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갈륨

갈륨
갈륨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7440-55-3
한글명:
갈륨
동의어(한글):
갈륨;갈륨분;갈륨(GALLIUM)
상품명:
GALLIUM
동의어(영문):
GALLIUM;GALLIUM67;GALLIUM,99.;Gallium (Ga);Gallium lump;GALLIUM METAL;Galliumingots;GalliummetalN;Gallium ingot;gallium pellet
CBNumber:
CB1208001
분자식:
Ga
포뮬러 무게:
69.72
MOL 파일:
7440-55-3.mol

갈륨 속성

녹는점
29.8 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
2403 °C(lit.)
밀도
5.904 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
저장 조건
0-6°C
물리적 상태
Solid and/or Liquid
색상
Silvery or grayish metallic
Specific Gravity
5.904
비저항
25.795 μΩ-cm, 30°C
수용성
reacts with alkalies to evolve H2 [MER06]
감도
air sensitive, moisture sensitive
Merck
13,4367
안정성
Stable, but moisture sensitive. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases, halogens, strong oxidizing agents.
CAS 데이터베이스
7440-55-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 C,Xi,T
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/38-34-23/24/25
안전지침서 26-45-36/37/39-36-28-27
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 LW8600000
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 III
HS 번호 81129290
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H290 금속을 부식시킬 수 있음 금속 부식성물질 구분 1 경고 P234, P390, P404
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
예방조치문구:
P234 원래의 용기에만 보관하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P390 물질손상을 방지하기 위해 누출물을 흡수시키시오.
P406 부식을 방지하여 보관하시오/...내부식성 용기

갈륨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

light grey solid

화학적 성질

Gallium is a lustrous, silvery liquid, metal, or gray solid.

물리적 성질

Gallium is soft and bluish off-white when solid and silvery in color as a liquid. It is softenough to cut with knife and has an extremely low melting point. When held in the hand, itwill melt from body heat as it becomes mirror-like in color. It expands when changing backfrom a liquid to a solid. When cold, it becomes hard and brittle. Of all the metals, galliumexhibits the largest range of temperatures from its liquid phase to its solid phase, and, likewater, it expands when it freezes. Its melting point is 29.76°C, its boiling point is 2,204°C,and its density is 5.903 g/cm3,.

Isotopes

There are 33 isotopes of gallium, two of which are stable. They are Ga-69, whichmakes up 60.108% of the element’s presence in the Earth’s crust, and Ga-71, which contributes39.892% of the gallium found in the Earth’s crust. All the other 31 isotopes areradioactive with half-lives ranging from a few nanoseconds to about 15 hours.

Origin of Name

Latin word Gallia, meaning “Gaul,” an early name for France.

출처

Gallium is the 34th most abundant element, but it is not widely distributed as an elementalmetal. It is usually combined with other elements, particularly zinc, iron, and aluminum ores.It is found in diaspore, sphalerite, germanite, gallite, and bauxite. Although small amounts arerecovered from burning coal used for heating or generation of electricity, it is mostly recoveredas a by-product from the production of ores of other metals. Gallium is about as abundant aslead in the Earth’s crust.
Since 1949, the Aluminum Company of America has extracted gallium metal from aluminumbauxite ore. In the past gallium had few uses. Only recently, with the development ofmicroprocessors, chips, computer, and the like, has gallium found many profitable uses.

역사

Gallium was predicted and described by Mendeleev as ekaaluminum, and discovered spectroscopically by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875, who in the same year obtained the free metal by electrolysis of a solution of the hydroxide in KOH, it is often found as a trace element in diaspore, sphalerite, germanite, bauxite, and coal. Some flue dusts from burning coal have been shown to contain as much as 1.5% gallium. Gallium is the only metal, except for mercury, cesium, and rubidium, which can be liquid near room temperatures; this makes possible its use in high-temperature thermometers. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. There is a strong tendency for gallium to supercool below its freezing point. Therefore, seeding may be necessary to initiate solidification. Ultra-pure gallium has a beautiful, silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits a conchoidal fracture similar to glass. The metal expands 3.1% on solidifying; therefore, Gallium should not be stored in glass or metal containers, as they may break as the metal solidifies. Gallium wets glass or porcelain, and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass. It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors. High-purity gallium is attacked slowly only bymineral acids. Magnesium gallate containing divalent impurities such as Mn+2 is finding use in commercial ultraviolet activated powder phosphors. Gallium nitride has been used to produce blue light-emitting diodes such as those used in CD and DVD readers. Gallium has found application in the Gallex Detector Experiment located in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy. This underground facility has been built by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in the middle of a highway tunnel through the Abruzzese mountains, about 150 km east of Rome. In this experiment, 30.3 tons of gallium in the form of 110 tons of GaCl3-HCl solution are being used to detect solar neutrinos. The production of 71Ge from gallium is being measured. Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light. Gallium readily alloys with most metals, and has been used as a component in low melting alloys. Its toxicity appears to be of a low order, but it should be handled with care until more data are forthcoming. Natural gallium contains two stable isotopes. Twenty-six other isotopes, one of which is an isomer, are known. The metal can be supplied in ultrapure form (99.99999+%). The cost is about $5/g (99.999%).

Characteristics

Gallium is truly an “exotic” element in that it has so many unusual characteristics. It canform monovalent and divalent as well as trivalent compounds. It is considered a “post-transitionalmetal” that is more like aluminum than the other elements in group 13. It has fewsimilar characteristics to the two elements just below it in group 13 (In and Ti).
Gallium reacts strongly with boiling water, is slightly soluble in alkali solutions, acids,and mercury, and is used as an amalgam. It has some semiconductor properties but only if“doped” with elements in group 14, such as As, P, and Sb. It is also used as a “dope” for othersemiconducting elements.

용도

The compound gallium arsenide (GaAs) has the ability to convert electricity directly intolaser-light used as the laser beam in compact disc players. It is also used to make light-emittingdiodes (LEDs) for illuminated displays of electronic devices such as watches. Gallium isalso a semiconductor that when used in computer chips generates less heat than silicon chips,making it a viable option for designing supercomputers that otherwise would generate excessiveheat.
The radioisotope of gallium-67 is one of the first to be used in medicine. It has the abilityto locate and concentrate on malignant tissue, such as skin cancers, without harming normaltissue in the same area.One of the more recent uses of gallium is based on the fact that normal gallium, whenbombarded by neutrinos, is converted into the radioisotope germanium-71, which can bedetected by sensitive instruments. Neutrinos are subatomic particles that “bathe” the Earth asa product of the sun’s thermonuclear activity and, from outer space, and can easily go throughmiles of solid rock.
Gallium makes a safe substitute for mercury amalgams in dental fillings when it is combinedwith tin or silver.
Because of its high range of temperatures as a liquid (from 29.8°C to 2,403°C), it is usedin special types of high-temperature thermometers. It is also alloyed with other metals to makealloys with low temperature melting points.
Because of the unique property of some of its compounds, gallium is able to translate amechanical motion into electrical impulses. This makes it invaluable for manufacturing transistors,computer chips, semiconductors, and rectifiers.

용도

The metal has no significant commercial uses. Its compounds are used as semiconductors.

정의

Metallic element of atomic number 31, group IIIA of the periodic table, aw 69.72, valences of 2, 3; two stable isotopes.

정의

gallium: Symbol Ga. A soft silverymetallic element belonging to group13 (formerly IIIB) of the periodictable; a.n. 31; r.a.m. 69.72; r.d. 5.90(20°C); m.p. 29.78°C; b.p. 2403°C. Itoccurs in zinc blende, bauxite, andkaolin, from which it can be extractedby fractional electrolysis. Italso occurs in gallite, CuGaS2, to anextent of 1%; although bauxite onlycontains 0.01% this is the only commercialsource. The two stable isotopesare gallium–69 and gallium–71;there are eight radioactive isotopes,all with short half-lives. The metal has only a few minor uses (e.g. as anactivator in luminous paints), but galliumarsenide is extensively used as asemiconductor in many applications.Gallium corrodes most other metalsbecause it rapidly diffuses into theirlattices. Most gallium(I) and some gallium(II) compounds are unstable. Theelement was first identified by PaulLecoq de Boisbaudran (1838–1912) in1875.

일반 설명

GALLIUM is a silvery-white liquid at room temperature. Ingestion of GALLIUM may be toxic. GALLIUM is corrosive to aluminum. If exposed to high temperatures, GALLIUM may emit toxic fumes which may form a corrosive alkaline solution with water. GALLIUM is soluble in most acids and alkalis. GALLIUM is used as a semiconductor material.

공기와 물의 반응

Stable in dry air, in moist air GALLIUM tarnishes

반응 프로필

Metals, such as GALLIUM METAL, are reducing agents and tend to react with oxidizing agents (i.e. hydrogen peroxide). Their reactivity is strongly influenced by their state of subdivision: in bulk they often resist chemical combination; in powdered form they may react more rapidly. Reacts violently with chlorine and other halogens at ambient temperatures [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995].

위험도

Most gallium compounds are toxic, particularly the metal gallium arsenide. When forms ofgallium are used in the electronics industry, great care must be taken to protect workers.

건강위험

Inhalation of vapors or contact with substance will result in contamination and potential harmful effects. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.

화재위험

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may react upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Runoff may pollute waterways.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Gallium has atomic number 31 in the periodic table of elements. It has a silvery-white colour with a melting point of only 29 C, which means that it melts when held in the hand. It has no known physiological role in the human body, but it can interact with cellular processes and proteins that are normally involved in iron metabolism.
It has been shown that gallium ions predominantly accumulate in the bone and therefore would be a good candidate for radiotherapy of bone cancer. Unfortunately, the radioactive isotope 72Ga has only a half-life of around 14h, which is not long enough for effective radiotherapy. Nevertheless, current clinical developments involve the use of radioactive gallium isotopes as tumour imaging reagents, gallium nitrate in metabolic bone disease, hypercalcaemia and as anticancer drug, as well as up-to-date research in the area of chemotherapeutic applications.

공업 용도

An elementary metal, symbol Ga, gallium is silvery white, resembling mercury in appearance but having chemical properties more nearly like aluminum. Like bismuth, the metal expands on freezing, the expansion amounting to about 3.8%. Pure gallium is resistant to mineral acids, and dissolves with difficulty in caustic alkali. Commercial gallium has a purity of 99.9%. In the molten state it attacks other metals, and small amounts have been used in Sn Pb solders to aid wetting and decrease oxidation, but it is expensive for this purpose.
Gallium alloys readily with most metals at elevated temperatures. It alloys with tin, zinc, cadmium, aluminum, silver, magnesium, copper, and others. Tantalum resists attack up to 450 C, and tungsten to 800 C. Gallium does not attack graphite at any temperature and silica- base refractories are satisfactory up to about 1000 C.

잠재적 노출

A potential danger to those involved in preparing such semiconductor compounds as gallium arsenide. Used in light-emitting diodes, batteries, and microwave equipment.

운송 방법

UN2803 Gallium, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Purification Methods

Dissolve the metal in dilute HCl and extract it with Et2O. Bubbling H2S through the solution removes many metals, and a second extraction with Et2O frees Ga further from metal impurities, except for Mo, Th(III) and Fe which are largely removed by precipitation with NaOH. The solution is then electrolysed in 10% NaOH with a Pt anode and cathode (2-5A at 4-5V) to deposit Ga, In, Zn and Pb, from which Ga was obtained by fractional crystallisation of the melt [Hoffman J Res Nat Bur Stand 13 665 1934]. Ga is also purified by heating to boiling in 0.5-1M HCl, then heating to 40o in water and pouring the molten Ga with water under vacuum through a glass filter (30-50 Y pore size), to remove any unmelted metals or oxide film. The Ga is then fractionally crystallised from the melt under water. [D.nges in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 837 1963.]

비 호환성

Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explo sions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, and epoxides such as lyes, halogens, and alloys of aluminum. Contact with hydrogen chloride/ hydrochloric acid or hydrogen peroxide may result in explosion. Corrosive on contact with metals. Moisture, oxygen, and air sensitive.

폐기물 처리

Use a licensed professional waste disposal service to dispose of this material. Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regula tions must be observed.

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