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오스뮴산

오스뮴산
오스뮴산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
20816-12-0
한글명:
오스뮴산
동의어(한글):
사산화오스뮴;오스뮴산;사산화오스뮴
상품명:
Osmium tetroxide
동의어(영문):
OsO4;os encat;OSMIC ACID;osmiumoxide;Osmium oxide;'OSMIC ACID';OS ENCAT(TM);Perosmicoxide;PEROSMIC ACID;Osmium(Ⅷ)Oxide
CBNumber:
CB0853316
분자식:
O4Os
포뮬러 무게:
254.23
MOL 파일:
20816-12-0.mol

오스뮴산 속성

녹는점
40°C
끓는 점
130 °C
밀도
1.04
증기압
7 mmHg at 20 °C
인화점
-40 °C
저장 조건
Refrigerator
용해도
Soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, ammonium hydroxide, phosphorus oxychloride and carbon tetrachloride
물리적 상태
Solution
Specific Gravity
5.10
색상
White to yellow,or lemon yellow
냄새
Acrid, chlorine-like odor detectable at 2 ppm (20 mg/m3)
수용성
Soluble in chloroform, alcohol and ethers.Soluble in water, organic solvents, benzene, alcohol, ether, ammonium hydroxide, phosphorus oxychloride and carbon tetrachloride.
감도
Air Sensitive
Merck
14,6893
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, hydrogen chloride, organic materials, finely powdered metals.
CAS 데이터베이스
20816-12-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Osmium tetraoxide(20816-12-0)
EPA
Osmium oxide (OsO4), (T-4)-(20816-12-0)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 O,T,C,T+,F,Xi,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 8-23/24/25-40-34-26/27/28-42/43-11-67-66-36/37/38-19-36/38-36/37
안전지침서 17-26-27-36/37/39-45-7/9-36/37-16-28-23
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3175 4.1/PG 2
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 RN1140000
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 6.1
포장분류 I
HS 번호 28439090
유해 물질 데이터 20816-12-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 oral (rat)
14 mg/kg
LCLO inhal (rat)
40 ppm (4 h)
PEL (OSHA)
0.0002 ppm (0.002 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH)
0.0002 ppm (0.002 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH)
0.0006 ppm (0.006 mg/m3)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H300 삼키면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 1,2 위험 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H301 삼키면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 3 위험 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H310 피부와 접촉하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 1,2 위험 P262, P264, P270, P280, P302+P350,P310, P322, P361, P363, P405, P501
H311 피부와 접촉하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 3 위험 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H330 흡입하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 1, 2 위험 P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H332 흡입하면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 4 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H333 흡입하면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 5 P304+P312
예방조치문구:
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P262 눈, 피부, 의복에 묻지 않도록 하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P320 긴급히 (…) 처치를 하시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

오스뮴산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

solid with an unpleasant odour

화학적 성질

Osmium is a blue-white metal. It is found in platinum ores and in the naturally occurring alloy osmiridium. Osmium when heated in air or when the finely divided form is exposed to air at room temperature, oxidizes to form the tetroxide (OsO4), osmic acid. Osmium tetraoxide is a colorless, crystalline solid or pale-yellow mass. Unpleasant, acrid, chlorine-like odor. A liquid above 41°C.

용도

Oxidizing agent, particularly for converting olefins to glycols. Catalyzes chlorate, peroxide, periodate, and other oxidations: P. N. Rylander, Organic Syntheses with Noble Metal Catalysts (Academic Press, New York, 1973) pp 121-144. As fixing and staining agent for cell and tissue studies.

용도

Osmium (VIII) tetraoxide (Os8+ + 4O2-→ OsO4) is a yellow crystal and probably the most important compound used as an oxidizing agent, as a biological stain in microscopy, and to detect fingerprints.

정의

ChEBI: An osmium coordination entity consisting of four oxygen atoms bound to a central osmium atom via covalent double bonds.

일반 설명

A colorless or yellow solid with a pungent odor of chlorine. Melting point about 104°F. Boiling point 266°F (begins to sublime below melting point). Density 4.9 g / cm3. Soluble in alcohol. Toxic by inhalation and a strong irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes.

공기와 물의 반응

Soluble in water.

반응 프로필

Osmium tetraoxide is incompatible with hydrochloric acid andeasily oxidized organic materials. Contact with other materials may cause fire. . Reacted explosively with1-methylimidazole [J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 1979, 1084].

건강위험

TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.

건강위험

The acute toxicity of osmium tetroxide is high, and it is a severe irritant of the eyes and respiratory tract. Exposure to osmium tetroxide vapor can damage the cornea of the eye. Irritation is generally the initial symptom of exposure to low concentrations of osmium tetroxide vapor, and lacrimation, a gritty feeling in the eyes, and the appearance of rings around lights may also be noted. In most cases, recovery occurs in a few days. Concentrations of vapor that do not cause immediate irritation can have an insidious cumulative effect; symptoms may not be noted until several hours after exposure. Contact of the eyes with concentrated solutions of this substance can cause severe damage and possible blindness. Inhalation can cause headache, coughing, dizziness, lung damage, and difficult breathing and may be fatal. Contact of the vapor with skin can cause dermatitis, and direct contact with the solid can lead to severe irritation and burns. Exposure to osmium tetroxide via inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion can lead to systemic toxic effects involving liver and kidney damage. Osmium tetroxide is regarded as a substance with poor warning properties.
Chronic exposure to osmium tetroxide can result in an accumulation of osmium compounds in the liver and kidney and damage to these organs. Osmium tetroxide has been reported to cause reproductive toxicity in animals; this substance has not been shown to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans.

화재위험

Noncombustible

화재위험

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

인화성 및 폭발성

Noncombustible

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion, inhalation, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by inhalation: lachrymation and other eye effects and structural or functional changes in trachea or bronch. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Explodes on contact with 1 -methylimidazole. Catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide can be hazardous. See also OSMIUM

잠재적 노출

Osmium may be alloyed with platinum metals, iron, cobalt, and nickel; and it forms compounds withtin and zinc. The alloy with iridium is used in the manufacture of fountain pen points, engraving tool; record player needles; electrical contacts; compass needles; fine machine bearings; and parts for watch and lock mechanisms. The metal is a catalyst in the synthesis of ammonia; and in the dehydrogenation of organic compounds. It is also used as a stain for histological examination of tissues. Osmium tetroxide is used as an oxidizing agent, catalyst, and as a fixative for tissues in electron microscopy. Other osmium compounds find use in photography. Osmium no longer is used in incandescent lights or in fingerprinting.

저장

In particular, all work with osmium tetroxide should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Osmium tetroxide as solid or solutions should be stored in tightly sealed containers, and these should be placed in secondary containers.

Purification Methods

It is VERY TOXIC and should be manipulated in a very efficient fume cupboard. It attacks the eyes severely (use also face protection) and is a good oxidising agent. It is volatile and has a high vapour pressure (11mm) at room temperature. It sublimes and volatilises well below its boiling point. It is soluble in *C6H6, H2O (7.24% at 25o), CCl4 (375% at 25o), EtOH and Et2O. It is estimated by dissolving a sample in a glass-stoppered flask containing 25mL of a solution of KI (previously saturated with CO2) and acidified with 0.35M HCl. After gentle shaking in the dark for 30minutes, the solution is diluted to 200mL with distilled H2O saturated with CO2 and titrated with standard thiosulfate using starch as indicator. This method is not as good as the gravimetric method. Hydrazine hydrochloride (0.1 to 0.3g) is dissolved in 3M HCl (10mL) in a glass-stoppered bottle. After warming to 55-65o, a weighed sample of OsO4 solution is introduced, and the mixture is digested on a water bath for 1hour. The mixture is transferred to a weighed glazed crucible and evaporated to dryness on a hot plate. A stream of H2 is started through the crucible, and the crucible is heated over a burner for 20-30minutes. The stream of H2 is continued until the crucible in cooled to room temperature, and then the H2 is displaced by CO2 in order to avoid rapid combustion of H2. Finally the crucible is weighed. [Grube in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol II pp 1603 1965, Anderson & Yost J Am Chem Soc 60 1822 1938.] § Available commercially on a polymer support.

비 호환성

Osmium tetroxide is a strong oxidizer. Reacts with combustibles and reducing materials. Reacts with hydrochloric acid to form toxic chlorine gas. Forms unstable compounds with alkalis.

폐기물 처리

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.

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