breath, and dizziness.In the body, methanol oxidizes to formaldehyde and formic acid — the latter could bedetected in the urine, the pH of which is lowered (when poisoning is severe).
The toxicity of methanol is attributed tothe metabolic products above. Ingestion inlarge amounts affects the brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and respiratory system and can cause coma, blindness, anddeath. The lethal dose is reported to be60–250 mL. The poisoning effect is prolonged and the recovery is slow, often causing permanent loss of sight.
Other exposure routes are inhalation andskin absorption. Exposure to methanol vaporto at 2000 ppm at regular intervals over aperiod of 4 weeks caused upper respiratorytract irritation and mucoid nasal discharge inrats. Such discharge was found to be a doserelated effect.
Inhalation in humans may produce headache, drowsiness, and eye irritation. Prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis andscaling. Eye contact can cause burns anddamage vision..

火災危険

Behavior in Fire: Containers may explode.

火災危険

Methanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) that burns with an invisible flame in daylight; its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Methanol-water mixtures will burn unless very dilute. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for methanol fires

燃焼性と爆発性

Methanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3) that burns with an invisible flame in daylight; its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Methanol-water mixtures will burn unless very dilute. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for methanol fires.

化学反応性

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization:Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

安全性プロファイル

A human poison by ingestion. Poison experimentally by skin contact. Moderately toxic experimentally by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects: changes in circulation, cough, dyspnea, headache, lachrymation, nausea or vomiting, optic nerve neuropathy, respiratory effects, visual field changes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. An eye and skin irritant. Human mutation data reported. A narcotic. Its main toxic effect is exerted upon the nervous system, particularly the optic nerves and possibly the retinae. The condtion can progress to permanent blindness. Once absorbed, methanol is only very slowly eliminated. Coma resulting from massive exposures may last as long as 2-4 days. In the body, the products formed by its oxidation are formaldehyde and formic acid, both of which are toxic. Because of the slow elimination, methanol should be regarded as a cumulative poison. Though single exposures to fumes may cause no harmful effect, daily exposure may result in the accumulation of sufficient methanol in the body to cause illness. Death from ingestion of less than 30 mL has been reported. A common air contaminant. Flammable liquid. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidlzers. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Explosive reaction with chloroform + sodium methoxide, diethyl zinc. Violent reaction with alkyl aluminum salts, acetyl bromide, chloroform + sodlum hydroxide, CrO3, cyanuric chloride, (I + ethanol + HgO), Pb(ClO4)2, HClO4, P2O3, (KOH + CHCb), nitric acid. Incompatible with berylhum dihydride, metals (e.g., potassium, magnesium), oxidants (e.g., barium perchlorate, bromine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide), potassium tert-butoxide, carbon tetrachloride + metals (e.g., aluminum, magnesium, zinc), dlchloromethane. Dangerous; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Source

Methanol occurs naturally in small-flowered oregano (5 to 45 ppm) (Baser et al., 1991), Guveyoto shoots (700 ppb) (Baser et al., 1992), orange juice (0.8 to 80 ppm), onion bulbs, pineapples, black currant, spearmint, apples, jimsonweed leaves, soybean plants, wild parsnip, blackwood, soursop, cauliflower, caraway, petitgrain, bay leaves, tomatoes, parsley leaves, and geraniums (Duke, 1992).
Methanol may enter the environment from methanol spills because it is used in formaldehyde solutions to prevent polymerization (Worthing and Hance, 1991).

環境運命予測

Biological. In a 5-d experiment, [14C]methanol applied to soil water suspensions under aerobic and anaerobic conditions gave 14CO2 yields of 53.4 and 46.3%, respectively (Scheunert et al., 1987). Heukelekian and Rand (1955) reported a 5-d BOD value of 0.85 g/g which is 56.7% of the ThOD value of 1.50 g/g. Using the BOD technique to measure biodegradation, the mean 5-d BOD value (mM BOD/mM methanol) and ThOD were 0.93 and 62.0%, respectively (Vaishnav et al., 1987).
Photolytic. Photooxidation of methanol in an oxygen-rich atmosphere (20%) in the presence of chlorine atoms yielded formaldehyde and hydroxyperoxyl radicals. The reaction is initiated via hydrogen abstraction by OH radicals or chlorine atoms yielding a hydroxymethyl radical. Chlorine, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and formic acid were detected (Whitbeck, 1983). Reported rate constants for the reaction of methanol and OH radicals in the atmosphere: 5.7 x 10-11 cm3/mol·sec at 300 K (Hendry and Kenley, 1979), 5.7 x 10-8 L/mol·sec (second-order) at 292 K (Campbell et al., 1976), 1.00 x 10-12 cm3/molecule·sec at 292 K (Meier et al., 1985), 7.6 x 10-13 cm3/molecule·sec at 298 K (Ravishankara and Davis, 1978), 6.61 x 10-13 cm3/molecule·sec at room temperature (Wallington et al., 1988a). Based on an atmospheric OH concentration of 1.0 x 106 molecule/cm3, the reported half-life of methanol is 8.6 d (Grosjean, 1997).
Chemical/Physical. In a smog chamber, methanol reacted with nitrogen dioxide to give methyl nitrite and nitric acid (Takagi et al., 1986). The formation of these products was facilitated when this experiment was accompanied by UV light (Akimoto and Takagi, 1986). Methanol will not hydrolyze because it does not have a hydrolyzable functional group (Kollig, 1993).
At an influent concentration of 1,000 mg/L, treatment with GAC resulted in an effluent concentration of 964 mg/L. The adsorbability of the carbon used was 7 mg/g carbon (Guisti et al., 1974).
Hydroxyl radicals react with methanol in aqueous solution at a reaction rate of 1.60 x 10-12 cm3/molecule?sec (Wallington et al., 1988).
Complete combustion in air produces carbon dioxide and water. The stoichiometric equation for this oxidation reaction is:
2CH4O + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 4H2O

貯蔵

Methanol should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.

輸送方法

UN1230 Methanol, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid, 6.1-Poisonous material. (International)

純化方法

Almost all methanol is now obtained synthetically. Likely impurities are water, acetone, formaldehyde, ethanol, methyl formate and traces of dimethyl ether, methylal, methyl acetate, acetaldehyde, carbon dioxide and ammonia. Most of the water (down to about 0.01%) can be removed by fractional distillation. Drying with CaO is unnecessary and wasteful. Anhydrous methanol can be obtained from "absolute" material by passage through Linde type 4A molecular sieves, or by drying with CaH2, CaSO4, or with just a little more sodium than required to react with the water present, in all cases the methanol is then distilled. Two treatments with sodium reduces the water content to about 5 x 10-5%. [Friedman et al. J Am Chem Soc 83 4050 1961.] Lund and Bjerrum [Chem Ber 64 210 1931] warmed clean dry magnesium turnings (5g) and iodine (0.5g) with 50-75mL of "absolute" methanol in a flask until the iodine disappeared and all the magnesium was converted to the methoxide. Up to 1L of methanol was added and, after refluxing for 2-3hours, it was distilled off, excluding moisture from the system. Redistillation from tribromobenzoic acid removes basic impurities and traces of magnesium oxides, and leaves conductivity-quality material. The method of Hartley and Raikes [J Chem Soc 127 524 1925] gives a slightly better product. This consists of an initial fractional distillation, followed by distillation from aluminium methoxide, and then ammonia and other volatile impurities are removed by refluxing for 6hours with freshly dehydrated CuSO4 (2g/L) while dry air is passed through: the methanol is finally distilled. (The aluminium methoxide is prepared by warming with aluminium amalgam (3g/L) until all the aluminium has reacted. The amalgam is obtained by warming pieces of sheet aluminium with a solution of HgCl2 in dry methanol.) This treatment also removes aldehydes. If acetone is present in the methanol, it is usually removed prior to drying. Bates, Mullaly and Hartley [J Chem Soc 401 1923] dissolved 25g of iodine in 1L of methanol and then poured the solution, with constant stirring, into 500mL of M NaOH. Addition of 150mL of water precipitated iodoform. The solution was allowed to stand overnight, filtered, then boiled under reflux until the odour of iodoform disappeared, and fractionally distilled. (This treatment also removes formaldehyde.) Morton and Mark [Ind Eng Chem (Anal Edn) 6 151 1934] refluxed methanol (1L) with furfural (50mL) and 10% NaOH solution (120mL) for 6-12hours, the refluxing resin carries down with it the acetone and other carbonyl-containing impurities. The alcohol was then fractionally distilled. Evers and Knox [J Am Chem Soc 73 1739 1951], after refluxing 4.5L of methanol for 24hours with 50g of magnesium, distilled off 4L of it, which they then refluxed with AgNO3 for 24hours in the absence of moisture or CO2. The methanol was again distilled, shaken for 24hours with activated alumina before being filtered through a glass sinter and distilled under nitrogen in an all-glass still. Material suitable for conductivity work was obtained. Variations of the above methods have also been used. For example, a sodium hydroxide solution containing iodine has been added to methanol and, after standing for 1day, the solution has been poured slowly into about a quarter of its volume of 10% AgNO3, shaken for several hours, then distilled. Sulfanilic acid has been used instead of tribromobenzoic acid in Lund and Bjerrum's method. A solution of 15g of magnesium in 500mL of methanol has been heated under reflux, under nitrogen, with hydroquinone (30g), before degassing and distilling the methanol, which was subsequently stored with magnesium (2g) and hydroquinone (4g per 100mL). Refluxing for about 12hours removes the bulk of the formaldehyde from methanol: further purification has been obtained by subsequent distillation, refluxing for 12hours with dinitrophenylhydrazine (5g) and H2SO4 (2g/L), and again fractionally distilling. [Beilstein 1 IV 1227.]

不和合性

Methanol reacts violently with strong oxidizers, causing a fire and explosion hazard.

廃棄物の処理

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration

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